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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 6, Issue 4 (April 2009), Pages 1298-1538

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle A School-Based Environmental Intervention to Reduce Smoking among High School Students: The Acadiana Coalition of Teens against Tobacco (ACTT)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(4), 1298-1316; doi:10.3390/ijerph6041298
Received: 30 December 2008 / Accepted: 10 March 2009 / Published: 27 March 2009
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (179 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A school-based environmental program to reduce adolescent smoking was conducted in 20 schools (10 intervention; 10 control) in south central Louisiana. The 9th grade cohort (n = 4,763; mean age = 15.4 yrs; 51% female; 61% Caucasian; 30-day smoking prevalence at baseline =
[...] Read more.
A school-based environmental program to reduce adolescent smoking was conducted in 20 schools (10 intervention; 10 control) in south central Louisiana. The 9th grade cohort (n = 4,763; mean age = 15.4 yrs; 51% female; 61% Caucasian; 30-day smoking prevalence at baseline = 25%) was followed over four years for 30-day smoking prevalence with the school as the unit of analysis. Although prevalence decreased in intervention schools and increased in control schools in Year 2 the significant difference between the two groups at baseline was not overcome by the intervention and increases in prevalence were observed in both groups in Years 3 and 4. The higher the percentage of white students in a school the higher the prevalence rates regardless of intervention/control status. Boys’ and girls’ smoking rates were similar. These outcome data, student feedback and process evaluation provide a basis for continuing to create more innovative adolescent tobacco control programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoking and Tobacco Control)
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Open AccessArticle Latinos and Latinas in Communal Settings: A Grounded Theory of Recovery
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(4), 1317-1334; doi:10.3390/ijerph6041317
Received: 25 February 2009 / Accepted: 26 March 2009 / Published: 31 March 2009
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (93 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 Latino/a residents of a mutual help residential recovery program (Oxford House) in order to elicit their experiences of the program’s therapeutic elements. A model of recovery emerged from the analysis including several themes supported by existing literature:
[...] Read more.
Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 Latino/a residents of a mutual help residential recovery program (Oxford House) in order to elicit their experiences of the program’s therapeutic elements. A model of recovery emerged from the analysis including several themes supported by existing literature: personal motivation and readiness to change, mutual help, sober environment, social support, and accountability. Consistent with a broad conceptualization of recovery, outcomes included abstinence, new life skills, and increased self-esteem/sense of purpose. Most participants were the only Latino/a in their Houses; however, cultural differences did not emerge as salient issues. The study’s findings highlight potential therapeutic aspects of mutual-help communal recovery programs and suggest that English-speaking, bicultural Latinos/as have positive experiences and may benefit from participating in these programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug Abuse and Addiction)
Open AccessArticle Dietary Patterns Associated with Alzheimer’s Disease: Population Based Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(4), 1335-1340; doi:10.3390/ijerph6041335
Received: 5 March 2009 / Accepted: 23 March 2009 / Published: 1 April 2009
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (128 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently dietary pattern analysis has emerged as a way for examining diet-disease relations in Alzheimer’s disease. In contrast with the conventional approach, which focuses on a single nutrient or a few nutrients or foods, this method considers overall eating patterns. We examined the
[...] Read more.
