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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 9, Issue 6 (June 2012), Pages 1997-2265

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle U.S. EPA Authority to Use Cumulative Risk Assessments in Environmental Decision-Making
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(6), 1997-2019; doi:10.3390/ijerph9061997
Received: 17 January 2012 / Revised: 25 April 2012 / Accepted: 26 April 2012 / Published: 25 May 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (427 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Conventionally, in its decision-making, the U.S. EPA has evaluated the effects and risks associated with a single pollutant in a single exposure medium. In reality, people are exposed to mixtures of pollutants or to the same pollutant through a variety of media, including
[...] Read more.
Conventionally, in its decision-making, the U.S. EPA has evaluated the effects and risks associated with a single pollutant in a single exposure medium. In reality, people are exposed to mixtures of pollutants or to the same pollutant through a variety of media, including the air, water, and food. It is now more recognized than before that environmental exposure to pollutants occurs via multiple exposure routes and pathways, including inhalation, ingestion, and dermal absorption. Moreover, chemical, biologic, radiologic, physical, and psychologic stressors are all acknowledged as affecting human health. Although many EPA offices attempt to consider cumulative risk assessment and cumulative effects in various ways, there is no Agency-wide policy for considering these risks and the effects of exposure to these risks when making environmental decisions. This article examines how U.S. courts might assess EPA’s general authority and discretion to use cumulative risk assessment as the basis for developing data in support of environmental decision-making, and how courts might assess the validity of a cumulative risk assessment methodology itself. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cumulative Health Risk Assessment)
Open AccessArticle Road Dust Lead (Pb) in Two Neighborhoods of Urban Atlanta, (GA, USA)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(6), 2020-2030; doi:10.3390/ijerph9062020
Received: 29 March 2012 / Revised: 25 April 2012 / Accepted: 10 May 2012 / Published: 25 May 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (876 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Road dust continues to be a major potential reservoir of Pb in the urban environment, and an important potential component of child Pb exposure. This study presents ICP-AES analyses of metals in 72 samples of road dust (
[...] Read more.
Road dust continues to be a major potential reservoir of Pb in the urban environment, and an important potential component of child Pb exposure. This study presents ICP-AES analyses of metals in 72 samples of road dust ( < 250 µm) collected in the urban core of Atlanta, Georgia. In the Downtown area, median Pb concentrations are ~63 mg/kg Pb, with high values of 278 mg/kg. For comparison, median Pb values in a nearby residential neighborhood (also in the urban core) were ~93 mg/kg, with a high of 972 mg/kg. Geospatial variability is high, with significant variation observed over tens to hundreds of meters. Spearman Rank Correlation tests suggest that Pb and other metals (Cu, Ni, V, Zn) are associated with iron and manganese oxide phases in the residential area, as reported in other cities. However, Pb in the Downtown area is not correlated with the others, suggesting a difference in source or transport history. Given these complexities and the expected differences between road dust and soil Pb, future efforts to assess exposure risk should therefore be based on spatially distributed sampling at very high spatial resolution. Full article
Open AccessArticle Spatial Autocorrelation Analysis of Chinese Inter-Provincial Industrial Chemical Oxygen Demand Discharge
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(6), 2031-2044; doi:10.3390/ijerph9062031
Received: 9 April 2012 / Revised: 15 May 2012 / Accepted: 15 May 2012 / Published: 25 May 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (434 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A spatial autocorrelation analysis method is adopted to process the spatial dynamic change of industrial Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) discharge in China over the past 15 years. Studies show that amount and intensity of industrial COD discharges are on a decrease, and the
[...] Read more.
