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Energies 2013, 6(4), 2305-2318; doi:10.3390/en6042305

Comparative Study of Dynamic Programming and Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle on Energy Management for a Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

1
National Engineering Lab for Electric Vehicles, Department of Vehicular Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 January 2013 / Revised: 1 April 2013 / Accepted: 11 April 2013 / Published: 22 April 2013
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Abstract

This paper compares two optimal energy management methods for parallel hybrid electric vehicles using an Automatic Manual Transmission (AMT). A control-oriented model of the powertrain and vehicle dynamics is built first. The energy management is formulated as a typical optimal control problem to trade off the fuel consumption and gear shifting frequency under admissible constraints. The Dynamic Programming (DP) and Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle (PMP) are applied to obtain the optimal solutions. Tuning with the appropriate co-states, the PMP solution is found to be very close to that from DP. The solution for the gear shifting in PMP has an algebraic expression associated with the vehicular velocity and can be implemented more efficiently in the control algorithm. The computation time of PMP is significantly less than DP. View Full-Text
Keywords: dynamic programming; Pontryagin’s minimum principle; hybrid electric vehicles; gear shifting strategy dynamic programming; Pontryagin’s minimum principle; hybrid electric vehicles; gear shifting strategy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yuan, Z.; Teng, L.; Fengchun, S.; Peng, H. Comparative Study of Dynamic Programming and Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle on Energy Management for a Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle. Energies 2013, 6, 2305-2318.

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