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Energies, Volume 4, Issue 11 (November 2011), Pages 1840-2131

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Output Feedback Dissipation Control for the Power-Level of Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors
Energies 2011, 4(11), 1858-1879; doi:10.3390/en4111858
Received: 8 August 2011 / Revised: 20 October 2011 / Accepted: 20 October 2011 / Published: 1 November 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (590 KB) | XML Full-text
Abstract
Because of its strong inherent safety features and the high outlet temperature, the modular high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (MHTGR) is the chosen technology for a new generation of nuclear power plants. Such power plants are being considered for industrial applications with a
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Because of its strong inherent safety features and the high outlet temperature, the modular high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (MHTGR) is the chosen technology for a new generation of nuclear power plants. Such power plants are being considered for industrial applications with a wide range of power levels, thus power-level regulation is very important for their efficient and stable operation. Exploiting the large scale asymptotic closed-loop stability provided by nonlinear controllers, a nonlinear power-level regulator is presented in this paper that is based upon both the techniques of feedback dissipation and well-established backstepping. The virtue of this control strategy, i.e., the ability of globally asymptotic stabilization, is that it takes advantage of the inherent zero-state detectability property of the MHTGR dynamics. Moreover, this newly built power-level regulator is also robust towards modeling uncertainty in the control rod dynamics. If modeling uncertainty of the control rod dynamics is small enough to be omitted, then this control law can be simplified to a classical proportional feedback controller. The comparison of the control performance between the newly-built power controller and the simplified controller is also given through numerical study and theoretical analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nuclear Energy)
Open AccessArticle Photocatalytic Desulfurization of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Oil
Energies 2011, 4(11), 1880-1896; doi:10.3390/en4111880
Received: 31 August 2011 / Revised: 28 October 2011 / Accepted: 28 October 2011 / Published: 3 November 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1861 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Waste tire pyrolysis oil has high potential to replace conventional fossil liquid fuels due to its high calorific heating value. However, the large amounts of sulfurous compounds in this oil hinders its application. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate the
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Waste tire pyrolysis oil has high potential to replace conventional fossil liquid fuels due to its high calorific heating value. However, the large amounts of sulfurous compounds in this oil hinders its application. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate the possibility to apply the photo-assisted oxidation catalyzed by titanium dioxide (TiO2, Degussa P-25) to partially remove sulfurous compounds in the waste tire pyrolysis oil under milder reaction conditions without hydrogen consumption. A waste tire pyrolysis oil with 0.84% (w/w) of sulfurous content containing suspended TiO2 was irradiated by using a high-pressure mercury lamp for 7 h. The oxidized sulfur compounds were then migrated into the solvent-extraction phase. A maximum % sulfur removal of 43.6% was achieved when 7 g/L of TiO2 was loaded into a 1/4 (v/v) mixture of pyrolysis waste tire oil/acetonitrile at 50 °C in the presence of air. Chromatographic analysis confirmed that the photo-oxidized sulfurous compounds presented in the waste tire pyrolysis oil had higher polarity, which were readily dissolved and separated in distilled water. The properties of the photoxidized product were also reported and compared to those of crude oil. Full article
Open AccessArticle Embodiment Analysis for Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Chinese Economy Based on Global Thermodynamic Potentials
Energies 2011, 4(11), 1897-1915; doi:10.3390/en4111897
Received: 1 August 2011 / Revised: 8 October 2011 / Accepted: 31 October 2011 / Published: 4 November 2011
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (265 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper considers the Global Thermodynamic Potential (GTP) indicator to perform a unified assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and to systematically reveal the emission embodiment in the production, consumption, and international trade of the Chinese economy in 2007 as the most recent