A spatial autocorrelation analysis method is adopted to process the spatial dynamic change of industrial Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) discharge in China over the past 15 years. Studies show that amount and intensity of industrial COD discharges are on a decrease, and the tendency is more remarkable for discharge intensity. There are large differences between inter-provincial discharge amount and intensity, and with different spatial differentiation features. Global spatial autocorrelation analysis reveals that Global Moran’s I of discharge amount and intensity is on the decrease. In space, there is an evolution from an agglomeration pattern to a discretization pattern. Local spatial autocorrelation analysis shows that the agglomeration area of industrial COD discharge amount and intensity varies greatly in space with time. Stringent environmental regulations and increased funding for environmental protections are the crucial factors to cut down industrial COD discharge amount and intensity. Full article
Open AccessArticle Molecular Detection and Drug Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex from Cattle at a Dairy Farm in the Nkonkobe Region of South Africa: A Pilot Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(6), 2045-2056; doi:10.3390/ijerph9062045
Received: 10 April 2012 / Revised: 9 May 2012 / Accepted: 14 May 2012 / Published: 29 May 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (142 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) causes tuberculosis (TB) in humans and animals. We investigated the presence of MTBC in cattle milk and its drug resistance using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Two hundred samples (100 mL each) were obtained from a dairy farm in the
[...] Read more.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) causes tuberculosis (TB) in humans and animals. We investigated the presence of MTBC in cattle milk and its drug resistance using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Two hundred samples (100 mL each) were obtained from a dairy farm in the Nkonkobe region of South Africa. The samples were processed using the modified Petroff method. DNA was isolated using a Zymo Bacterial DNA kit and amplified using Seeplex® MTB Nested ACE assay. The Genotype® Mycobacterium tuberculosis-multidrug resistantplus (MTBDRplus) assay was used to perform drug susceptibility and detection of mutations conferring resistance to isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF). Eleven samples tested positive for MTBC DNA using the Seeplex® MTB Nested ACE assay. The Genotype® MTBDRplus assay showed that 10/11 samples were resistant to both INH and RIF i.e., multi-drug resistant (MDR). The most and least frequent rpoB mutations detected in RIF resistant samples were H526Y (9/10) and D516V (2/10) respectively. None of the INH resistant samples harbored mutations in the katG gene. However, all of them harbored the T8A mutation in the inhA gene. These results have clinical and epidemiological significance and calls for further studies and necessary actions to delineate the situation. Full article
Open AccessArticle Scenario Simulation-Based Assessment of Trip Difficulty for Urban Residents under Rainstorm Waterlogging
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(6), 2057-2074; doi:10.3390/ijerph9062057
Received: 20 April 2012 / Revised: 21 May 2012 / Accepted: 23 May 2012 / Published: 31 May 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (723 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, an experiment was performed to assess the trip difficulty for urban residents of different age groups walking in various depths of water, and the data were corroborated with the real urban rainstorm waterlogging scenarios in downtown (Daoli district) Ha-Erbin
[...] Read more.
In this study, an experiment was performed to assess the trip difficulty for urban residents of different age groups walking in various depths of water, and the data were corroborated with the real urban rainstorm waterlogging scenarios in downtown (Daoli district) Ha-Erbin (China). Mathematical models of urban rainstorm waterlogging were constructed using scenario simulation methods, aided by the GIS spatial analysis technology and hydrodynamic analysis of the waterway systems in the study area. Then these models were used to evaluate the impact of waterlogging on the safety of residents walking in the affected area. Results are summarized as: (1) for an urban rainstorm waterlogging scenario reoccurring once every 10 years, three grid regions would have waterlogging above 0.5 m moving at a velocity of 1.5 m/s. Under this scenario, waterlogging would accumulate on traffic roads only in small areas, affecting the safety and mobility of residents walking in the neighborhood; (2) for an urban rainstorm waterlogging scenario reoccurring once every 20 years, 13 grids experienced the same waterlogging situation affecting a larger area of the city; (3) for an urban rainstorm waterlogging scenario reoccurring once every 50 years, 86 grid regions were affected (waterlogging above 0.5 m moving at 1.5 m/s), and those areas would become impassable for residents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparedness and Emergency Response)
Open AccessArticle Prevalence of Multiple Antibiotics Resistant (MAR) Pseudomonas Species in the Final Effluents of Three Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities in South Africa
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(6), 2092-2107; doi:10.3390/ijerph9062092
Received: 11 April 2012 / Revised: 11 May 2012 / Accepted: 14 May 2012 / Published: 1 June 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (254 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The final effluents of three (Alice, Dimbaza, and East London) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were evaluated to determine their physicochemical quality and prevalence of multiple antibiotics resistant (MAR) Pseudomonas species, between August 2007 and July 2008. The annual mean total Pseudomonas count (TPC)
[...] Read more.
