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Energies 2017, 10(4), 550; doi:10.3390/en10040550

Optimal Charging and Discharging Scheduling for Electric Vehicles in a Parking Station with Photovoltaic System and Energy Storage System

Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chunhua Liu
Received: 20 February 2017 / Revised: 3 April 2017 / Accepted: 13 April 2017 / Published: 17 April 2017
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Abstract

The economic and environmental benefits brought by electric vehicles (EVs) cannot be fully delivered unless these vehicles are fully or partially charged by renewable energy sources (RES) such as photovoltaic system (PVS). Nevertheless, the EV charging management problem of a parking station integrated with RES is challenging due to the uncertain nature of local RES generation. This paper aims to address these difficulties by deploying an energy storage system (ESS) in parking stations and exploiting the charging and discharging scheduling of EVs to achieve better utilization of intermittent PVS for EV charging. A real-time charging optimization scheme is also formulated, using mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) to coordinate the charging or discharging power of EVs along with the power dispatches of power grid and ESS based on the vehicles’ charging or discharging priorities and electricity price preferences. Extensive simulations show that the proposed approach not only maximizes the satisfaction of EV owners in terms of fulfilling all charging and discharging requests, but also minimizes the overall operational cost of the parking station by prioritizing the utilization of energy from PVS, ESS, and scheduling of every EV’s charging and discharging. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy storage system; electric vehicle; mixed-integer linear programming (MILP); photovoltaic system; renewable energy source energy storage system; electric vehicle; mixed-integer linear programming (MILP); photovoltaic system; renewable energy source
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yao, L.; Damiran, Z.; Lim, W.H. Optimal Charging and Discharging Scheduling for Electric Vehicles in a Parking Station with Photovoltaic System and Energy Storage System. Energies 2017, 10, 550.

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