Recently dietary pattern analysis has emerged as a way for examining diet-disease relations in Alzheimer’s disease. In contrast with the conventional approach, which focuses on a single nutrient or a few nutrients or foods, this method considers overall eating patterns. We examined the dietary patterns defined by factor analysis using data collected with a food-frequency questionnaire in people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) as compared to healthy controls. The diet data were obtained during population based study of the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease in a population in Poland. Stratified sampling and random selection strategies were combined to obtain a representative population for screening (age group > 55). From the population screened three times, 71 people were diagnosed with Alzheimer’s according to DSM-IV, and were recruited for further diet risk factors assessment. A group of people with Alzheimer disease (n = 71; F/M 42/29) and the same number of healthy, age and gender matched control were recruited for the study. Patients and their caregivers as well as controls were presented with a food frequency questionnaire based on the 12 food groups. Factor analysis (principal component) was used to derive food patterns. The analysis was conducted using the factor procedure. The factors were rotated by an orthogonal transformation (Varimax rotation) to achieve simpler structure with greater interpretability. Using factor analysis, we identified major eating patterns, one for Alzheimer’s patients and a different one for control group. The AD dietary pattern, FACTOR AD was characterized by a high intake of meat, butter, high-fat dairy products, eggs, and refined sugar, whereas the other pattern, (FACTOR C) was characterized by a high intake of grains and vegetables. These data indicate the existence of dietary patterns defined by factor analysis with data from a food frequency questionnaire, characteristic for Alzheimer’s disease in a Polish population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health: Feature Papers)
Open AccessArticle Correlates of Persistent Smoking in Bars Subject to Smokefree Workplace Policy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(4), 1341-1357; doi:10.3390/ijerph6041341
Received: 11 December 2008 / Accepted: 27 March 2009 / Published: 2 April 2009
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (123 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study’s goal was to characterize physical and social environments of stand-alone bars associated with indoor smoking despite California’s smokefree workplace law. In a random sample of 121 stand-alone bars in San Francisco, trained observers collected data on patrons, staff, neighborhood, indoor settings
[...] Read more.
This study’s goal was to characterize physical and social environments of stand-alone bars associated with indoor smoking despite California’s smokefree workplace law. In a random sample of 121 stand-alone bars in San Francisco, trained observers collected data on patrons, staff, neighborhood, indoor settings and smoking behaviors. Using bivariate (chi-square) and hierarchical linear modeling analyses, we identified four correlates of patrons’ indoor smoking: 1) bars serving predominantly Asian or Irish patrons, 2) ashtrays, 3) bartender smoking, and 4) female bartenders. Public health officials charged with enforcement of smokefree bar policies may need to attend to social practices within bars, and heighten perceptions of consistent enforcement of smokefree workplace laws. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoking and Tobacco Control)
Open AccessArticle Smoking and the Risk of Upper Aero Digestive Tract Cancers for Men and Women in the Asia-Pacific Region
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(4), 1358-1370; doi:10.3390/ijerph6041358
Received: 24 December 2008 / Accepted: 1 April 2009 / Published: 3 April 2009
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (180 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although smoking is an established causal factor for upper aero digestive tract cancer (UADTC), most of the evidence originates from the West. Thus, we analysed data from 455,409 subjects in the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration. Over a median of around six years
[...] Read more.
Although smoking is an established causal factor for upper aero digestive tract cancer (UADTC), most of the evidence originates from the West. Thus, we analysed data from 455,409 subjects in the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration. Over a median of around six years follow-up, 371 deaths from UADTC were observed. The hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for current smokers, compared with those who had never smoked, was 2.36 (1.76 – 3.16), adjusted for age and alcohol drinking. Tobacco control policies are urgently required in Asia to prevent millions of deaths from UADTC that smoking will otherwise cause. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
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Open AccessArticle Biodegradation of the High Explosive Hexanitrohexaazaiso-wurtzitane (CL-20)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(4), 1371-1392; doi:10.3390/ijerph6041371
Received: 3 February 2009 / Accepted: 23 March 2009 / Published: 9 April 2009
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (222 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aerobic biodegradability of the high explosive CL-20 by activated sludge and the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been investigated. Although activated sludge is not effective in degrading CL-20 directly, it can mineralize the alkaline hydrolysis products. Phanerochaete chrysosporium degrades CL-20 in
[...] Read more.