The final effluents of three (Alice, Dimbaza, and East London) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were evaluated to determine their physicochemical quality and prevalence of multiple antibiotics resistant (MAR) Pseudomonas species, between August 2007 and July 2008. The annual mean total Pseudomonas count (TPC) was 1.20 × 104 (cfu/100 mL), 1.08 × 104 (cfu/100 mL), and 2.66 × 104 (cfu/100 mL), for the Alice, Dimbaza, and East London WWTPs respectively. The effluents were generally compliant with recommended limits for pH, temperature, TDS, DO, nitrite and nitrate; but fell short of target standards for turbidity, COD, and phosphate. The tested isolates were highly sensitive to gentamicin (100%), ofloxacin (100%), clindamycin (90%), erythromycin (90%) and nitrofurantoin (80%); whereas high resistance was observed against the penicillins (90–100%), rifampin (90%), sulphamethoxazole (90%) and the cephems (70%). MAR index ranged between 0.26 and 0.58. The study demonstrated that MAR Pseudomonas species were quite prevalent in the final effluents of WWTPs in South Africa; and this can lead to serious health risk for communities that depend on the effluent-receiving waters for sundry purposes. Full article
Open AccessArticle Thermostable Bacterial Bioflocculant Produced by Cobetia Spp. Isolated from Algoa Bay (South Africa)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(6), 2108-2120; doi:10.3390/ijerph9062108
Received: 8 May 2012 / Revised: 29 May 2012 / Accepted: 30 May 2012 / Published: 4 June 2012
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (237 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel bioflocculant-producing bacteria was isolated from sediment samples of Algoa Bay in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and the effect of culture conditions on the bioflocculant production was investigated. Analysis of the partial nucleotide sequence of the 16S rDNA of
[...] Read more.
A novel bioflocculant-producing bacteria was isolated from sediment samples of Algoa Bay in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and the effect of culture conditions on the bioflocculant production was investigated. Analysis of the partial nucleotide sequence of the 16S rDNA of the bacteria revealed 99% similarity to Cobetia sp. L222 and the sequence was deposited in GenBank as Cobetia sp. OAUIFE (accession number JF799092). Cultivation condition studies revealed that bioflocculant production was optimal with an inoculum size of 2% (v/v), initial pH of 6.0, Mn2+ as the metal ion, and glucose as the carbon source. Metal ions, including Na+, K+, Li+, Ca2+and Mg2+ stimulated bioflocculant production, resulting in flocculating activity of above 90%. This crude bioflocculant is thermally stable, with about 78% of its flocculating activity remaining after heating at 100 °C for 25 min. Analysis of the purified bioflocculant revealed it to be an acidic extracellular polysaccharide. Full article
Open AccessArticle Human Health and Climate Change: Leverage Points for Adaptation in Urban Environments
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(6), 2134-2158; doi:10.3390/ijerph9062134
Received: 3 May 2012 / Accepted: 28 May 2012 / Published: 6 June 2012
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (722 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The design of adaptation strategies that promote urban health and well-being in the face of climate change requires an understanding of the feedback interactions that take place between the dynamical state of a city, the health of its people, and the state of
[...] Read more.
The design of adaptation strategies that promote urban health and well-being in the face of climate change requires an understanding of the feedback interactions that take place between the dynamical state of a city, the health of its people, and the state of the planet. Complexity, contingency and uncertainty combine to impede the growth of such systemic understandings. In this paper we suggest that the collaborative development of conceptual models can help a group to identify potential leverage points for effective adaptation. We describe a three-step procedure that leads from the development of a high-level system template, through the selection of a problem space that contains one or more of the group’s adaptive challenges, to a specific conceptual model of a sub-system of importance to the group. This procedure is illustrated by a case study of urban dwellers’ maladaptive dependence on private motor vehicles. We conclude that a system dynamics approach, revolving around the collaborative construction of a set of conceptual models, can help communities to improve their adaptive capacity, and so better meet the challenge of maintaining, and even improving, urban health in the face of climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Human Health Impacts and Adaptation)
Open AccessArticle The US/Mexico Border: A Binational Approach to Framing Challenges and Constructing Solutions for Improving Farmworkers’ Lives
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(6), 2159-2174; doi:10.3390/ijerph9062159
Received: 24 April 2012 / Revised: 29 May 2012 / Accepted: 30 May 2012 / Published: 7 June 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (73 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mexican migrant and seasonal farmworkers in the US-Mexico border region face health hazards and occupational risks and are becoming commonly known in the public health literature. According to several studies, farmworkers have high levels of chronic diseases such as diabetes and respiratory problems,
[...] Read more.
