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Materials, Volume 11, Issue 7 (July 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) In this work, we have successfully re-engineered the conventional PEDOT:PSS based hole selective [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Beam Diameter Dependence of Performance in Thick-Layer and High-Power Selective Laser Melting of Ti-6Al-4V
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1237; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071237 (registering DOI)
Received: 22 June 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 18 July 2018
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Abstract
A 400 W high-power laser was used to fabricate 200-µm-thick Ti-6Al-4V samples to evaluate the effects of small (50 μm) and large (200 μm) beam diameter on density, microstructure and mechanical properties. A series of single-track experiments demonstrated that it was challenging for
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A 400 W high-power laser was used to fabricate 200-µm-thick Ti-6Al-4V samples to evaluate the effects of small (50 μm) and large (200 μm) beam diameter on density, microstructure and mechanical properties. A series of single-track experiments demonstrated that it was challenging for the small-beam laser to fabricate smooth and defect-free scan tracks. A larger beam diameter efficiently avoided process instability and provided a more stable and uniform melt pool. By increasing the beam diameter, the density of multilayer samples reached 99.95% of the theoretical value, which is much higher than that achieved with the small beam diameter. However, it was difficult to completely eliminate defects due to serious spatter and evaporation. Moreover, all of the generated samples had relatively coarse surfaces. For the large beam diameter of 200 µm, the optimal yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and elongation were 1150 MPa, 1200 MPa and 8.02%, respectively. In comparison, the small beam diameter of 50 µm resulted in values of 1035 MPa, 1100 MPa and 5.91%, respectively. Overall, the large-diameter laser is more suitable for high-power selective laser melting (SLM) technology, especially for thick layers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Application of Pin-On-Disc Techniques for the Study of Tribological Interferences in the Dry Machining of A92024-T3 (Al–Cu) Alloys
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1236; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071236 (registering DOI)
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 15 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 18 July 2018
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Abstract
One of the main criteria for the establishment of the performance of a forming process by material removal is based on cutting tool wear. Wear is usually caused by different mechanisms, however, only one is usually considered as predominant or the controller of
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One of the main criteria for the establishment of the performance of a forming process by material removal is based on cutting tool wear. Wear is usually caused by different mechanisms, however, only one is usually considered as predominant or the controller of the process. This experimental research is focused on the application of Pin-on-Disc wear tests, in which the tribological interference between UNS A92024-T3 Aluminum–Copper alloy and tungsten carbide (WC–Co) has been studied. The main objective of this study is focused on the determination of the predominant wear mechanisms involved in the process, as well as the characterization of the sliding and friction effects by using SEM and Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy (EDS) techniques, as applied to WC–Co (cutting tool material)/Al (workpiece material) which are widely used in the aerospace industry. Performed analysis prove the appearance of abrasive wear mechanisms prior to adhesion. This fact promotes adhesion mechanisms in several stages because of the surface quality deterioration, presenting different alloy composition in the form of a Built-Up Layer (BUL)/Built-Up Edge (BUE). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of the Manufacturing Engineering Society (MES))
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Physical Property Characterisation of Spheroidal and Cuboidal Nuclear Waste Simulant Dispersions
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1235; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071235 (registering DOI)
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 15 July 2018 / Published: 18 July 2018
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Abstract
This study investigated dispersions analogous to highly active nuclear waste, formed from the reprocessing of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF). Non-radioactive simulants of spheroidal caesium phosphomolybdate (CPM) and cuboidal zirconium molybdate (ZM-a) were successfully synthesised; confirmed via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction
[...] Read more.
