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Algorithms, Volume 10, Issue 4 (December 2017)

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Open AccessArticle Properties of Vector Embeddings in Social Networks
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 109; doi:10.3390/a10040109
Received: 15 July 2017 / Revised: 4 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 27 September 2017
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Abstract
Embedding social network data into a low-dimensional vector space has shown promising performance for many real-world applications, such as node classification, node clustering, link prediction and network visualization. However, the information contained in these vector embeddings remains abstract and hard to interpret. Methods
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Embedding social network data into a low-dimensional vector space has shown promising performance for many real-world applications, such as node classification, node clustering, link prediction and network visualization. However, the information contained in these vector embeddings remains abstract and hard to interpret. Methods for inspecting embeddings usually rely on visualization methods, which do not work on a larger scale and do not give concrete interpretations of vector embeddings in terms of preserved network properties (e.g., centrality or betweenness measures). In this paper, we study and investigate network properties preserved by recent random walk-based embedding procedures like node2vec, DeepWalk or LINE. We propose a method that applies learning to rank in order to relate embeddings to network centralities. We evaluate our approach with extensive experiments on real-world and artificial social networks. Experiments show that each embedding method learns different network properties. In addition, we show that our graph embeddings in combination with neural networks provide a computationally efficient way to approximate the Closeness Centrality measure in social networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algorithms in Online Social Networks)
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Open AccessArticle DDC Control Techniques for Three-Phase BLDC Motor Position Control
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 110; doi:10.3390/a10040110
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 25 September 2017
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Abstract
In this article, a novel hybrid control scheme is proposed for controlling the position of a three-phase brushless direct current (BLDC) motor. The hybrid controller consists of discrete time sliding mode control (SMC) with model free adaptive control (MFAC) to make a new
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In this article, a novel hybrid control scheme is proposed for controlling the position of a three-phase brushless direct current (BLDC) motor. The hybrid controller consists of discrete time sliding mode control (SMC) with model free adaptive control (MFAC) to make a new data-driven control (DDC) strategy that is able to reduce the simulation time and complexity of a nonlinear system. The proposed hybrid algorithm is also suitable for controlling the speed variations of a BLDC motor, and is also applicable for the real time simulation of platforms such as a gimbal platform. The DDC method does not require any system model because it depends on data collected by the system about its Inputs/Outputs (IOS). However, the model-based control (MBC) method is difficult to apply from a practical point of view and is time-consuming because we need to linearize the system model. The above proposed method is verified by multiple simulations using MATLAB Simulink. It shows that the proposed controller has better performance, more precise tracking, and greater robustness compared with the classical proportional integral derivative (PID) controller, MFAC, and model free learning adaptive control (MFLAC). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Game Theory-Inspired Evolutionary Algorithm for Global Optimization
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 111; doi:10.3390/a10040111
Received: 4 August 2017 / Revised: 20 September 2017 / Accepted: 25 September 2017 / Published: 30 September 2017
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Abstract
Many approaches that model specific intelligent behaviors perform excellently in solving complex optimization problems. Game theory is widely recognized as an important tool in many fields. This paper introduces a game theory-inspired evolutionary algorithm for global optimization (GameEA). A formulation to estimate payoff
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Many approaches that model specific intelligent behaviors perform excellently in solving complex optimization problems. Game theory is widely recognized as an important tool in many fields. This paper introduces a game theory-inspired evolutionary algorithm for global optimization (GameEA). A formulation to estimate payoff expectations is provided, which is a mechanism to make a player become a rational decision-maker. GameEA has one population (i.e., set of players) and generates new offspring only through an imitation operator and a belief-learning operator. An imitation operator adopts learning strategies and actions from other players to improve its competitiveness and applies these strategies to future games where one player updates its chromosome by strategically copying segments of gene sequences from a competitor. Belief learning refers to models in which a player adjusts his/her strategies, behavior or chromosomes by analyzing the current history information to improve solution quality. Experimental results on various classes of problems show that GameEA outperforms the other four algorithms on stability, robustness, and accuracy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Mapping Higher-Order Network Flows in Memory and Multilayer Networks with Infomap
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 112; doi:10.3390/a10040112
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 26 September 2017 / Published: 30 September 2017
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Abstract
Comprehending complex systems by simplifying and highlighting important dynamical patterns requires modeling and mapping higher-order network flows. However, complex systems come in many forms and demand a range of representations, including memory and multilayer networks, which in turn call for versatile community-detection algorithms
