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Materials, Volume 3, Issue 8 (August 2010), Pages 4080-4509

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle STM, SECPM, AFM and Electrochemistry on Single Crystalline Surfaces
Materials 2010, 3(8), 4196-4213; doi:10.3390/ma3084196
Received: 3 July 2010 / Revised: 20 July 2010 / Accepted: 3 August 2010 / Published: 5 August 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1336 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques have had a great impact on research fields of surface science and nanotechnology during the last decades. They are used to investigate surfaces with scanning ranges between several 100 mm down to atomic resolution. Depending on experimental [...] Read more.
Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques have had a great impact on research fields of surface science and nanotechnology during the last decades. They are used to investigate surfaces with scanning ranges between several 100 mm down to atomic resolution. Depending on experimental conditions, and the interaction forces between probe and sample, different SPM techniques allow mapping of different surface properties. In this work, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) in air and under electrochemical conditions (EC-STM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) in air and scanning electrochemical potential microscopy (SECPM) under electrochemical conditions, were used to study different single crystalline surfaces in electrochemistry. Especially SECPM offers potentially new insights into the solid-liquid interface by providing the possibility to image the potential distribution of the surface, with a resolution that is comparable to STM. In electrocatalysis, nanostructured catalysts supported on different electrode materials often show behavior different from their bulk electrodes. This was experimentally and theoretically shown for several combinations and recently on Pt on Au(111) towards fuel cell relevant reactions. For these investigations single crystals often provide accurate and well defined reference and support systems. We will show heteroepitaxially grown Ru, Ir and Rh single crystalline surface films and bulk Au single crystals with different orientations under electrochemical conditions. Image studies from all three different SPM methods will be presented and compared to electrochemical data obtained by cyclic voltammetry in acidic media. The quality of the single crystalline supports will be verified by the SPM images and the cyclic voltammograms. Furthermore, an outlook will be presented on how such supports can be used in electrocatalytic studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SPM in Materials Science)
Open AccessArticle Metal Dependence of Signal Transmission through MolecularQuantum-Dot Cellular Automata (QCA): A Theoretical Studyon Fe, Ru, and Os Mixed-Valence Complexes
Materials 2010, 3(8), 4277-4290; doi:10.3390/ma3084277
Received: 3 July 2010 / Accepted: 3 August 2010 / Published: 6 August 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2737 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dynamic behavior of signal transmission through metal complexes [L5M-BL-ML5]5+ (M=Fe, Ru, Os, BL=pyrazine (py), 4,4’-bipyridine (bpy), L=NH3), which are simplified models of the molecular quantum-dot cellular automata (molecular QCA), is discussed from the viewpoint of one-electron theory, density [...] Read more.
Dynamic behavior of signal transmission through metal complexes [L5M-BL-ML5]5+ (M=Fe, Ru, Os, BL=pyrazine (py), 4,4’-bipyridine (bpy), L=NH3), which are simplified models of the molecular quantum-dot cellular automata (molecular QCA), is discussed from the viewpoint of one-electron theory, density functional theory. It is found that for py complexes, the signal transmission time (tst) is Fe(0.6 fs) < Os(0.7 fs) < Ru(1.1 fs) and the signal amplitude (A) is Fe(0.05 e) < Os(0.06 e) < Ru(0.10 e). For bpy complexes, tst and A are Fe(1.4 fs) < Os(1.7 fs) < Ru(2.5 fs) and Os(0.11 e) < Ru(0.12 e) <Fe(0.13 e), respectively. Bpy complexes generally have stronger signal amplitude, but waste longer time for signal transmission than py complexes. Among all complexes, Fe complex with bpy BL shows the best result. These results are discussed from overlap integral and energy gap of molecular orbitals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SPM in Materials Science)
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Open AccessArticle Preparation of Fast Dissolving Films for Oral Dosage from Natural Polysaccharides
Materials 2010, 3(8), 4291-4299; doi:10.3390/ma3084291
Received: 23 June 2010 / Revised: 29 July 2010 / Accepted: 6 August 2010 / Published: 9 August 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (324 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fast-dissolving films (FDFs) were prepared from natural polysaccharides, such as pullulan, without heating, controlling the pH, or adding other materials. The release profiles of model drugs from the films were investigated. In the absence of a drug, the casting method and subsequent [...] Read more.