This study investigated dispersions analogous to highly active nuclear waste, formed from the reprocessing of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF). Non-radioactive simulants of spheroidal caesium phosphomolybdate (CPM) and cuboidal zirconium molybdate (ZM-a) were successfully synthesised; confirmed via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. In addition, a supplied ZM (ZM-b) with a rod-like/wheatsheaf morphology was also analysed along with titanium dioxide (TiO2). The simulants underwent thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and size analysis, where CPM was found to have a D50 value of 300 nm and a chemical formula of Cs3PMo12O40·13H2O, ZM-a a D50 value of 10 μm and a chemical formula of ZrMo2O7(OH)2·3H2O and ZM-b to have a D50 value of 14 μm and a chemical formula of ZrMo2O7(OH)2·4H2O. The synthesis of CPM was tracked via Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy at both 25 °C and 50 °C, where the reaction was found to be first order with the rate constant highly temperature dependent. The morphology change from spheroidal CPM to cuboidal ZM-a was tracked via SEM, reporting to take 10 days. For the onward processing and immobilisation of these waste dispersions, centrifugal analysis was utilised to understand their settling behaviours, in both aqueous and 2 M nitric acid environments (mimicking current storage conditions). Spheroidal CPM was present in both conditions as agglomerated clusters, with relatively high settling rates. Conversely, the ZM were found to be stable in water, where their settling rate exponents were related to the morphology. In acid, the high effective electrolyte resulted in agglomeration and faster sedimentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Nuclear Waste Immobilization)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Acid, Ethanol, and Anthocyanin Pigment on the Optical and Mechanical Properties of a Nanohybrid Dental Composite Resin
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1234; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071234 (registering DOI)
Received: 22 June 2018 / Revised: 14 July 2018 / Accepted: 16 July 2018 / Published: 18 July 2018
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Abstract
This study investigated the influences of acidity, ethanol, and pigment on the optical properties, microhardness, and surface roughness (Ra) of a nanohybrid dental composite resin. A total of 108 disc-shaped specimens were fabricated using a nanohybrid dental composite and allocated into
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This study investigated the influences of acidity, ethanol, and pigment on the optical properties, microhardness, and surface roughness (Ra) of a nanohybrid dental composite resin. A total of 108 disc-shaped specimens were fabricated using a nanohybrid dental composite and allocated into 36 different storage solutions according to the levels of pH (2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.5), ethanol (0%, 20%, and 40%), and anthocyanin pigment (0%, 2.5%, and 12.5%). Measurements of the colorimetric parameter and the amount of color change (ΔE), translucency parameter (TP), microhardness, and surface roughness (Ra) were performed at 24 h (baseline), 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-weeks. Repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a Tukey honestly significant difference test and Pearson correlation analysis were carried out (α = 0.05). Pigment of 12.5% or 40% ethanol significantly increased the ΔE (P < 0.001, P = 0.048, respectively). Pigment of 2.5% or 12.5% significantly decreased the TP (P = 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively). Microhardness of composite resin stored in pH 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 solution was lower than that for pH 5.5 (P < 0.001). Pigment, ethanol, and pH did not influence the Ra. TP change and ΔE, and Ra and ΔE had a significant positive correlation (P < 0.05). In conclusion, pigment and ethanol levels influenced the optical properties and acidity affected the microhardness of composite resin. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Temperature and Strain Rate on the Fracture Behaviors of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1233; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071233 (registering DOI)
Received: 11 June 2018 / Revised: 30 June 2018 / Accepted: 3 July 2018 / Published: 18 July 2018
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Abstract
Effects of temperature and strain rate on the fracture behaviors of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy are investigated by isothermal uniaxial tensile experiments at a wide range of temperatures and strain rates, from room temperature (RT) to 400 °C and from 10−4 s−1