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Comprehending complex systems by simplifying and highlighting important dynamical patterns requires modeling and mapping higher-order network flows. However, complex systems come in many forms and demand a range of representations, including memory and multilayer networks, which in turn call for versatile community-detection algorithms to reveal important modular regularities in the flows. Here we show that various forms of higher-order network flows can be represented in a unified way with networks that distinguish physical nodes for representing a complex system’s objects from state nodes for describing flows between the objects. Moreover, these so-called sparse memory networks allow the information-theoretic community detection method known as the map equation to identify overlapping and nested flow modules in data from a range of different higher-order interactions such as multistep, multi-source, and temporal data. We derive the map equation applied to sparse memory networks and describe its search algorithm Infomap, which can exploit the flexibility of sparse memory networks. Together they provide a general solution to reveal overlapping modular patterns in higher-order flows through complex systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algorithms for Community Detection in Complex Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Scale Reduction Techniques for Computing Maximum Induced Bicliques
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 113; doi:10.3390/a10040113
Received: 16 June 2017 / Revised: 19 September 2017 / Accepted: 27 September 2017 / Published: 4 October 2017
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Abstract
Given a simple, undirected graph G, a biclique is a subset of vertices inducing a complete bipartite subgraph in G. In this paper, we consider two associated optimization problems, the maximum biclique problem, which asks for a biclique of the maximum cardinality in
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Given a simple, undirected graph G, a biclique is a subset of vertices inducing a complete bipartite subgraph in G. In this paper, we consider two associated optimization problems, the maximum biclique problem, which asks for a biclique of the maximum cardinality in the graph, and the maximum edge biclique problem, aiming to find a biclique with the maximum number of edges in the graph. These NP-hard problems find applications in biclustering-type tasks arising in complex network analysis. Real-life instances of these problems often involve massive, but sparse networks. We develop exact approaches for detecting optimal bicliques in large-scale graphs that combine effective scale reduction techniques with integer programming methodology. Results of computational experiments with numerous real-life network instances demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algorithms for Community Detection in Complex Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Variable Selection in Time Series Forecasting Using Random Forests
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 114; doi:10.3390/a10040114
Received: 29 July 2017 / Revised: 25 September 2017 / Accepted: 1 October 2017 / Published: 4 October 2017
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Abstract
Time series forecasting using machine learning algorithms has gained popularity recently. Random forest is a machine learning algorithm implemented in time series forecasting; however, most of its forecasting properties have remained unexplored. Here we focus on assessing the performance of random forests in
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Time series forecasting using machine learning algorithms has gained popularity recently. Random forest is a machine learning algorithm implemented in time series forecasting; however, most of its forecasting properties have remained unexplored. Here we focus on assessing the performance of random forests in one-step forecasting using two large datasets of short time series with the aim to suggest an optimal set of predictor variables. Furthermore, we compare its performance to benchmarking methods. The first dataset is composed by 16,000 simulated time series from a variety of Autoregressive Fractionally Integrated Moving Average (ARFIMA) models. The second dataset consists of 135 mean annual temperature time series. The highest predictive performance of RF is observed when using a low number of recent lagged predictor variables. This outcome could be useful in relevant future applications, with the prospect to achieve higher predictive accuracy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Multi-Threading Algorithm to Detect and Remove Cycles in Vertex- and Arc-Weighted Digraph
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 115; doi:10.3390/a10040115
Received: 28 August 2017 / Revised: 26 September 2017 / Accepted: 9 October 2017 / Published: 10 October 2017
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Abstract
A graph is a very important structure to describe many applications in the real world. In many applications, such as dependency graphs and debt graphs, it is an important problem to find and remove cycles to make these graphs be cycle-free. The common
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A graph is a very important structure to describe many applications in the real world. In many applications, such as dependency graphs and debt graphs, it is an important problem to find and remove cycles to make these graphs be cycle-free. The common algorithm often leads to an out-of-memory exception in commodity personal computer, and it cannot leverage the advantage of multicore computers. This paper introduces a new problem, cycle detection and removal with vertex priority. It proposes a multithreading iterative algorithm to solve this problem for large-scale graphs on personal computers. The algorithm includes three main steps: simplification to decrease the scale of graph, calculation of strongly connected components, and cycle detection and removal according to a pre-defined priority in parallel. This algorithm avoids the out-of-memory exception by simplification and iteration, and it leverages the advantage of multicore computers by multithreading parallelism. Five different versions of the proposed algorithm are compared by experiments, and the results show that the parallel iterative algorithm outperforms the others, and simplification can effectively improve the algorithm's performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Remote Sensing Image Enhancement Based on Non-Local Means Filter in NSCT Domain