The aerobic biodegradability of the high explosive CL-20 by activated sludge and the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been investigated. Although activated sludge is not effective in degrading CL-20 directly, it can mineralize the alkaline hydrolysis products. Phanerochaete chrysosporium degrades CL-20 in the presence of supplementary carbon and nitrogen sources. Biodegradation studies were conducted using various nutrient media under diverse conditions. Variables included the CL-20 concentration; levels of carbon (as glycerol) and ammonium sulfate and yeast extract as sources of nitrogen. Cultures that received CL-20 at the time of inoculation transformed CL-20 completely under all nutrient conditions studied. When CL-20 was added to pre-grown cultures, degradation was limited. The extent of mineralization was monitored by the 14CO2 time evolution; up to 51% mineralization was achieved when the fungus was incubated with [14C]-CL-20. The kinetics of CL-20 biodegradation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium follows the logistic kinetic growth model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradability and Environmental Sciences)
Open AccessArticle Barriers to Exercise in Younger and Older Non-Exercising Adult Women: A Cross Sectional Study in London, United Kingdom
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(4), 1443-1455; doi:10.3390/ijerph6041443
Received: 1 February 2009 / Accepted: 2 April 2009 / Published: 15 April 2009
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (69 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A survey of 100 women in the south of London, United Kingdom (UK) compared exercise barrier intensities between non-exercising younger (20-27 years) and older (28-35 years) adult women; and examined childcare duties as perceived barriers to exercise. Perceived barriers to exercise were examined
[...] Read more.
A survey of 100 women in the south of London, United Kingdom (UK) compared exercise barrier intensities between non-exercising younger (20-27 years) and older (28-35 years) adult women; and examined childcare duties as perceived barriers to exercise. Perceived barriers to exercise were examined using an Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale (EBBS) comprising four subscales (exercise milieu; time expenditure; physical exertion; family discouragement). Participants’ number of children was also noted. Non-exercising older women reported significantly higher total exercise barriers, as well as across three barrier subscales: exercise milieu, time expenditure, and family discouragement. For both age groups, significant correlation existed between number of children and women’s total exercise barrier scores. Number of children explained »25% and »30% of the variance of younger and older women’s total barrier scores respectively. For both women groups, the strongest correlation between exercise barrier and number of children was for the time expenditure subscale. Broad grouping of 20-35 year old non-exercising women does not reflect a homogenous sample. Age categories employing narrower age brackets are recommended. Issues surrounding family responsibilities e.g. childcare duties may be shared between these groups and require further research and policy attention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health: Feature Papers)
Open AccessArticle Environmental Health Organisations against Tobacco
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(4), 1456-1471; doi:10.3390/ijerph6041456
Received: 23 December 2008 / Accepted: 27 March 2009 / Published: 15 April 2009
PDF Full-text (237 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Implementing the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) relies heavily on enforcement. Little is known of the way different enforcement agencies operate, prioritise or network. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH)
[...] Read more.
Implementing the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) relies heavily on enforcement. Little is known of the way different enforcement agencies operate, prioritise or network. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH) in 36 countries. Tobacco control was given low priority. Almost two thirds did not have any tobacco control policy. A third reported their organisation had worked with other agencies on tobacco control. Obstacles to addressing tobacco control included a lack of resources (61%) and absence of a coherent strategy (39%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoking and Tobacco Control)
Open AccessArticle Biodegradation of Bisphenol A, Bisphenol F and Bisphenol S in Seawater
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(4), 1472-1484; doi:10.3390/ijerph6041472
Received: 7 January 2009 / Accepted: 9 April 2009 / Published: 17 April 2009
Cited by 46 | PDF Full-text (229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A group of compounds structurally similar to bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane (bisphenol A, BPA) are called bisphenols (BPs), and some of them can partially replace BPA in industrial applications. The production and consumption of BPs other than BPA, especially those of bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)methane (bisphenol F, BPF) and
[...] Read more.
