- freely available
Energies 2012, 5(9), 3347-3362; doi:10.3390/en5093347
2. Related Work
3. Microgrid Operation
3.2. Operational Rules
- From the upstream power grid, the MGOCC receives a price for selling power to the power grid (PS) and a price for buying power from the power grid (PB) at the beginning of an interval. PB is higher than PS like general market places.
- The MGOCC announces the prices to participants in the microgrid.
- DGs bid their supply amounts and prices to the MGOCC.
- Loads inform their load amounts to the MGOCC.
- DSs can select one among three actions: no action, charge, and discharge. In the case of charge, DSs inform load amounts to the MGOCC. In the case of discharge, DSs bid supply amounts and prices to the MGOCC.
- All bidding prices should be less than or equal to PB.
- The MGOCC selects final suppliers considering total power demand. The final suppliers are selected by the descending order of bidding prices.
- Final suppliers should supply agreed amounts during the next interval.
- In the case of supply shortage, the microgrid should buy power from the upstream power grid at PB.
- In the case of supply surplus, suppliers not selected as final suppliers or final suppliers having additional supply power can sell their power to the power grid directly at PS.
4. Design and Implementation of the Multiagent System
4.1. Configuration of the Multiagent System
4.2. Design of Interaction among Agents
- D1: deadline for submitting proposal of AgLs and AgDGs in interval i (T1 & T2).
- D2: deadline for submitting proposal of AgDSs in interval i (T3).
- D3: deadline for awarding contracts to final suppliers and consumers in interval i (T1 − T3).
- D4: deadline for submitting the report in interval i + 2 (T1 − T3).
4.3. Design of Agents
- Announcing a new task with trade prices with the power grid to AgDGs and AgLs.
- Gathering information of supply and demand from AgDGs and AgLs.
- Checking the power balance.
- Announcing a new task to AgDSs with information of the power balance and the trade prices.
- Selecting final suppliers by the descending order of bidding prices.
- Announcing information of supply and demand to AgDGs as the final suppliers and AgLs.
- Distributing operation results.
- Receiving reports from the final suppliers.
- Proposing the amount of power supply and a bidding price to AgMGOCC.
- Selling power to the upstream power grid directly in the case of a supplier who is not selected as a final supplier or who has additional power.
- Sending a report to AgMGOCC after finishing the agreed contract.
- Waiting for a new task from AgMGOCC at the beginning of an interval.
- Informing AgMGOCC of the load amount.
- The ADIPS/DASH is a repository-based agent framework which consists of the distributed agent workplace (abbreviated as the workplace) and the agent repository (abbreviated as the repository).
- An agent is designed and implemented to describe the agent’s behavior knowledge for solving a cooperative problem with the agent’s meta-knowledge for managing the agent in the repository.
- The behavior knowledge is represented as a set of rules using the rule-type knowledge representation format (in contrast to the meta-knowledge, which is described using the frame-type knowledge representation format).
- The ADIPS/DASH framework provides a wrapping mechanism to utilize external software modules such as Java programs as the procedural knowledge of the agent.
- Agents can communicate with different types of agents such as FIPA-compliant JADE agents by using ACL messages of the DASH agent.
5. Test Results
5.1. Test Environment
- DG1 = production cost: 20 ¢/kWh, capacity: 5 kWh
- DG2 = production cost: 40 ¢/kWh, capacity: 15 kWh
- DG3 = production cost: 70 ¢/kWh, capacity: 20 kWh
- DS = initial state of charge (SOC): 0 kWh, initial cost: 0 ¢/kWh, capacity: 5 kWh.
|Interval||PS (Cents/kWh)||PB (Cents/kWh)||L1 (kWh)||L2 (kWh)|
|Interval||L1+L2 (kWh)||Charge/Discharge of DS (kWh)||D1+D2+D3 (kWh)||Buying power (kWh)|
|Interval||PS (Cents/kWh)||L1+L2/DS charge (kWh)||Selected power of DG3 (kWh)||Power traded by DG3 (kWh)|
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