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Energies 2013, 6(9), 4531-4550; doi:10.3390/en6094531
Article

Catalytic Conversion of Bio-Oil to Oxygen-Containing Fuels by Acid-Catalyzed Reaction with Olefins and Alcohols over Silica Sulfuric Acid

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1,*  and Jr. 1,*
1 MOE Key Laboratory of Bio-based Material Science and Technology, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China 2 Department of Chemistry, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 May 2013 / Revised: 5 August 2013 / Accepted: 14 August 2013 / Published: 2 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass and Biofuels 2013)
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Abstract

Crude bio-oil from pine chip fast pyrolysis was upgraded with olefins (1-octene, cyclohexene, 1,7-octadiene, and 2,4,4-trimethylpentene) plus 1-butanol (iso-butanol, t-butanol and ethanol) at 120 °C using a silica sulfuric acid (SSA) catalyst that possesses a good catalytic activity and stability. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) analysis showed that upgrading sharply increased ester content and decreased the amounts of levoglucosan, phenols, polyhydric alcohols and carboxylic acids. Upgrading lowered acidity (pH value rose from 2.5 to >3.5), removed the unpleasant odor and increased hydrocarbon solubility. Water content dramatically decreased from 37.2% to about 7.0% and the heating value increased from 12.6 MJ·kg−1 to about 31.9 MJ·kg−1. This work has proved that bio-oil upgrading with a primary olefin plus 1-butanol is a feasible route where all the original heating value of the bio-oil plus the added olefin and alcohol are present in the resulting fuel.
Keywords: real bio-oil upgrading; silica sulfuric acid; oxygen-containing fuels; olefin; alcohol real bio-oil upgrading; silica sulfuric acid; oxygen-containing fuels; olefin; alcohol
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Zhang, Z.; Sui, S.; Wang, F.; Wang, Q.; Pittman, C.U., Jr. Catalytic Conversion of Bio-Oil to Oxygen-Containing Fuels by Acid-Catalyzed Reaction with Olefins and Alcohols over Silica Sulfuric Acid. Energies 2013, 6, 4531-4550.

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