Fast-dissolving films (FDFs) were prepared from natural polysaccharides, such as pullulan, without heating, controlling the pH, or adding other materials. The release profiles of model drugs from the films were investigated. In the absence of a drug, the casting method and subsequent evaporation of the solvent resulted in the polysaccharide forming a circular film. The presence of drugs (both their type and concentration) affected film formation. The thickness of the film was controllable by adjusting the concentration of the polysaccharide, and regular unevenness was observed on the surface of 2% pullulan film. All films prepared with polysaccharides readily swelled in dissolution medium, released the incorporated compound, and subsequently disintegrated. The release of dexamethasone from the films was complete after 15 min, although this release rate was slightly slower than that of pilocarpine or lidocaine. Therefore, FDFs prepared from polysaccharides could be promising candidates as oral dosage forms containing drugs, and would be expected to show drug dissolution in the oral cavity. Full article
Open AccessArticle Stability Criteria of Fullerene-like Nanoparticles: Comparing V2O5 to Layered Metal Dichalcogenides and Dihalides
Materials 2010, 3(8), 4428-4445; doi:10.3390/ma3084428
Received: 21 June 2010 / Revised: 21 July 2010 / Accepted: 9 August 2010 / Published: 18 August 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (4093 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Numerous examples of closed-cage nanostructures, such as nested fullerene-like nanoparticles and nanotubes, formed by the folding of materials with layered structure are known. These compounds include WS2, NiCl2, CdCl2, Cs2O, and recently V2 [...] Read more.
Numerous examples of closed-cage nanostructures, such as nested fullerene-like nanoparticles and nanotubes, formed by the folding of materials with layered structure are known. These compounds include WS2, NiCl2, CdCl2, Cs2O, and recently V2O5. Layered materials, whose chemical bonds are highly ionic in character, possess relatively stiff layers, which cannot be evenly folded. Thus, stress-relief generally results in faceted nanostructures seamed by edge-defects. V2O5, is a metal oxide compound with a layered structure. The study of the seams in nearly perfect inorganic "fullerene-like" hollow V2O5 nanoparticles (NIF-V2O5) synthesized by pulsed laser ablation (PLA), is discussed in the present work. The relation between the formation mechanism and the seams between facets is examined. The formation mechanism of the NIF-V2O5 is discussed in comparison to fullerene-like structures of other layered materials, like IF structures of MoS2, CdCl2, and Cs2O. The criteria for the perfect seaming of such hollow closed structures are highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Nanomaterials Preparation)
Open AccessArticle Fluorescence and FTIR Spectra Analysis of Trans-A2B2-Substituted Di- and Tetra-Phenyl Porphyrins
Materials 2010, 3(8), 4446-4475; doi:10.3390/ma3084446
Received: 29 June 2010 / Revised: 9 August 2010 / Accepted: 20 August 2010 / Published: 23 August 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (660 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A series of asymmetrically substituted free-base di- and tetra-phenylporphyrins and the associated Zn-phenylporphyrins were synthesized and studied by X-ray diffraction, NMR, infrared, electronic absorption spectra, as well as fluorescence emission spectroscopy, along with theoretical simulations of the electronic and vibration structures. The [...] Read more.