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 116; doi:10.3390/a10040116
Received: 17 September 2017 / Revised: 27 September 2017 / Accepted: 3 October 2017 / Published: 11 October 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, a novel remote sensing image enhancement technique based on a non-local means filter in a nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) domain is proposed. The overall flow of the approach can be divided into the following steps: Firstly, the image is decomposed
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In this paper, a novel remote sensing image enhancement technique based on a non-local means filter in a nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) domain is proposed. The overall flow of the approach can be divided into the following steps: Firstly, the image is decomposed into one low-frequency sub-band and several high-frequency sub-bands with NSCT. Secondly, contrast stretching is adopted to deal with the low-frequency sub-band coefficients, and the non-local means filter is applied to suppress the noise contained in the first high-frequency sub-band coefficients. Thirdly, the processed coefficients are reconstructed with the inverse NSCT transform. Finally, the unsharp filter is used to enhance the details of the image. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has better performance in remote sensing image enhancement than the existing approaches. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fabric Weave Pattern and Yarn Color Recognition and Classification Using a Deep ELM Network
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 117; doi:10.3390/a10040117
Received: 28 June 2017 / Revised: 23 July 2017 / Accepted: 26 July 2017 / Published: 13 October 2017
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Abstract
Usually, a fabric weave pattern is recognized using methods which identify the warp floats and weft floats. Although these methods perform well for uniform or repetitive weave patterns, in the case of complex weave patterns, these methods become computationally complex and the classification
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Usually, a fabric weave pattern is recognized using methods which identify the warp floats and weft floats. Although these methods perform well for uniform or repetitive weave patterns, in the case of complex weave patterns, these methods become computationally complex and the classification error rates are comparatively higher. Furthermore, the fault-tolerance (invariance) and stability (selectivity) of the existing methods are still to be enhanced. We present a novel biologically-inspired method to invariantly recognize the fabric weave pattern (fabric texture) and yarn color from the color image input. We proposed a model in which the fabric weave pattern descriptor is based on the HMAX model for computer vision inspired by the hierarchy in the visual cortex, the color descriptor is based on the opponent color channel inspired by the classical opponent color theory of human vision, and the classification stage is composed of a multi-layer (deep) extreme learning machine. Since the weave pattern descriptor, yarn color descriptor, and the classification stage are all biologically inspired, we propose a method which is completely biologically plausible. The classification performance of the proposed algorithm indicates that the biologically-inspired computer-aided-vision models might provide accurate, fast, reliable and cost-effective solution to industrial automation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Iterative Parameter Estimation Algorithms for Dual-Frequency Signal Models
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 118; doi:10.3390/a10040118
Received: 15 August 2017 / Revised: 7 October 2017 / Accepted: 11 October 2017 / Published: 14 October 2017
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Abstract
This paper focuses on the iterative parameter estimation algorithms for dual-frequency signal models that are disturbed by stochastic noise. The key of the work is to overcome the difficulty that the signal model is a highly nonlinear function with respect to frequencies. A
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This paper focuses on the iterative parameter estimation algorithms for dual-frequency signal models that are disturbed by stochastic noise. The key of the work is to overcome the difficulty that the signal model is a highly nonlinear function with respect to frequencies. A gradient-based iterative (GI) algorithm is presented based on the gradient search. In order to improve the estimation accuracy of the GI algorithm, a Newton iterative algorithm and a moving data window gradient-based iterative algorithm are proposed based on the moving data window technique. Comparative simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches for estimating the parameters of signal models. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Optimization Algorithm Inspired by the Phase Transition Phenomenon for Global Optimization Problems with Continuous Variables
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 119; doi:10.3390/a10040119
Received: 8 September 2017 / Revised: 29 September 2017 / Accepted: 9 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, we propose a novel nature-inspired meta-heuristic algorithm for continuous global optimization, named the phase transition-based optimization algorithm (PTBO). It mimics three completely different kinds of motion characteristics of elements in three different phases, which are the unstable phase, the meta-stable