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Effects of temperature and strain rate on the fracture behaviors of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy are investigated by isothermal uniaxial tensile experiments at a wide range of temperatures and strain rates, from room temperature (RT) to 400 °C and from 10−4 s−1 to 10−1 s–1, respectively. Generally, the elevation of temperature leads to the increasing of elongation to fracture and the reduction of peak stress, while higher strain rate results in the decreasing of elongation to fracture and the increasing of peak stress. Interestingly, we found that the coefficient of strain rate sensitivity (m-value) considerably rises at 200 °C and work of fracture (Wf) fluctuates drastically with the increase of strain rate at RT and 100 °C, both of which signify a non-uniform and unstable deformation state below 200 °C. A competition of work hardening (WH) and dynamic recrystallization (DRX) exists at 200 °C, making it serve as a transitional temperature. Below 200 °C, WH is the main deformation mechanism of flow stress, and DRX dominates the flow stress above 200 °C. It has been found that from RT to 200 °C, the main feature of microstructure is the generation of dimples and microvoids. Above 200 °C, the coalescence of dimples and microvoids mainly leads to the failure of specimen, while the phenomenon of typically equiaxed dimples and nucleation appear at 400 °C. The observations of microstructure are perfectly consistent with the related macroscopic results. The present work is able to provide a comprehensive understanding of flow stress of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy at a wide range of temperatures and strain rates, which will offer valuable information to the optimization of the hot forming process and structural design of the studied alloy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Composite Coating on Pure Mg Acquired by Sliding Friction Treatment and Micro-Arc Oxidation
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1232; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071232 (registering DOI)
Received: 6 June 2018 / Revised: 15 July 2018 / Accepted: 15 July 2018 / Published: 18 July 2018
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Abstract
For the purpose of detecting the influence of grain structure of a Mg matrix on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of micro-arc oxidation (MAO) coating, prior to MAO processing, sliding friction treatment (SFT) was adopted to generate a fine-grained (FG) layer on coarse-grained
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For the purpose of detecting the influence of grain structure of a Mg matrix on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of micro-arc oxidation (MAO) coating, prior to MAO processing, sliding friction treatment (SFT) was adopted to generate a fine-grained (FG) layer on coarse-grained (CG) pure Mg surface. It showed that the FG layer had superior corrosion resistance, as compared to the CG matrix, owing to the grain refinement; furthermore, it successfully survived after MAO treatment. Thus, an excellent FG-MAO coating was gained by combining SFT and MAO. The surface morphology and element composition of FG-MAO and CG-MAO samples did not show significant changes. However, the FG layer favorably facilitated the formation of an excellent MAO coating, which possessed a superior bonding property and greater thickness. Consequently, the modified FG-MAO sample possessed enhanced corrosion resistance, since a lower hydrogen evolution rate, a larger impedance modulus and a lower corrosion current were observed on the FG-MAO sample. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analytical Solutions for Stochastic Vibration of Orthotropic Membrane under Random Impact Load
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1231; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071231 (registering DOI)
Received: 11 June 2018 / Revised: 12 July 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 18 July 2018
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Abstract
Orthotropic membrane materials have been applied in the numerous fields, such as civil engineering, space and aeronautics, and mechanical engineering, among others. During their serving lifespan, these membranes are always facing strong stochastic vibrations induced by the random impact load such as hail,
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Orthotropic membrane materials have been applied in the numerous fields, such as civil engineering, space and aeronautics, and mechanical engineering, among others. During their serving lifespan, these membranes are always facing strong stochastic vibrations induced by the random impact load such as hail, heavy rain, and noise, among others. In this paper, the stochastic vibration problem of orthotropic membrane subjected to random impact load is investigated. The statistical characteristics of random impact load are initially obtained based on the stochastic pulse theory. Then, the Von Karman theory is applied to model the nonlinear vibration of membrane with geometric nonlinearity, which is then used to derive and solve the corresponding fokker–plank–kolmogorov (FPK). The theoretical model developed is validated by means of experiment study and monte carlo simulation (MCS) analysis. The effects of variables like pretension force, velocity of impact load, and material features on stochastic dynamic behavior of membranes are discussed in detail. This exposition provides theoretical framework for stochastic vibration control and design of membranes subjected to random dynamic load. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Solidification Cooling Rate on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a Cast Al-Si-Cu-Mg-Ni Piston Alloy