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This paper considers the Global Thermodynamic Potential (GTP) indicator to perform a unified assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and to systematically reveal the emission embodiment in the production, consumption, and international trade of the Chinese economy in 2007 as the most recent year available with input-output table and updated inventory data. The results show that the estimated total direct GHG emissions by the Chinese economy in 2007 amount to 10,657.5 Mt CO2-eq by the GTPs with 40.6% from CH4 emissions in magnitude of the same importance as CO2 emissions. The five sectors of Electric Power/Steam and Hot Water Production and Supply, Smelting and Pressing of Ferrous and Nonferrous Metals, Nonmetal Mineral Products, Agriculture, and Coal Mining and Dressing, are responsible for 83.3% of the total GHG emissions with different emission structures. The demands of coal and coal-electricity determine the structure of emission embodiment to an essential extent. The Construction sector holds the top GHG emissions embodied in both domestic production and domestic consumption. The GHG emission embodied in gross capital formation is more than those in other components of final demand characterized by extensive investment and limited household consumption. China is a net exporter of embodied GHG emissions, with a remarkable share of direct emission induced by international trade, such as textile products, industrial raw materials, and primary machinery and equipment products exports. The fractions of CH4 in the component of embodied GHG emissions in the final demand are much greater than those fractions calculated by the Global Warming Potentials, which highlight the importance of CH4 emissions for the case of China and indicate the essential effect of CH4 emissions on global climate change. To understand the full context to achieve GHG emission mitigation, this study provides a new insight to address China’s GHG emissions status and hidden emission information induced by the final demand to the related policy-makers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low Carbon Transitions Worldwide)
Open AccessArticle Turbulent Flow Inside and Above a Wind Farm: A Wind-Tunnel Study
Energies 2011, 4(11), 1916-1936; doi:10.3390/en4111916
Received: 22 August 2011 / Revised: 8 October 2011 / Accepted: 28 October 2011 / Published: 8 November 2011
Cited by 57 | PDF Full-text (1684 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wind-tunnel experiments were carried out to better understand boundary layer effects on the flow pattern inside and above a model wind farm under thermally neutral conditions. Cross-wire anemometry was used to characterize the turbulent flow structure at different locations around a 10 by
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Wind-tunnel experiments were carried out to better understand boundary layer effects on the flow pattern inside and above a model wind farm under thermally neutral conditions. Cross-wire anemometry was used to characterize the turbulent flow structure at different locations around a 10 by 3 array of model wind turbines aligned with the mean flow and arranged in two different layouts (inter-turbine separation of 5 and 7 rotor diameters in the direction of the mean flow by 4 rotor diameters in its span). Results suggest that the turbulent flow can be characterized in two broad regions. The first, located below the turbine top tip height, has a direct effect on the performance of the turbines. In that region, the turbulent flow statistics appear to reach equilibrium as close as the third to fourth row of wind turbines for both layouts. In the second region, located right above the first one, the flow adjusts slowly. There, two layers can be identified: an internal boundary layer where the flow is affected by both the incoming wind and the wind turbines, and an equilibrium layer, where the flow is fully adjusted to the wind farm. An adjusted logarithmic velocity distribution is observed in the equilibrium layer starting from the sixth row of wind turbines. The effective surface roughness length induced by the wind farm is found to be higher than that predicted by some existing models. Momentum recovery and turbulence intensity are shown to be affected by the wind farm layout. Power spectra show that the signature of the tip vortices, in both streamwise and vertical velocity components, is highly affected by both the relative location in the wind farm and the wind farm layout. Full article
Open AccessArticle Performance Improvement of a Portable Electric Generator Using an Optimized Bio-Fuel Ratio in a Single Cylinder Two-Stroke Engine
Energies 2011, 4(11), 1937-1949; doi:10.3390/en4111937
Received: 8 September 2011 / Revised: 27 October 2011 / Accepted: 31 October 2011 / Published: 10 November 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (409 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The performance of an electrical generator using bio-fuel and gasoline blends of different composition as fuel in a single cylinder engine is presented. The effect of an optimized blend ratio of bio-fuel with gasoline on engine performance improvement and thereby on the electrical
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The performance of an electrical generator using bio-fuel and gasoline blends of different composition as fuel in a single cylinder engine is presented. The effect of an optimized blend ratio of bio-fuel with gasoline on engine performance improvement and thereby on the electrical generator output is studied. Bio-fuels such as ethanol, butanol and methanol are blended with gasoline in different proportions and evaluated for performance. The effects of different bio-fuel/gasoline blending ratios are compared experimentally with that of the gasoline alone using the output power developed by the electric generator as the evaluation parameter. With a composition of 10% ethanol–gasoline, the engine performance is increased up to 6% and with a blending ratio of 20% butanol–gasoline the performance is increased up to 8% compared to the use of 100% gasoline. The investigations are performed on a portable generator used in palm tree harvesting applications. Full article