Mexican migrant and seasonal farmworkers in the US-Mexico border region face health hazards and occupational risks and are becoming commonly known in the public health literature. According to several studies, farmworkers have high levels of chronic diseases such as diabetes and respiratory problems, are at risk for infectious diseases, and experience among the highest incidences of work-related injuries of any profession. The findings from two studies are considered and presented with the objective of contributing to an overall understanding of migrant farmworkers as a workforce moving across national boundaries and affected by the work environments and health stressors both shared and unique to each context. We propose a binational approach to comprehensively address the health problems and socioeconomic challenges faced by migrant and seasonal farmworkers. In this paper we present the results of two distinct but complementary studies of farmworker health on the Arizona-Sonora border. Full article
Open AccessArticle Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Industrial Harbor Sediments by GC-MS
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(6), 2175-2188; doi:10.3390/ijerph9062175
Received: 7 May 2012 / Revised: 23 May 2012 / Accepted: 5 June 2012 / Published: 11 June 2012
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (488 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Analysis of the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of the US Environmental Protection Agency priority pollutant list was carried out in sediment samples of an industrial port in the southern Kaohsiung Harbor of Taiwan which is supposed to be extensively polluted by industrial
[...] Read more.
Analysis of the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of the US Environmental Protection Agency priority pollutant list was carried out in sediment samples of an industrial port in the southern Kaohsiung Harbor of Taiwan which is supposed to be extensively polluted by industrial wastewater discharges. The determination and quantification of PAHs in sediment samples were performed using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with the aid of deuterated PAH internal standards and surrogate standards. The total concentrations of the 16 PAHs varied from 4,425 to 51,261 ng/g dw, with a mean concentration of 13,196 ng/g dw. The PAHs concentration is relatively high in the river mouth region, and gradually diminishes toward the harbor region. Diagnostic ratios showed that the possible source of PAHs in the industrial port area could be coal combustion. As compared with the US Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs), the various observed levels of PAHs exceeded the effects range median (ERM), and could thus cause acute biological damages. The results can be used for regular monitoring, and future pollution prevention and management should target the various industries in this region for reducing pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mass Spectrometry and Environmental Analysis)
Open AccessArticle Cigarette Litter: Smokers’ Attitudes and Behaviors
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(6), 2189-2203; doi:10.3390/ijerph9062189
Received: 18 April 2012 / Revised: 4 June 2012 / Accepted: 6 June 2012 / Published: 13 June 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (109 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers’ littering
[...] Read more.
Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers’ littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers’ knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000) were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value < 0.05). The majority (74.1%) of smokers reported having littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7%) reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66) and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32). Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94). Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic waste and are harmful when disposed of improperly. Full article
Open AccessArticle Differential Exposure to Hazardous Air Pollution in the United States: A Multilevel Analysis of Urbanization and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Deprivation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(6), 2204-2225; doi:10.3390/ijerph9062204
Received: 2 February 2012 / Revised: 23 April 2012 / Accepted: 10 May 2012 / Published: 13 June 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (258 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Population exposure to multiple chemicals in air presents significant challenges for environmental public health. Air quality regulations distinguish criteria air pollutants (CAPs) (e.g., ozone, PM2.5) from hazardous air pollutants (HAPs)—187 chemicals which include carcinogens and others that are associated with respiratory, cardiovascular, neurological
[...] Read more.