A series of asymmetrically substituted free-base di- and tetra-phenylporphyrins and the associated Zn-phenylporphyrins were synthesized and studied by X-ray diffraction, NMR, infrared, electronic absorption spectra, as well as fluorescence emission spectroscopy, along with theoretical simulations of the electronic and vibration structures. The synthesis selectively afforded trans-A2B2 porphyrins, without scrambling observed, where the AA and BB were taken as donor- and acceptor-substituted phenyl groups. The combined results point to similar properties to symmetrically substituted porphyrins reported in the literature. The differences in FTIR and fluorescence were analyzed by means of detailed density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The X-ray diffraction analysis for single crystals of zinc-containing porphyrins revealed small deviations from planarity for the porphyrin core in perfect agreement with the DFT optimized structures. All calculated vibrational modes (2162 modes for all six compounds studied) were found and fully characterized and assigned to the observed FTIR spectra. The most intense IR bands are discussed in connection with the generic similarity and differences of calculated normal modes. Absorption spectra of all compounds in the UV and visible regions show the typical ethio type feature of meso-tetraarylporphyrins with a very intense Soret band and weak Q bands of decreasing intensity. In diphenyl derivatives, the presence of only two phenyl rings causes a pronounced hypsochromic shift of all bands in the absorption spectra. Time-dependent DFT calculations revealed some peculiarities in the electronic excited states structure and connected them with vibronic bands in the absorption and fluorescence spectra from associated vibrational sublevels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Metal-Ligand Complexes)
Open AccessArticle Influence of the Structural Properties of Mesoporous Silica on the Adsorption of Guest Molecules
Materials 2010, 3(8), 4500-4509; doi:10.3390/ma3084500
Received: 11 August 2010 / Revised: 18 August 2010 / Accepted: 18 August 2010 / Published: 25 August 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (207 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Amino-functionalized mesoporous silica of different pore sizes and pore system dimensionalities is used as a host material for the inclusion of fluorescein (non-covalent host-guest interaction) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (covalent host-guest interaction). The parameters determining the achievable guest loading depend on the type [...] Read more.
Amino-functionalized mesoporous silica of different pore sizes and pore system dimensionalities is used as a host material for the inclusion of fluorescein (non-covalent host-guest interaction) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (covalent host-guest interaction). The parameters determining the achievable guest loading depend on the type of host-guest interaction. For covalent interaction, the loading is mainly determined by the accessibility of the adsorption sites, while a more complex situation was encountered in case of non-covalent interactions. In addition to the accessibility of the adsorption sites, an interpretation of the results needs to take into account the confinement of the included guests, as well as the distribution of the adsorption sites. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Emission Properties, Solubility, Thermodynamic Analysis and NMR Studies of Rare-Earth Complexes with Two Different Phosphine Oxides
Materials 2010, 3(8), 4080-4108; doi:10.3390/ma3084080
Received: 14 June 2010 / Accepted: 16 July 2010 / Published: 26 July 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (898 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper proposes novel molecular designs for rare-earth complexes involving the introduction of two different phosphine oxide structures into one rare-earth ion. These designs are effective for improving solubility and emission intensity. Additionally, the complexes are indispensable for realizing high performances in [...] Read more.
The paper proposes novel molecular designs for rare-earth complexes involving the introduction of two different phosphine oxide structures into one rare-earth ion. These designs are effective for improving solubility and emission intensity. Additionally, the complexes are indispensable for realizing high performances in LEDs and security media. The thermodynamic properties of Eu(III) complexes are correlated with the solubility. Correlations between coordination structures and emission intensity were explained by NMR analysis. The luminous flux of red LED devices with Eu(III) complexes is very high (20 mA, 870 m lumen). A new white LED has its largest spectra intensity in the red region and a human look much more vividly under this light. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Luminescent Materials)
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Open AccessReview Thin Film Deposition Using Energetic Ions
Materials 2010, 3(8), 4109-4141; doi:10.3390/ma3084109
Received: 12 June 2010 / Revised: 7 July 2010 / Accepted: 27 July 2010 / Published: 29 July 2010
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (1328 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
One important recent trend in deposition technology is the continuous expansion of available processes towards higher ion assistance with the subsequent beneficial effects to film properties. Nowadays, a multitude of processes, including laser ablation and deposition, vacuum arc deposition, ion assisted deposition, [...] Read more.