Open AccessArticle Analysis of Injection and Production Data for Open and Large Reservoirs
Energies 2011, 4(11), 1950-1972; doi:10.3390/en4111950
Received: 27 July 2011 / Revised: 2 November 2011 / Accepted: 2 November 2011 / Published: 14 November 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1626 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Numerous studies have concluded that connectivity is one of the most important factors controlling the success of improved oil recovery processes. Interwell connectivity evaluation can help identify flow barriers and conduits and provide tools for reservoir management and production optimization. The multiwell productivity
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Numerous studies have concluded that connectivity is one of the most important factors controlling the success of improved oil recovery processes. Interwell connectivity evaluation can help identify flow barriers and conduits and provide tools for reservoir management and production optimization. The multiwell productivity index (MPI)-based method provides the connectivity indices between well pairs based on injection/production data. By decoupling the effects of well locations, skin factors, injection rates, and the producers’ bottomhole pressures from the calculated connectivity, the heterogeneity matrix obtained by this method solely represents the heterogeneity and possible anisotropy of the formation. Previously, the MPI method was developed for bounded reservoirs with limited numbers of wells. In this paper, we extend the MPI method to deal with cases of large numbers of wells and open reservoirs. To handle open reservoirs, we applied some modifications to the MPI method by adding a virtual well to the system. In cases with large numbers of wells, we applied a model reduction strategy based on the location of the wells, called windowing. Integration of these approaches with the MPI method can quickly and efficiently model field data to optimize well patterns and flood parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Petroleum Engineering)
Open AccessArticle A Computer Program for Modeling the Conversion of Organic Waste to Energy
Energies 2011, 4(11), 1973-2001; doi:10.3390/en4111973
Received: 29 July 2011 / Revised: 8 November 2011 / Accepted: 15 November 2011 / Published: 18 November 2011
PDF Full-text (561 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a tool for the analysis of conversion of organic waste into energy. The tool is a program that uses waste characterization parameters and mass flow rates at each stage of the waste treatment process to predict the given products. The
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This paper presents a tool for the analysis of conversion of organic waste into energy. The tool is a program that uses waste characterization parameters and mass flow rates at each stage of the waste treatment process to predict the given products. The specific waste treatment process analysed in this paper is anaerobic digestion. The different waste treatment stages of the anaerobic digestion process are: conditioning of input waste, secondary treatment, drying of sludge, conditioning of digestate, treatment of digestate, storage of liquid and solid effluent, disposal of liquid and solid effluents, purification, utilization and storage of combustible gas. The program uses mass balance equations to compute the amount of CH4, NH3, CO2 and H2S produced from anaerobic digestion of organic waste, and hence the energy available. Case studies are also presented. Full article
Open AccessArticle An Integrated Multi-Criteria Decision Making Model for Evaluating Wind Farm Performance
Energies 2011, 4(11), 2002-2026; doi:10.3390/en4112002
Received: 14 July 2011 / Revised: 7 November 2011 / Accepted: 15 November 2011 / Published: 21 November 2011
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (519 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The demands for alternative energy resources have been increasing exponentially in the 21st century due to continuous industrial development, depletion of fossil fuels and emerging environmental consciousness. Renewable energy sources, including wind energy, hydropower energy, geothermal energy, solar energy, biomass energy and ocean
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The demands for alternative energy resources have been increasing exponentially in the 21st century due to continuous industrial development, depletion of fossil fuels and emerging environmental consciousness. Renewable energy sources, including wind energy, hydropower energy, geothermal energy, solar energy, biomass energy and ocean power, have received increasing attention as alternative means of meeting global energy demands. After Japan's Fukushima nuclear plant disaster in March 2011, more and more countries are having doubt about the safety of nuclear plants. As a result, safe and renewable energy sources are attracting even more attention these days. Wind energy production, with its relatively safer and positive environmental characteristics, has evolved in the past few decades from a marginal activity into a multi-billion dollar industry. In this research, a comprehensive evaluation model is constructed to select a suitable location for developing a wind farm. The model incorporates interpretive structural modeling (ISM), benefits, opportunities, costs and risks (BOCR) and fuzzy analytic network process (FANP). Experts in the field are invited to contribute their expertise in evaluating the importance of the factors and various aspects of the wind farm evaluation problem, and the most suitable wind farm can finally be generated from the model. A case study is carried out in Taiwan in evaluating the expected performance of several potential wind farms, and a recommendation is provided for selecting the most appropriate wind farm for construction. Full article