A group of compounds structurally similar to bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane (bisphenol A, BPA) are called bisphenols (BPs), and some of them can partially replace BPA in industrial applications. The production and consumption of BPs other than BPA, especially those of bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)methane (bisphenol F, BPF) and bis(4-hydroxy-phenyl)sulfone (bisphenol S, BPS), have increased recently, leading to their detection as contaminants in the aquatic environment. The three compounds tested 100% positive for estrus response in 1936 and concerns about their health risks have been increasing. Abundant data on degradation of bisphenols (BPs) has been published, but results for biodegradation of BPs in seawater are lacking. However, several research groups have focused on this topic recently. In this study, the biodegradation behaviors of three BPs, namely BPA, BPF and BPS, in seawater were investigated using TOC Handai (TOC, potential test) and river (sea) die-away (SDA, simulation test) methods, which are both a kind of river-die-away test. The main difference between the tests is that indigenous microcosms remain in the sampled raw seawater for the SDA experiments, but they are removed through filtration and dispersed into artificial seawater for the TOC experiments. The BPs, except for BPS, were degraded using both methods. The SDA method produced better biodegradation results than the TOC method in terms of degradation time (both lag and degradation periods). Biodegradation efficiencies were measured at 75-100% using the SDA method and 13-63% using the TOC method. BPF showed better degradation efficiency than BPA, BPF was > 92% and BPA 83% depleted according to the SDA tests. BPS degradation was not observed. As a conclusion, the biodegradability of the three BPs in seawater could be ranked as BPF > BPA >> BPS. BPF is more biodegradable than BPA in seawater and BPS is more likely to accumulate in the aquatic environment. BPS poses a lower risk to human health and to the environment than BPA or BPF but it is not amenable to biodegradation and might be persistent and become an ecological burden. Thus other degradation methods need to be found for the removal of BPS in the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradability and Environmental Sciences)
Open AccessArticle The Autonomous House: A Bio-Hydrogen Based Energy Self-Sufficient Approach
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(4), 1515-1529; doi:10.3390/ijerph6041515
Received: 1 February 2009 / Accepted: 17 April 2009 / Published: 21 April 2009
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1293 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the wake of the greenhouse effect and global energy crisis, finding sources of clean, alternative energy and developing everyday life applications have become urgent tasks. This study proposes the development of an "autonomous house" emphasizing the use of modern green energy technology
[...] Read more.
In the wake of the greenhouse effect and global energy crisis, finding sources of clean, alternative energy and developing everyday life applications have become urgent tasks. This study proposes the development of an "autonomous house" emphasizing the use of modern green energy technology to reduce environmental load, achieve energy autonomy and use energy intelligently in order to create a sustainable, comfortable living environment. The houses' two attributes are: (1) a self-sufficient energy cycle and (2) autonomous energy control to maintain environmental comfort. The autonomous house thus combines energy-conserving, carbon emission-reducing passive design with active elements needed to maintain a comfortable environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability: Environmental Studies and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Real World Study to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Varenicline and Cognitive-Behavioural Interventions for Smoking Cessation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(4), 1530-1538; doi:10.3390/ijerph6041530
Received: 10 March 2009 / Accepted: 16 April 2009 / Published: 21 April 2009
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (131 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A prospective pragmatic interventional study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of varenicline for smoking cessation among a cohort of motivated smokers attending two smoking cessation clinics. Smokers between 18 and 65 years who had smoked 10 or more cigarettes per day were
[...] Read more.
A prospective pragmatic interventional study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of varenicline for smoking cessation among a cohort of motivated smokers attending two smoking cessation clinics. Smokers between 18 and 65 years who had smoked 10 or more cigarettes per day were included. All participants received cognitive-behavioural varenicline according to approved dose and prescriptions. Continuous abstinence, validated by exhaled CO levels, was assessed in each control. A total of 264 smokers – 155 males (58.7%) and 109 females (41.3%) – were included. Mean age was 43.7, amount smoked was 23 cigarettes per day and 61.4% had at least one prior attempt to quit. The continuous abstinence rate at end of treatment (12 wks) was 58.3%. Conclusions: varenicline and cognitive-behavioural intervention are effective for smoking cessation with high continuous abstinence rates when are used in a clinical setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Potential of Penicillium Species in the Bioremediation Field
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(4), 1393-1417; doi:10.3390/ijerph6041393
Received: 1 February 2009 / Accepted: 17 March 2009 / Published: 9 April 2009
Cited by 49 | PDF Full-text (481 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effects on the environment of pollution, particularly that caused by various industrial activities, have been responsible for the accelerated fluxes of organic and inorganic matter in the ecosphere. Xenobiotics such as phenol, phenolic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and heavy metals, even
[...] Read more.