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In this paper, we propose a novel nature-inspired meta-heuristic algorithm for continuous global optimization, named the phase transition-based optimization algorithm (PTBO). It mimics three completely different kinds of motion characteristics of elements in three different phases, which are the unstable phase, the meta-stable phase, and the stable phase. Three corresponding operators, which are the stochastic operator of the unstable phase, the shrinkage operator in the meta-stable phase, and the vibration operator of the stable phase, are designed in the proposed algorithm. In PTBO, the three different phases of elements dynamically execute different search tasks according to their phase in each generation. It makes it such that PTBO not only has a wide range of exploration capabilities, but also has the ability to quickly exploit them. Numerical experiments are carried out on twenty-eight functions of the CEC 2013 benchmark suite. The simulation results demonstrate its better performance compared with that of other state-of-the-art optimization algorithms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Comparative Study on Recently-Introduced Nature-Based Global Optimization Methods in Complex Mechanical System Design
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 120; doi:10.3390/a10040120
Received: 9 September 2017 / Revised: 11 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 17 October 2017
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Abstract
Advanced global optimization algorithms have been continuously introduced and improved to solve various complex design optimization problems for which the objective and constraint functions can only be evaluated through computation intensive numerical analyses or simulations with a large number of design variables. The
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Advanced global optimization algorithms have been continuously introduced and improved to solve various complex design optimization problems for which the objective and constraint functions can only be evaluated through computation intensive numerical analyses or simulations with a large number of design variables. The often implicit, multimodal, and ill-shaped objective and constraint functions in high-dimensional and “black-box” forms demand the search to be carried out using low number of function evaluations with high search efficiency and good robustness. This work investigates the performance of six recently introduced, nature-inspired global optimization methods: Artificial Bee Colony (ABC), Firefly Algorithm (FFA), Cuckoo Search (CS), Bat Algorithm (BA), Flower Pollination Algorithm (FPA) and Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO). These approaches are compared in terms of search efficiency and robustness in solving a set of representative benchmark problems in smooth-unimodal, non-smooth unimodal, smooth multimodal, and non-smooth multimodal function forms. In addition, four classic engineering optimization examples and a real-life complex mechanical system design optimization problem, floating offshore wind turbines design optimization, are used as additional test cases representing computationally-expensive black-box global optimization problems. Results from this comparative study show that the ability of these global optimization methods to obtain a good solution diminishes as the dimension of the problem, or number of design variables increases. Although none of these methods is universally capable, the study finds that GWO and ABC are more efficient on average than the other four in obtaining high quality solutions efficiently and consistently, solving 86% and 80% of the tested benchmark problems, respectively. The research contributes to future improvements of global optimization methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evolutionary Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Solving NP-Hard No-Wait Flow Shop Scheduling Problems
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 121; doi:10.3390/a10040121
Received: 29 July 2017 / Revised: 15 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 28 October 2017
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Abstract
The no-wait flow shop is a flowshop in which the scheduling of jobs is continuous and simultaneous through all machines without waiting for any consecutive machines. The scheduling of a no-wait flow shop requires finding an appropriate sequence of jobs for scheduling, which
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The no-wait flow shop is a flowshop in which the scheduling of jobs is continuous and simultaneous through all machines without waiting for any consecutive machines. The scheduling of a no-wait flow shop requires finding an appropriate sequence of jobs for scheduling, which in turn reduces total processing time. The classical brute force method for finding the probabilities of scheduling for improving the utilization of resources may become trapped in local optima, and this problem can hence be observed as a typical NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem that requires finding a near optimal solution with heuristic and metaheuristic techniques. This paper proposes an effective hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) metaheuristic algorithm for solving no-wait flow shop scheduling problems with the objective of minimizing the total flow time of jobs. This Proposed Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization (PHPSO) algorithm presents a solution by the random key representation rule for converting the continuous position information values of particles to a discrete job permutation. The proposed algorithm initializes population efficiently with the Nawaz-Enscore-Ham (NEH) heuristic technique and uses an evolutionary search guided by the mechanism of PSO, as well as simulated annealing based on a local neighborhood search to avoid getting stuck in local optima and to provide the appropriate balance of global exploration and local exploitation. Extensive computational experiments are carried out based on Taillard’s benchmark suite. Computational results and comparisons with existing metaheuristics show that the PHPSO algorithm outperforms the existing methods in terms of quality search and robustness for the problem considered. The improvement in solution quality is confirmed by statistical tests of significance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Scheduling Non-Preemptible Jobs to Minimize Peak Demand
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 122; doi:10.3390/a10040122
Received: 22 September 2017 / Revised: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 25 October 2017 / Published: 28 October 2017
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Abstract
This paper examines an important problem in smart grid energy scheduling; peaks in power demand are proportionally more expensive to generate and provision for. The issue is exacerbated in local microgrids that do not benefit from the aggregate smoothing experienced by large grids.