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1230; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071230 (registering DOI)
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 5 July 2018 / Accepted: 6 July 2018 / Published: 18 July 2018
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Abstract
The effects of cooling rate 0.15, 1.5, 15, 150, and 1.5 × 105 °C/s on the microstructures and mechanical properties of Al-13Si-4Cu-1Mg-2Ni cast piston alloy were investigated. The results show that with an increase of solidification cooling rate, the secondary dendrite arm spacing
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The effects of cooling rate 0.15, 1.5, 15, 150, and 1.5 × 105 °C/s on the microstructures and mechanical properties of Al-13Si-4Cu-1Mg-2Ni cast piston alloy were investigated. The results show that with an increase of solidification cooling rate, the secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) of this model alloy can be calculated using the formula D = 47.126v − 1/3. The phases formed during the solidification with lower cooling rates primarily consist of eutectic silicon, M-Mg2Si phase, γ-Al7Cu4Ni phase, δ-Al3CuNi phase, ε-Al3Ni phase, and Q-Al5Cu2Mg8Si6 phase. With the increase in the solidification cooling rate from 0.15 to 15 °C/s, the hardness increased from 80.9 to 125.7 HB, the room temperature tensile strength enhanced from 189.3 to 282.5 MPa, and the elongation at break increased from 1.6% to 2.8%. The ε -Al3Ni phase disappears in the alloy and the Q phase emerges. The δ phase and the γ phase change from large-sized meshes and clusters to smaller meshes and Chinese script patterns. Further increase in the cooling rate leads to the micro hardness increasing gradually from 131.2 to 195.6 HV and the alloy solidifying into a uniform structure and forming nanocrystals. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Impact-Sliding Tribology Behavior of TC17 Alloy Treated by Laser Shock Peening
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1229; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071229
Received: 7 June 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 9 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
Outer particle collision with certain dynamic objects is not a pure impact wear behavior; it is typically accompanied by sliding wear phenomena. This study is aimed at investigating the impact-sliding wear performance of three different TC17 titanium alloys. One was untreated, and the
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Outer particle collision with certain dynamic objects is not a pure impact wear behavior; it is typically accompanied by sliding wear phenomena. This study is aimed at investigating the impact-sliding wear performance of three different TC17 titanium alloys. One was untreated, and the other two were subjected to laser shock peening (LSP) by 5 and 7 J pulse energy, respectively. The wear test was performed on a novel impact-sliding wear testing rig, which can realize multiple impact-sliding motions by changing motion parameters in the x and z directions. Present results showed that wear resistance of both treated samples improved compared with the untreated alloy. Given the increase in wear cycles, increment in wear rate of the untreated sample was constantly higher than those of the treated samples. All results can be attributed to the increase in surface hardness of the material and residual compressive stress, which was also introduced after LSP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Materials Processing)
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Open AccessReview Environmentally Sustainable and Ecosafe Polysaccharide-Based Materials for Water Nano-Treatment: An Eco-Design Study
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1228; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071228
Received: 28 May 2018 / Revised: 29 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
Nanoremediation, which is the use of nanoparticles and nanomaterials for environmental remediation, is widely explored and proposed for preservation of ecosystems that suffer from the increase in human population, pollution, and urbanization. We herein report a critical analysis of nanotechnologies for water remediation
[...] Read more.