Open AccessArticle Experimental Research on Heterogeneous N2O Decomposition with Ash and Biomass Gasification Gas
Energies 2011, 4(11), 2027-2037; doi:10.3390/en4112027
Received: 1 July 2011 / Revised: 7 November 2011 / Accepted: 15 November 2011 / Published: 21 November 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (258 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, the promoting effects of ash and biomass gas reburning on N2O decomposition were investigated based on a fluidized bed reactor, with the assessment of the influence of O2 on N2O decomposition with circulating ashes. Experimental
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In this paper, the promoting effects of ash and biomass gas reburning on N2O decomposition were investigated based on a fluidized bed reactor, with the assessment of the influence of O2 on N2O decomposition with circulating ashes. Experimental results show that different metal oxides contained in ash play distinct roles in the process of N2O decomposition with biomass gas reburning. Compared with other components in ash, CaO is proven to be very active and has the greatest promoting impact on N2O decomposition. It is also found that O2, even in small amounts, can weaken the promoting effect of ash on N2O decomposition by using biomass gas reburning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass and Biofuels)
Open AccessArticle Water Velocity Measurements on a Vertical Barrier Screen at the Bonneville Dam Second Powerhouse
Energies 2011, 4(11), 2038-2048; doi:10.3390/en4112038
Received: 3 August 2011 / Revised: 15 November 2011 / Accepted: 16 November 2011 / Published: 22 November 2011
PDF Full-text (1356 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fish screens at hydroelectric dams help to protect rearing and migrating fish by preventing them from passing through the turbines and directing them towards the bypass channels by means of a sweeping flow parallel to the screen. However, fish screens may actually be
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Fish screens at hydroelectric dams help to protect rearing and migrating fish by preventing them from passing through the turbines and directing them towards the bypass channels by means of a sweeping flow parallel to the screen. However, fish screens may actually be harmful to fish if the fish become impinged on the surface of the screen or become disoriented due to poor flow conditions near the screen. Recent modifications to the vertical barrier screens (VBS) in the gate wells at the Bonneville Dam second powerhouse (B2) were intended to increase the guidance of juvenile salmonids into the juvenile bypass system but have resulted in higher mortality and descaling rates of hatchery subyearling Chinook salmon during the 2008 juvenile salmonid passage season. To investigate the potential cause of the high mortality and descaling rates, an in situ water velocity measurement study was conducted using acoustic Doppler velocimeters in the gate well slots at turbine units 12A and 14A of B2. From the measurements collected, the average approach velocity, sweep velocity, and the root mean square value of the velocity fluctuations were calculated. The approach velocities measured across the face of the VBS were variable and typically less than 0.3 m/s, but fewer than 50% were less than or equal to 0.12 m/s. There was also large variance in sweep velocities across the face of the VBS with most measurements recorded at less than 1.5 m/s. Results of this study revealed that the approach velocities in the gate wells exceeded criteria intended to improve fish passage conditions that were recommended by National Marine Fisheries Service and the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife. The turbulence measured in the gate well may also result in suboptimal fish passage conditions but no established guidelines to contrast those results have been published. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydroelectric Power Generation)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Two-Stage Fuel Injection Parameters on NOx Reduction Characteristics in a DI Diesel Engine
Energies 2011, 4(11), 2049-2060; doi:10.3390/en4112049
Received: 19 August 2011 / Revised: 2 November 2011 / Accepted: 16 November 2011 / Published: 22 November 2011
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (478 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to confirm the effects of two-stage combustion on the combustion and NOx reduction characteristics of a four cylinder direct injection diesel engine. In order to analyze the combustion and emission characteristics, various injection parameters, such as