Population exposure to multiple chemicals in air presents significant challenges for environmental public health. Air quality regulations distinguish criteria air pollutants (CAPs) (e.g., ozone, PM2.5) from hazardous air pollutants (HAPs)—187 chemicals which include carcinogens and others that are associated with respiratory, cardiovascular, neurological and numerous other non-cancer health effects. Evidence of the public’s cumulative exposure and the health effects of HAPs are quite limited. A multilevel model is used to assess differential exposure to HAP respiratory, neurological, and cancer hazards (2005) related to the Townsend Index of Socioeconomic Deprivation (TSI), after adjustment for regional population size and economic activity, and local population density. We found significant positive associations between tract TSI and respiratory and cancer HAP exposure hazards, and smaller effects for neurological HAPs. Tracts in the top quintile of TSI have between 38%–60% higher HAP exposure than the bottom quintile; increasing population size from the bottom quintile to the top quintile modifies HAP exposure hazard related to TSI, increasing cancer HAP exposure hazard by 6% to 20% and increasing respiratory HAP exposure hazard by 12% to 27%. This study demonstrates the value of social epidemiological methods for analyzing differential exposure and advancing cumulative risk assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cumulative Health Risk Assessment)
Open AccessArticle Decomposition Analysis of Wastewater Pollutant Discharges in Industrial Sectors of China (2001–2009) Using the LMDI I Method
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(6), 2226-2240; doi:10.3390/ijerph9062226
Received: 11 May 2012 / Revised: 5 June 2012 / Accepted: 11 June 2012 / Published: 14 June 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (193 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
China’s industry accounts for 46.8% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and plays an important strategic role in its economic growth. On the other hand, industrial wastewater is also the major source of water pollution. In order to examine the relationship between
[...] Read more.
China’s industry accounts for 46.8% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and plays an important strategic role in its economic growth. On the other hand, industrial wastewater is also the major source of water pollution. In order to examine the relationship between the underlying driving forces and various environmental indicators, values of two critical industrial wastewater pollutant discharge parameters (Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N)), between 2001 and 2009, were decomposed into three factors: i.e., production effects (caused by change in the scale of economic activity), structure effects (caused by change in economic structure) and intensity effects (caused by change in technological level of each sector), using additive version of the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI I) decomposition method. Results showed that: (1) the average annual effect of COD discharges in China was −2.99%, whereas the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 14.64%, −1.39%, and −16.24%, respectively. Similarly, the average effect of NH4-N discharges was −4.03%, while the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 16.18%, −2.88%, and −17.33%, respectively; (2) the production effect was the major factor responsible for the increase in COD and NH4-N discharges, accounting for 45% and 44% of the total contribution, respectively; (3) the intensity effect, which accounted for 50% and 48% of the total contribution, respectively, exerted a dominant decremental effect on COD and NH4-N discharges; intensity effect was further decomposed into cleaner production effect and pollution abatement effect with the cleaner production effect accounting for 60% and 55% of the reduction of COD and NH4-N, respectively; (4) the major contributors to incremental COD and NH4-N discharges were divided among industrial sub-sectors and the top contributors were identified. Potential restructuring and regulation measures were proposed for pollutant reduction. Full article
Open AccessArticle Psychosocial Correlates of Sunburn among Young Adult Women
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(6), 2241-2251; doi:10.3390/ijerph9062241
Received: 28 April 2012 / Revised: 25 May 2012 / Accepted: 8 June 2012 / Published: 18 June 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (121 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Skin cancer is an increasingly common disease, particularly among young adult women. Sunburn early in life is a risk factor for skin cancer. Few studies have reported on psychosocial correlates of sunburn. The current study consisted of an online survey of undergraduate women
[...] Read more.
Skin cancer is an increasingly common disease, particularly among young adult women. Sunburn early in life is a risk factor for skin cancer. Few studies have reported on psychosocial correlates of sunburn. The current study consisted of an online survey of undergraduate women from a university in the northeastern part of the USA. A logistic regression demonstrated that young women who reported a history of four or more sunburns were significantly more likely to report fair skin, higher perceived susceptibility to skin cancer, greater perceived benefits of tanning (e.g., appearance enhancement), lower perceived control over skin protection, and more frequent sunscreen use. Sunbathing was not associated with a greater number of sunburns. These results suggest that young women who sunburn more often possess other skin cancer risk factors, are aware of their susceptibility to skin cancer, and try to use sunscreen, but feel limited control over their skin protection behavior and are not less likely to sunbathe than others. Therefore, interventions are needed to assist high risk young women in asserting more control over their sun protection behavior and perhaps improve the effectiveness of the sunscreen or other skin protection methods they do employ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sunbathing Habits and Skin Cancer)
Open AccessArticle Prevalence of Acute Respiratory Infections in Women and Children in Western Sierra Leone due to Smoke from Wood and Charcoal Stoves
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(6), 2252-2265; doi:10.3390/ijerph9062252
Received: 28 April 2012 / Revised: 13 June 2012 / Accepted: 14 June 2012 / Published: 19 June 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (120 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Combustion of biomass fuels (wood and charcoal) for cooking releases smoke that contains health damaging pollutants. Women and children are the most affected. Exposure to biomass smoke is associated with acute respiratory infections (ARI). This study investigated the prevalence of ARI potentially caused
[...] Read more.