One important recent trend in deposition technology is the continuous expansion of available processes towards higher ion assistance with the subsequent beneficial effects to film properties. Nowadays, a multitude of processes, including laser ablation and deposition, vacuum arc deposition, ion assisted deposition, high power impulse magnetron sputtering and plasma immersion ion implantation, are available. However, there are obstacles to overcome in all technologies, including line-of-sight processes, particle contaminations and low growth rates, which lead to ongoing process refinements and development of new methods. Concerning the deposited thin films, control of energetic ion bombardment leads to improved adhesion, reduced substrate temperatures, control of intrinsic stress within the films as well as adjustment of surface texture, phase formation and nanotopography. This review illustrates recent trends for both areas; plasma process and solid state surface processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Surface Coatings)
Open AccessReview Large-Scale Synthesis of Carbon Nanomaterials by Catalytic Chemical Vapor Deposition: A Review of the Effects of Synthesis Parameters and Magnetic Properties
Materials 2010, 3(8), 4142-4174; doi:10.3390/ma3084142
Received: 26 June 2010 / Accepted: 26 July 2010 / Published: 30 July 2010
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (1331 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract The large-scale production of carbon nanomaterials by catalytic chemical vapor deposition is reviewed in context with their microwave absorbing ability. Factors that influence the growth as well as the magnetic properties of the carbon nanomaterials are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis of Carbon Nanotube)
Open AccessReview Hydrothermal Synthesis of Nanostructured Vanadium Oxides
Materials 2010, 3(8), 4175-4195; doi:10.3390/ma3084175
Received: 1 July 2010 / Revised: 27 July 2010 / Accepted: 30 July 2010 / Published: 2 August 2010
Cited by 64 | PDF Full-text (569 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A wide range of vanadium oxides have been obtained via the hydrothermal treatment of aqueous V(V) solutions. They exhibit a large variety of nanostructures ranging from molecular clusters to 1D and 2D layered compounds. Nanotubes are obtained via a self-rolling process while [...] Read more.
A wide range of vanadium oxides have been obtained via the hydrothermal treatment of aqueous V(V) solutions. They exhibit a large variety of nanostructures ranging from molecular clusters to 1D and 2D layered compounds. Nanotubes are obtained via a self-rolling process while amazing morphologies such as nano-spheres, nano-flowers and even nano-urchins are formed via the self-assembling of nano-particles. This paper provides some correlation between the molecular structure of precursors in the solution and the nanostructure of the solid phases obtained by hydrothermal treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Nanomaterials Preparation)
Open AccessReview Charge-Transfer Interactions in Organic Functional Materials
Materials 2010, 3(8), 4214-4251; doi:10.3390/ma3084214
Received: 11 July 2010 / Accepted: 30 July 2010 / Published: 5 August 2010
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (815 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Our goal in this review is three-fold. First, we provide an overview of a number of quantum-chemical methods that can abstract charge-transfer (CT) information on the excited-state species of organic conjugated materials, which can then be exploited for the understanding and design [...] Read more.