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The aim of this study was to confirm the effects of two-stage combustion on the combustion and NOx reduction characteristics of a four cylinder direct injection diesel engine. In order to analyze the combustion and emission characteristics, various injection parameters, such as injection quantity, injection timing and injection pressure were used under constant engine speed and engine load. In addition, the experimental results of two-stage combustion are compared to the single injection when injection timing is 5° BTDC. The experimental results showed that NOx emissions were significantly reduced when applying two-stage combustion. In particular, an injection strategy when the first and second injections have a same quantity, the results showed the maximum reduction of NOx emissions in this experiment. The NOx emissions were also reduced when the timing of the first injection was advanced. However, NOx emissions indicated almost similar concentration regardless of first injection timings when the first injection timing was earlier than 50° BTDC. In the case of soot emissions were slightly increased compare to the single injection cases at tested conditions. Full article
Open AccessArticle Energy-Saving Potential of Building Envelope Designs in Residential Houses in Taiwan
Energies 2011, 4(11), 2061-2076; doi:10.3390/en4112061
Received: 3 September 2011 / Revised: 4 November 2011 / Accepted: 5 November 2011 / Published: 23 November 2011
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (1220 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The key factors in the energy-saving design of a building’s exterior in Taiwan are the thermal performance of the roof and window glazing. This study used the eQUEST software to investigate how different types of roof construction, window glasses and sunshield types affect
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The key factors in the energy-saving design of a building’s exterior in Taiwan are the thermal performance of the roof and window glazing. This study used the eQUEST software to investigate how different types of roof construction, window glasses and sunshield types affect the energy consumption in residential buildings under common scenarios. The simulation results showed that the use of an appropriate window glass significantly reduced the annual energy consumption, followed by the shading device, whereas the roof construction produced less of an energy-efficiency benefit. By using a low-E glass and a 1.5 × 1.5 m box shading (e.g., balcony), this could save approximately 15.1 and 13.6% of the annual electricity consumption of air conditioners, respectively. Therefore, having control over the dominant factors in the building envelope is indeed an important step in the path to achieving energy savings and carbon reduction in residential houses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient Building Design)
Open AccessArticle Wind Turbine Gearbox Condition Monitoring with AAKR and Moving Window Statistic Methods
Energies 2011, 4(11), 2077-2093; doi:10.3390/en4112077
Received: 30 August 2011 / Revised: 24 October 2011 / Accepted: 21 November 2011 / Published: 23 November 2011
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (396 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Condition Monitoring (CM) of wind turbines can greatly reduce the maintenance costs for wind farms, especially for offshore wind farms. A new condition monitoring method for a wind turbine gearbox using temperature trend analysis is proposed. Autoassociative Kernel Regression (AAKR) is used to
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Condition Monitoring (CM) of wind turbines can greatly reduce the maintenance costs for wind farms, especially for offshore wind farms. A new condition monitoring method for a wind turbine gearbox using temperature trend analysis is proposed. Autoassociative Kernel Regression (AAKR) is used to construct the normal behavior model of the gearbox temperature. With a proper construction of the memory matrix, the AAKR model can cover the normal working space for the gearbox. When the gearbox has an incipient failure, the residuals between AAKR model estimates and the measurement temperature will become significant. A moving window statistical method is used to detect the changes of the residual mean value and standard deviation in a timely manner. When one of these parameters exceeds predefined thresholds, an incipient failure is flagged. In order to simulate the gearbox fault, manual temperature drift is added to the initial Supervisory Control and Data Acquisitions (SCADA) data. Analysis of simulated gearbox failures shows that the new condition monitoring method is effective. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Impact of Carsharing on Public Transit and Non-Motorized Travel: An Exploration of North American Carsharing Survey Data
Energies 2011, 4(11), 2094-2114; doi:10.3390/en4112094
Received: 20 August 2011 / Revised: 11 September 2011 / Accepted: 19 September 2011 / Published: 24 November 2011
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (1168 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
By July 2011, North American carsharing had grown to an industry of nearly 640,000 members since its inception on the continent more than 15 years ago. Carsharing engenders changes in member travel patterns both towards and away from public transit and non-motorized modes.