Combustion of biomass fuels (wood and charcoal) for cooking releases smoke that contains health damaging pollutants. Women and children are the most affected. Exposure to biomass smoke is associated with acute respiratory infections (ARI). This study investigated the prevalence of ARI potentially caused by smoke from wood and charcoal stoves in Western Sierra Leone, as these two fuels are the predominant fuel types used for cooking. A cross sectional study was conducted for 520 women age 15–45 years; and 520 children under 5 years of age in homes that burn wood and charcoal. A questionnaire assessing demographic, household and exposure characteristics and ARI was administered to every woman who further gave information for the child. Suspended particulate matter (SPM) was continuously monitored in fifteen homes. ARI prevalence revealed 32% and 24% for women, 64% and 44% for children in homes with wood and charcoal stoves, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders for each group, the odds ratio of having suffered from ARI was similar for women, but remained large for children in homes with wood stoves relative to charcoal stoves (OR = 1.14, 95%CI: 0.71–1.82) and (OR = 2.03, 95%CI: 1.31–3.13), respectively. ARI prevalence was higher for children in homes with wood stoves compared with homes with charcoal stoves, but ARI prevalence for both types of fuels is higher compared with reported prevalence elsewhere. To achieve a reduction in ARI would require switching from wood and charcoal to cleaner fuels. Full article

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Mechanism of Generation of Therapy Related Leukemia in Response to Anti-Topoisomerase II Agents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(6), 2075-2091; doi:10.3390/ijerph9062075
Received: 2 May 2012 / Revised: 23 May 2012 / Accepted: 29 May 2012 / Published: 31 May 2012
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (426 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Type II DNA topoisomerases have the ability to generate a transient DNA double-strand break through which a second duplex can be passed; an activity essential for DNA decatenation and unknotting. Topoisomerase poisons stabilize the normally transient topoisomerase-induced DSBs and are potent and widely
[...] Read more.
Type II DNA topoisomerases have the ability to generate a transient DNA double-strand break through which a second duplex can be passed; an activity essential for DNA decatenation and unknotting. Topoisomerase poisons stabilize the normally transient topoisomerase-induced DSBs and are potent and widely used anticancer drugs. However, their use is associated with therapy-related secondary leukemia, often bearing 11q23 translocations involving the MLL gene. We will explain recent discoveries in the fields of topoisomerase biology and transcription that have consequences for our understanding of the etiology of leukemia, especially therapy-related secondary leukemia and describe how these findings may help minimize the occurrence of these neoplasias. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leukemia Arising from Chemical Exposures and Chemotherapeutic Drugs)
Figures

Open AccessReview Gain-Framed Messages Do Not Motivate Sun Protection: A Meta-Analytic Review of Randomized Trials Comparing Gain-Framed and Loss-Framed Appeals for Promoting Skin Cancer Prevention
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(6), 2121-2133; doi:10.3390/ijerph9062121
Received: 18 April 2012 / Revised: 30 May 2012 / Accepted: 30 May 2012 / Published: 5 June 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (109 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Persuading people to undertake actions to prevent skin cancer is an important public health challenge. A number of studies have compared the effectiveness of gain-framed and loss-framed appeals in this domain, often expecting gain-framed appeals to be more persuasive. A meta-analytic review (
[...] Read more.
Persuading people to undertake actions to prevent skin cancer is an important public health challenge. A number of studies have compared the effectiveness of gain-framed and loss-framed appeals in this domain, often expecting gain-framed appeals to be more persuasive. A meta-analytic review (k = 33, N = 4,168), however, finds no significant difference in the persuasiveness of gain- and loss-framed appeals for encouraging skin cancer prevention. This conclusion is unaffected by differences in the specific protective action advocated or by differences in the kind of outcomes invoked. But the results offer an intimation that men might be more susceptible to framing variations in this domain—with loss-framed appeals potentially having a persuasive advantage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sunbathing Habits and Skin Cancer)

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