Nanoremediation, which is the use of nanoparticles and nanomaterials for environmental remediation, is widely explored and proposed for preservation of ecosystems that suffer from the increase in human population, pollution, and urbanization. We herein report a critical analysis of nanotechnologies for water remediation by assessing their sustainability in terms of efficient removal of pollutants, appropriate methods for monitoring their effectiveness, and protocols for the evaluation of any potential environmental risks. Our purpose is to furnish fruitful guidelines for sustainable water management, able to promote nanoremediation also at European level. In this context, we describe new nanostructured polysaccharide-based materials obtained from renewable resources as alternative efficient and ecosafe solutions for water nano-treatment. We also provide eco-design indications to improve the sustainability of the production of these materials, based on life-cycle assessment methodology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Materials Science in Italy 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Micromechanical Modeling of the Elasto-Viscoplastic Behavior and Incompatibility Stresses of β-Ti Alloys
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1227; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071227
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 11 July 2018 / Accepted: 15 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
Near β titanium alloys can now compete with quasi-α or α/β titanium alloys for airframe forging applications. The body-centered cubic β-phase can represent up to 40% of the volume. However, the way that its elastic anisotropy impacts the mechanical behavior remains an open
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Near β titanium alloys can now compete with quasi-α or α/β titanium alloys for airframe forging applications. The body-centered cubic β-phase can represent up to 40% of the volume. However, the way that its elastic anisotropy impacts the mechanical behavior remains an open question. In the present work, an advanced elasto-viscoplastic self-consistent model is used to investigate the tensile behavior at different applied strain rates of a fully β-phase Ti alloy taken as a model material. The model considers crystalline anisotropic elasticity and plasticity. It is first shown that two sets of elastic constants taken from the literature can be used to well reproduce the experimental elasto-viscoplastic transition, but lead to scattered mechanical behaviors at the grain scale. Incompatibility stresses and strains are found to increase in magnitude with the elastic anisotropy factor. The highest local stresses are obtained toward the end of the elastic regime for grains oriented with their <111> direction parallel to the tensile axis. Finally, as a major result, it is shown that the elastic anisotropy of the β-phase can affect the distribution of slip activities. In contrast with the isotropic elastic case, it is predicted that {112} <111> slip systems become predominant at the onset of plastic deformation when elastic anisotropy is considered in the micromechanical model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Alloy Metals for Low-Mass Structures)
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Open AccessArticle Single Pass Laser Process for Super-Hydrophobic Flexible Surfaces with Micro/Nano Hierarchical Structures
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1226; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071226
Received: 25 June 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
Wetting has been studied in various fields: chemical industry, automobile manufacturing, food companies, and even life sciences. In these studies, super-hydrophobic surfaces have been achieved through complex steps and processes. To realize super-hydrophobicity, however, we demonstrated a simple and single pass laser process
[...] Read more.
Wetting has been studied in various fields: chemical industry, automobile manufacturing, food companies, and even life sciences. In these studies, super-hydrophobic surfaces have been achieved through complex steps and processes. To realize super-hydrophobicity, however, we demonstrated a simple and single pass laser process for the fabrication of micro/nano hierarchical structures on the flexible polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, Teflon) surface. The fabricated hierarchical structures helped increase the hydrophobicity by augmenting the surface roughness and promoting air-trapping. In addition, we employed a low-cost and high-throughput replication process producing numerous polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) replicas from the laser-processed PTFE film. Thanks to the anti-adhesive characteristics of PTFE and the elasticity of PDMS, the structure perfectly transferred to the replica without any mechanical failure. Moreover, our designed mesh patterns offered the possibility of large area applications through varying the process parameters (pitch, beam spot size, laser fluence, and scan speed). Even though mesh patterns had relatively large pitch (190 μm), we were able to achieve high contact angle (>150°). Through pneumatically deformed structure, we clearly showed that the shape of the droplets on our laser-processed super-hydrophobic surface was spherical. Based on these outcomes, we can expect our single laser pulse exposure process can overcome many drawbacks and offer opportunities for advancing applications of the wetting phenomena. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Inhibition Effect of Three-Dimensional (3D) Nanostructures on the Corrosion Resistance of 1-Dodecanethiol Self-Assembled Monolayer on Copper in NaCl Solution
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1225; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071225
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 4 July 2018 / Accepted: 4 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
A novel and simple method to improve the corrosion resistance of copper by constructing a three-dimensional (3D) 1-dodecanethiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM) in 3.5% NaCl solution is reported in this study. Several drops of 1% H3PO4 solution are thinly and uniformly
[...] Read more.