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By July 2011, North American carsharing had grown to an industry of nearly 640,000 members since its inception on the continent more than 15 years ago. Carsharing engenders changes in member travel patterns both towards and away from public transit and non-motorized modes. This study, which builds on the work of two previous studies, evaluates this shift in travel based on a 6281 respondent survey completed in late-2008 by members of major North American carsharing organizations. Across the entire sample, the results showed an overall decline in public transit use that was statistically significant, as 589 carsharing members reduced rail use and 828 reduced bus use, while 494 increased rail use and 732 increased bus use. Thus for every five members that use rail less, four members use rail more, and for every 10 members that ride a bus less, almost nine members ride the bus more. The people increasing and decreasing their transit use are fundamentally different in terms of how carsharing impacts their travel environment. This reduction, however, is also not uniform across all organizations; it is primarily driven by a minority (three of eleven) of participating organizations. At the same time, members exhibited a statistically significant increase in travel by walking, bicycling, and carpooling. Across the sample, 756 members increased walking versus a 568 decrease, 628 increased bicycling versus a 235 decrease, and 289 increased carpooling versus a decrease of 99  study participants. The authors found that 970 members reduced their auto commuting to work, while 234 increased it. Interestingly, when these shifts are combined across modes, more people increased their overall public transit and non-motorized modal use after joining carsharing than decreased it. Data collected on the commute distance of respondents found that carsharing members tend to have shorter commutes than most people living in the same zip code. The analysis also evaluates the distribution of residential population density of members and its association with average changes in driving. The analysis finds that average driving reductions are consistent across population densities up to 10,000 persons/square kilometer but become more varied at higher densities. Full article
Open AccessArticle Efficiency Analysis of Independent and Centralized Heating Systems for Residential Buildings in Northern Italy
Energies 2011, 4(11), 2115-2131; doi:10.3390/en4112115
Received: 8 September 2011 / Revised: 29 September 2011 / Accepted: 21 November 2011 / Published: 24 November 2011
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (816 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The primary energy consumption in residential buildings is determined by the envelope thermal characteristics, air change, outside climatic data, users’ behaviour and the adopted heating system and its control. The new Italian regulations strongly suggest the installation of centralized boilers in renovated buildings
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The primary energy consumption in residential buildings is determined by the envelope thermal characteristics, air change, outside climatic data, users’ behaviour and the adopted heating system and its control. The new Italian regulations strongly suggest the installation of centralized boilers in renovated buildings with more than four apartments. This work aims to investigate the differences in primary energy consumption and efficiency among several independent and centralized heating systems installed in Northern Italy. The analysis is carried out through the following approach: firstly building heating loads are evaluated using the software TRNSYS® and, then, heating system performances are estimated through a simplified model based on the European Standard EN 15316. Several heating systems have been analyzed, evaluating: independent and centralized configurations, condensing and traditional boilers, radiator and radiant floor emitters and solar plant integration. The heating systems are applied to four buildings dating back to 2010, 2006, 1960s and 1930s. All the combinations of heating systems and buildings are analyzed in detail, evaluating efficiency and primary energy consumption. In most of the cases the choice between centralized and independent heating systems has minor effects on primary energy consumption, less than 3%: the introduction of condensing technology and the integration with solar heating plant can reduce energy consumption by 11% and 29%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient Building Design)

Review

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Open AccessReview Battery Management Systems in Electric and Hybrid Vehicles
Energies 2011, 4(11), 1840-1857; doi:10.3390/en4111840
Received: 31 August 2011 / Revised: 25 October 2011 / Accepted: 25 October 2011 / Published: 31 October 2011
Cited by 89 | PDF Full-text (314 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The battery management system (BMS) is a critical component of electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the BMS is to guarantee safe and reliable battery operation. To maintain the safety and reliability of the battery, state monitoring and evaluation, charge control,
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The battery management system (BMS) is a critical component of electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the BMS is to guarantee safe and reliable battery operation. To maintain the safety and reliability of the battery, state monitoring and evaluation, charge control, and cell balancing are functionalities that have been implemented in BMS. As an electrochemical product, a battery acts differently under different operational and environmental conditions. The uncertainty of a battery’s performance poses a challenge to the implementation of these functions. This paper addresses concerns for current BMSs. State evaluation of a battery, including state of charge, state of health, and state of life, is a critical task for a BMS. Through reviewing the latest methodologies for the state evaluation of batteries, the future challenges for BMSs are presented and possible solutions are proposed as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric and Hybrid Vehicles)

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