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Materials 2013, 6(3), 1011-1027; doi:10.3390/ma6031011

Graphene versus Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Electrochemical Glucose Biosensing

NUSNNI-NanoCore, National University of Singapore, T-Lab Level 11, 5A Engineering Drive 1, 117580, Singapore
Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, 117543, Singapore
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Engineering Drive 1, 117576, Singapore
NUS Graduate School of Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 28 Medical Drive, 117456, Singapore
Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, 117572, Singapore
University Diabetes Center, King Saud University, P. O. Box 18397, Riyadh 11415, Saudi Arabia
National Research Council Canada, Montreal, Quebec H4P 2R2, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 February 2013 / Revised: 7 March 2013 / Accepted: 8 March 2013 / Published: 14 March 2013
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: A simple procedure was developed for the fabrication of electrochemical glucose biosensors using glucose oxidase (GOx), with graphene or multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Graphene and MWCNTs were dispersed in 0.25% 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and drop cast on 1% KOH-pre-treated glassy carbon electrodes (GCEs). The EDC (1-ethyl-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide)-activated GOx was then bound covalently on the graphene- or MWCNT-modified GCE. Both the graphene- and MWCNT-based biosensors detected the entire pathophysiological range of blood glucose in humans, 1.4–27.9 mM. However, the direct electron transfer (DET) between GOx and the modified GCE’s surface was only observed for the MWCNT-based biosensor. The MWCNT-based glucose biosensor also provided over a four-fold higher current signal than its graphene counterpart. Several interfering substances, including drug metabolites, provoked negligible interference at pathological levels for both the MWCNT- and graphene-based biosensors. However, the former was more prone to interfering substances and drug metabolites at extremely pathological concentrations than its graphene counterpart.
Keywords: graphene; multi-walled carbon nanotubes; electrochemical glucose sensor; glucose oxidase graphene; multi-walled carbon nanotubes; electrochemical glucose sensor; glucose oxidase

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zheng, D.; Vashist, S.K.; Dykas, M.M.; Saha, S.; Al-Rubeaan, K.; Lam, E.; Luong, J.H.; Sheu, F.-S. Graphene versus Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Electrochemical Glucose Biosensing. Materials 2013, 6, 1011-1027.

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