Our goal in this review is three-fold. First, we provide an overview of a number of quantum-chemical methods that can abstract charge-transfer (CT) information on the excited-state species of organic conjugated materials, which can then be exploited for the understanding and design of organic photodiodes and solar cells at the molecular level. We stress that the Composite-Molecule (CM) model is useful for evaluating the electronic excited states and excitonic couplings of the organic molecules in the solid state. We start from a simple polyene dimer as an example to illustrate how interchain separation and chain size affect the intercahin interaction and the role of the charge transfer interaction in the excited state of the polyene dimers. With the basic knowledge from analysis of the polyene system, we then study more practical organic materials such as oligophenylenevinylenes (OPVn), oligothiophenes (OTn), and oligophenylenes (OPn). Finally, we apply this method to address the delocalization pathway (through-bond and/or through-space) in the lowest excited state for cyclophanes by combining the charge-transfer contributions calculated on the cyclophanes and the corresponding hypothetical molecules with tethers removed. This review represents a step forward in the understanding of the nature of the charge-transfer interactions in the excited state of organic functional materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Electronic Materials)
Open AccessReview Molecular Dynamics in Two-Dimensional Supramolecular Systems Observed by STM
Materials 2010, 3(8), 4252-4276; doi:10.3390/ma3084252
Received: 5 July 2010 / Revised: 26 July 2010 / Accepted: 3 August 2010 / Published: 6 August 2010
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (1755 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since the invention of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), 2D supramolecular architectures have been observed under various experimental conditions. The construction of these architectures arises from the balance between interactions at the medium-solid interface. This review summarizes molecular motion observed in 2D-supramolecular structures [...] Read more.
Since the invention of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), 2D supramolecular architectures have been observed under various experimental conditions. The construction of these architectures arises from the balance between interactions at the medium-solid interface. This review summarizes molecular motion observed in 2D-supramolecular structures on surfaces using nanospace resolution STM. The observation of molecular motion on surfaces provides a visual understanding of intermolecular interactions, which are the major driving force behind supramolecular arrangement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SPM in Materials Science)
Open AccessReview Recent Developments in Halogen Free Flame Retardants for Epoxy Resins for Electrical and Electronic Applications
Materials 2010, 3(8), 4300-4327; doi:10.3390/ma3084300
Received: 2 July 2010 / Revised: 4 August 2010 / Accepted: 6 August 2010 / Published: 11 August 2010
Cited by 96 | PDF Full-text (431 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The recent implementation of new environmental legislations led to a change in the manufacturing of composites that has repercussions on printed wiring boards (PWB). This in turn led to alternate processing methods (e.g., lead-free soldering), which affected the required physical and chemical [...] Read more.
The recent implementation of new environmental legislations led to a change in the manufacturing of composites that has repercussions on printed wiring boards (PWB). This in turn led to alternate processing methods (e.g., lead-free soldering), which affected the required physical and chemical properties of the additives used to impart flame retardancy. This review will discuss the latest advancements in phosphorus containing flame retardants for electrical and electronic (EE) applications and compare them with commercially available ones. The mechanism of degradation and flame retardancy of phosphorus flame retardants in epoxy resins will also be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flame Retardants)
Open AccessReview Emission Spectroscopy as a Probe into Photoinduced Intramolecular Electron Transfer in Polyazine Bridged Ru(II),Rh(III) Supramolecular Complexes
Materials 2010, 3(8), 4328-4354; doi:10.3390/ma3084328
Received: 5 July 2010 / Accepted: 2 August 2010 / Published: 11 August 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (546 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Steady-state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy are valuable tools to probe photochemical processes of metal-ligand, coordination complexes. Ru(II) polyazine light absorbers are efficient light harvesters absorbing in the UV and visible with emissive 3MLCT excited states known to undergo excited state energy [...] Read more.