The effects on the environment of pollution, particularly that caused by various industrial activities, have been responsible for the accelerated fluxes of organic and inorganic matter in the ecosphere. Xenobiotics such as phenol, phenolic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and heavy metals, even at low concentrations, can be toxic to humans and other forms of life. Many of the remediation technologies currently being used for contaminated soil and water involve not only physical and chemical treatment, but also biological processes, where microbial activity is the responsible for pollutant removal and/or recovery. Fungi are present in aquatic sediments, terrestrial habitats and water surfaces and play a significant part in natural remediation of metal and aromatic compounds. Fungi also have advantages over bacteria since fungal hyphae can penetrate contaminated soil, reaching not only heavy metals but also xenobiotic compounds. Despite of the abundance of such fungi in wastes, penicillia in particular have received little attention in bioremediation and biodegradation studies. Additionally, several studies conducted with different strains of imperfecti fungi, Penicillium spp. have demonstrated their ability to degrade different xenobiotic compounds with low co-substrate requirements, and could be potentially interesting for the development of economically feasible processes for pollutant transformation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradability and Environmental Sciences)
Open AccessReview Perchlorate: Health Effects and Technologies for Its Removal from Water Resources
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(4), 1418-1442; doi:10.3390/ijerph6041418
Received: 13 February 2009 / Accepted: 3 April 2009 / Published: 14 April 2009
Cited by 39 | PDF Full-text (231 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Perchlorate has been found in drinking water and surface waters in the United States and Canada. It is primarily associated with release from defense and military operations. Natural sources include certain fertilizers and potash ores. Although it is a strong oxidant, perchlorate is
[...] Read more.
Perchlorate has been found in drinking water and surface waters in the United States and Canada. It is primarily associated with release from defense and military operations. Natural sources include certain fertilizers and potash ores. Although it is a strong oxidant, perchlorate is very persistent in the environment. At high concentrations perchlorate can affect the thyroid gland by inhibiting the uptake of iodine. A maximum contaminant level has not been set, while a guidance value of 6 ppb has been suggested by Health Canada. Perchlorate is measured in environmental samples primarily by ion chromatography. It can be removed from water by anion exchange or membrane filtration. Biological and chemical processes are also effective in removing this species from water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health: Feature Papers)
Open AccessReview Preventing Smoking in Young People: A Systematic Review of the Impact of Access Interventions
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(4), 1485-1514; doi:10.3390/ijerph6041485
Received: 24 December 2008 / Accepted: 16 April 2009 / Published: 20 April 2009
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (169 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aims: To examine existing evidence on the effectiveness of interventions that are designed to prevent the illegal sale of tobacco to young people. The review considers specific sub-questions related to the factors that might influence effectiveness, any differential effects for different sub-populations
[...] Read more.
Aims: To examine existing evidence on the effectiveness of interventions that are designed to prevent the illegal sale of tobacco to young people. The review considers specific sub-questions related to the factors that might influence effectiveness, any differential effects for different sub-populations of youth, and barriers and facilitators to implementation. Methods: A review of studies on the impact of interventions on young people under the age of 18 was conducted. It included interventions that were designed to prevent the illegal sale of tobacco to children and young people. The review was conducted in July 2007, and included 20 papers on access restriction studies. The quality of the papers was assessed and the relevant data was extracted. Results: The evidence obtained from the review indicates that access restriction interventions may produce significant reductions in the rate of illegal tobacco sales to youth. However, lack of enforcement and the ability of youth to acquire cigarettes from social sources may undermine the effectiveness of these interventions. Conclusions: When access interventions are applied in a comprehensive manner, they can affect young people’s access to tobacco. However, further research is required to examine the effects of access restriction interventions on young people’s smoking behaviour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoking and Tobacco Control)

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