A novel and simple method to improve the corrosion resistance of copper by constructing a three-dimensional (3D) 1-dodecanethiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM) in 3.5% NaCl solution is reported in this study. Several drops of 1% H3PO4 solution are thinly and uniformly distributed on copper surface to form a 3D nanostructure constituted by Cu3(PO4)2 nanoflowers. The anticorrosion properties of 1-dodecanethiol SAM on copper surface and on copper surface that is treated with H3PO4 solution were evaluated. Results demonstrated that 1-dodecanethiol SAM on bare copper surface exhibits good protection capacity, whereas a copper surface that is pretreated with H3PO4 solution can substantially enhance the corrosion resistance of 1-dodecanethiol SAM. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anisotropy of Transport Properties Correlated to Grain Boundary Density and Quantified Texture in Thick Oriented Ca3Co4O9 Ceramics
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1224; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071224
Received: 19 May 2018 / Revised: 9 July 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
The misfit-layered Ca3Co4O9 oxide is being seen as a potential thermoelectric (TE) candidate for high-temperature power generation in air. Given the very small size and low strength exhibited by single crystals, grain-oriented Ca3Co4O9
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The misfit-layered Ca3Co4O9 oxide is being seen as a potential thermoelectric (TE) candidate for high-temperature power generation in air. Given the very small size and low strength exhibited by single crystals, grain-oriented Ca3Co4O9 ceramics are worth elaborating to capitalize on their anisotropy. However, the usual textured pellets are too thin to probe the TE properties along their principal crystallographic directions. In this paper, we report on the anisotropy of TE properties in the 350–860 K range within thick textured Ca3Co4O9 ceramics fabricated by moderately pressing at 1173 K stacks of pellets primarily textured using spark plasma sintering (SPS), spark plasma texturing (SPT), and hot pressing (HP). The texture was quantitatively assessed, and the influent microstructural parameters were identified, particularly the grain boundary density parallel (GBDc) and perpendicular (GBDab) to the mean c*-axis. We found that the edge-free processing fostered material texturing and (a,b) plane grain growth, thereby dropping GBDab and increasing GBDc. This resulted in a resistivity ρab reduction, leading to a marked enhancement in power factor PFab, which reached 520 μW·m−1·K−2 at 800 K for the HP sample. The anisotropy ρc/ρab was substantially promoted as the texture was reinforced and the GBDc/GBDab ratio increased, with ρc/ρab (HP) > ρc/ρab (SPT) > ρc/ρab (SPS). The Seebeck coefficient S also revealed an anisotropic behavior, with a ratio Sc/Sab >1 for the SPS-processed materials. This behavior was reversed (Sc/Sab <1) for the more textured SPT and HP specimens. It therefore resulted in a PF anisotropy PFc/PFab (HP) < PFc/PFab (SPT) < PFc/PFab (SPS). The PFab/PFc ratio attained 13.6 at 800 K for the thick HP sample, which is the largest ratio recorded thus far on undoped Ca3Co4O9 ceramics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Multi-Scale Stress Wave Simulation for Aggregates Segregation Detection of Concrete Core in Circular CFST Coupled with PZT Patches
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1223; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071223
Received: 19 June 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 15 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
In this study, the numerical investigation of the detectability of concrete aggregate segregation in circular concrete-filled steel tubulars (CCFST) based on piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) measurement is performed. The stress wave propagation in the concrete core of circular CCFST excited with a
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In this study, the numerical investigation of the detectability of concrete aggregate segregation in circular concrete-filled steel tubulars (CCFST) based on piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) measurement is performed. The stress wave propagation in the concrete core of circular CCFST excited with a surface-mounted PZT actuator is studied with multi-scale and multi-physical field coupling analysis. The piezoelectric effect of PZT patches and its coupling effect with CFSTs are considered. Numerical concrete modeling technology is employed to construct the concrete core composed of randomly distributed aggregates with and without aggregate segregation at different levels, mortar, and an interfacial transition zone (ITZ). The effects of the random distribution of elliptical aggregates, aggregate segregation, and the existence of ITZ in the concrete core on the wave fields in the cross-section and the corresponding voltage response of the embedded PZT sensor are discussed. An evaluation index based on wavelet packet analysis on the output voltage response is defined, and its sensitivity to concrete aggregate segregation is systematically investigated. The multi-scale and multi-physics coupling simulation results indicate that concrete aggregate segregation in the concrete core of CFST members can be efficiently detected based on the stress wave measurement with a PZT sensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Health Monitoring for Civil Engineering Materials)
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