Steady-state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy are valuable tools to probe photochemical processes of metal-ligand, coordination complexes. Ru(II) polyazine light absorbers are efficient light harvesters absorbing in the UV and visible with emissive 3MLCT excited states known to undergo excited state energy and electron transfer. Changes in emission intensity, energy or band-shape, as well as excited state lifetime, provide insight into excited state dynamics. Photophysical processes such as intramolecular electron transfer between electron donor and electron acceptor sub-units may be investigated using these methods. This review investigates the use of steady-state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy to measure excited state intramolecular electron transfer in polyazine bridged Ru(II),Rh(III) supramolecular complexes. Intramolecular electron transfer in these systems provides for conversion of the emissive 3MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge transfer) excited state to a non-emissive, but potentially photoreactive, 3MMCT (metal-to-metal charge transfer) excited state. The details of the photophysics of Ru(II),Rh(III) and Ru(II),Rh(III),Ru(II) systems as probed by steady-state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy will be highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Metal-Ligand Complexes)
Open AccessReview Nanoscale Hollow Spheres: Microemulsion-Based Synthesis, Structural Characterization and Container-Type Functionality
Materials 2010, 3(8), 4355-4386; doi:10.3390/ma3084355
Received: 5 July 2010 / Revised: 22 July 2010 / Accepted: 6 August 2010 / Published: 12 August 2010
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (2064 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A wide variety of nanoscale hollow spheres can be obtained via a microemulsion approach. This includes oxides (e.g., ZnO, TiO2, SnO2, AlO(OH), La(OH)3), sulfides (e.g., Cu2S, CuS) as well as elemental metals (e.g., Ag, [...] Read more.
A wide variety of nanoscale hollow spheres can be obtained via a microemulsion approach. This includes oxides (e.g., ZnO, TiO2, SnO2, AlO(OH), La(OH)3), sulfides (e.g., Cu2S, CuS) as well as elemental metals (e.g., Ag, Au). All hollow spheres are realized with outer diameters of 10-60 nm, an inner cavity size of 2-30 nm and a wall thickness of 2-15 nm. The microemulsion approach allows modification of the composition of the hollow spheres, fine-tuning their diameter and encapsulation of various ingredients inside the resulting “nanocontainers”. This review summarizes the experimental conditions of synthesis and compares them to other methods of preparing hollow spheres. Moreover, the structural characterization and selected properties of the as-prepared hollow spheres are discussed. The latter is especially focused on container-functionalities with the encapsulation of inorganic salts (e.g., KSCN, K2S2O8, KF), biomolecules/bioactive molecules (e.g., phenylalanine, quercetin, nicotinic acid) and fluorescent dyes (e.g., rhodamine, riboflavin) as representative examples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Nanomaterials Preparation)
Open AccessReview Carbon Nanotubes Filled with Ferromagnetic Materials
Materials 2010, 3(8), 4387-4427; doi:10.3390/ma3084387
Received: 1 July 2010 / Revised: 20 July 2010 / Accepted: 9 August 2010 / Published: 13 August 2010
Cited by 43 | PDF Full-text (3455 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon nanotubes (CNT) filled with ferromagnetic metals like iron, cobalt or nickel are new and very interesting nanostructured materials with a number of unique properties. In this paper we give an overview about different chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods for their synthesis [...] Read more.
Carbon nanotubes (CNT) filled with ferromagnetic metals like iron, cobalt or nickel are new and very interesting nanostructured materials with a number of unique properties. In this paper we give an overview about different chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods for their synthesis and discuss the influence of selected growth parameters. In addition we evaluate possible growth mechanisms involved in their formation. Moreover we show their identified structural and magnetic properties. On the basis of these properties we present different application possibilities. Some selected examples reveal the high potential of these materials in the field of medicine and nanotechnology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis of Carbon Nanotube)
Open AccessReview New Trends in Reaction and Resistance to Fire of Fire-retardant Epoxies
Materials 2010, 3(8), 4476-4499; doi:10.3390/ma3084476
Received: 1 July 2010 / Accepted: 4 August 2010 / Published: 25 August 2010
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (617 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper focuses on current trends in the flame retardancy of epoxy-based thermosets. This review examines the incorporation of additives in these polymers, including synergism effects. Reactive flame-retardants—which are incorporated in the polymer backbone—are reported and the use of fire-retardant epoxy coatings [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on current trends in the flame retardancy of epoxy-based thermosets. This review examines the incorporation of additives in these polymers, including synergism effects. Reactive flame-retardants—which are incorporated in the polymer backbone—are reported and the use of fire-retardant epoxy coatings for materials protection is also considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flame Retardants)

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