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Energies 2017, 10(12), 2046; doi:10.3390/en10122046

Design and Experiment of Nonlinear Observer with Adaptive Gains for Battery State of Charge Estimation

1
Department of Control Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China
2
China First Automotive Works (FAW) Group Corporation New Energy Vehicle Branch, Changchun 130122, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 November 2017 / Revised: 29 November 2017 / Accepted: 30 November 2017 / Published: 3 December 2017
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Abstract

State of charge (SOC) is an important evaluation index for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in electric vehicles (EVs). This paper proposes a nonlinear observer with a new adaptive gain structure for SOC estimation based on a second-order RC model. It is able to dynamically adjust the gains and obtain a better balance between convergence speed and estimation accuracy with less computational time. A sufficient condition is derived to guarantee the uniform asymptotic stability of the observer, and its robustness with respect to disturbances and uncertainties is analyzed with the help of input-to-state stability (ISS) theory. A selection guide of the observer gains in practical application is presented. The estimation accuracy and convergence rate of the observer are evaluated and compared with those of extended Kalman filter (EKF) based on multi-temperature datasets from two different types of LIB cells. The robustness against different disturbances and uncertainties that may appear in a real vehicle is validated and discussed in detail. The experimental results show that the proposed observer is capable of achieving better performance with less computational time in comparison to EKF for different types of LIB cells under various working conditions. The observer is also capable of estimating SOC accurately for real life conditions according to the validation results of datasets from a battery management system (BMS) in an EV battery pack. Furthermore, the observer is simple enough, and is suitable for implementation on embedded hardware for LIB cells of EVs. View Full-Text
Keywords: electric vehicle; lithium-ion battery; state of charge estimation; nonlinear observer; input-to-state stability; robustness analysis and testing electric vehicle; lithium-ion battery; state of charge estimation; nonlinear observer; input-to-state stability; robustness analysis and testing
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Zhao, L.; Ji, G.; Liu, Z. Design and Experiment of Nonlinear Observer with Adaptive Gains for Battery State of Charge Estimation. Energies 2017, 10, 2046.

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