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Materials 2017, 10(5), 556; doi:10.3390/ma10050556

Hardening Effect Analysis by Modular Upper Bound and Finite Element Methods in Indentation of Aluminum, Steel, Titanium and Superalloys

Civil, Material and Manufacturing Engineering Department, ETSII-EPS, University of Malaga, Málaga 29071, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ting Tsui
Received: 29 March 2017 / Revised: 9 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Nanoindentation in Materials)


The application of incremental processes in the manufacturing industry is having a great development in recent years. The first stage of an Incremental Forming Process can be defined as an indentation. Because of this, the indentation process is starting to be widely studied, not only as a hardening test but also as a forming process. Thus, in this work, an analysis of the indentation process under the new Modular Upper Bound perspective has been performed. The modular implementation has several advantages, including the possibility of the introduction of different parameters to extend the study, such as the friction effect, the temperature or the hardening effect studied in this paper. The main objective of the present work is to analyze the three hardening models developed depending on the material characteristics. In order to support the validation of the hardening models, finite element analyses of diverse materials under an indentation are carried out. Results obtained from the Modular Upper Bound are in concordance with the results obtained from the numerical analyses. In addition, the numerical and analytical methods are in concordance with the results previously obtained in the experimental indentation of annealed aluminum A92030. Due to the introduction of the hardening factor, the new modular distribution is a suitable option for the analysis of indentation process. View Full-Text
Keywords: incremental forming; indentation; FEM; MUBT; plastic deformation; hardening effect incremental forming; indentation; FEM; MUBT; plastic deformation; hardening effect

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Bermudo, C.; Sevilla, L.; Martín, F.; Trujillo, F.J. Hardening Effect Analysis by Modular Upper Bound and Finite Element Methods in Indentation of Aluminum, Steel, Titanium and Superalloys. Materials 2017, 10, 556.

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