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This paper examines an important problem in smart grid energy scheduling; peaks in power demand are proportionally more expensive to generate and provision for. The issue is exacerbated in local microgrids that do not benefit from the aggregate smoothing experienced by large grids. Demand-side scheduling can reduce these peaks by taking advantage of the fact that there is often flexibility in job start times. We focus attention on the case where the jobs are non-preemptible, meaning once started, they run to completion. The associated optimization problem is called the peak demand minimization problem, and has been previously shown to be NP-hard. Our results include an optimal fixed-parameter tractable algorithm, a polynomial-time approximation algorithm, as well as an effective heuristic that can also be used in an online setting of the problem. Simulation results show that these methods can reduce peak demand by up to 50% versus on-demand scheduling for household power jobs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algorithms for Hard Problems: Approximation and Parameterization)
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Open AccessArticle A Selection Process for Genetic Algorithm Using Clustering Analysis
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 123; doi:10.3390/a10040123
Received: 16 August 2017 / Revised: 30 October 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 2 November 2017
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Abstract
This article presents a newly proposed selection process for genetic algorithms on a class of unconstrained optimization problems. The k-means genetic algorithm selection process (KGA) is composed of four essential stages: clustering, membership phase, fitness scaling and selection. Inspired from the hypothesis
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This article presents a newly proposed selection process for genetic algorithms on a class of unconstrained optimization problems. The k-means genetic algorithm selection process (KGA) is composed of four essential stages: clustering, membership phase, fitness scaling and selection. Inspired from the hypothesis that clustering the population helps to preserve a selection pressure throughout the evolution of the population, a membership probability index is assigned to each individual following the clustering phase. Fitness scaling converts the membership scores in a range suitable for the selection function which selects the parents of the next generation. Two versions of the KGA process are presented: using a fixed number of clusters K (KGAf) and via an optimal partitioning Kopt (KGAo) determined by two different internal validity indices. The performance of each method is tested on seven benchmark problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolutionary Computation for Multiobjective Optimization)
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Open AccessArticle Improvement of ID3 Algorithm Based on Simplified Information Entropy and Coordination Degree
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 124; doi:10.3390/a10040124
Received: 2 September 2017 / Revised: 29 October 2017 / Accepted: 2 November 2017 / Published: 6 November 2017
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Abstract
The decision tree algorithm is a core technology in data classification mining, and ID3 (Iterative Dichotomiser 3) algorithm is a famous one, which has achieved good results in the field of classification mining. Nevertheless, there exist some disadvantages of ID3 such as attributes
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The decision tree algorithm is a core technology in data classification mining, and ID3 (Iterative Dichotomiser 3) algorithm is a famous one, which has achieved good results in the field of classification mining. Nevertheless, there exist some disadvantages of ID3 such as attributes biasing multi-values, high complexity, large scales, etc. In this paper, an improved ID3 algorithm is proposed that combines the simplified information entropy based on different weights with coordination degree in rough set theory. The traditional ID3 algorithm and the proposed one are fairly compared by using three common data samples as well as the decision tree classifiers. It is shown that the proposed algorithm has a better performance in the running time and tree structure, but not in accuracy than the ID3 algorithm, for the first two sample sets, which are small. For the third sample set that is large, the proposed algorithm improves the ID3 algorithm for all of the running time, tree structure and accuracy. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is effective and viable. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Simulation Optimization of Search and Rescue in Disaster Relief Based on Distributed Auction Mechanism
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 125; doi:10.3390/a10040125
Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 12 November 2017 / Published: 15 November 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, we optimize the search and rescue (SAR) in disaster relief through agent-based simulation. We simulate rescue teams’ search behaviors with the improved Truncated Lévy walks. Then we propose a cooperative rescue plan based on a distributed auction mechanism, and illustrate
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In this paper, we optimize the search and rescue (SAR) in disaster relief through agent-based simulation. We simulate rescue teams’ search behaviors with the improved Truncated Lévy walks. Then we propose a cooperative rescue plan based on a distributed auction mechanism, and illustrate it with the case of landslide disaster relief. The simulation is conducted in three scenarios, including “fatal”, “serious” and “normal”. Compared with the non-cooperative rescue plan, the proposed rescue plan in this paper would increase victims’ relative survival probability by 7–15%, increase the ratio of survivors getting rescued by 5.3–12.9%, and decrease the average elapsed time for one site getting rescued by 16.6–21.6%. The robustness analysis shows that search radius can affect the rescue efficiency significantly, while the scope of cooperation cannot. The sensitivity analysis shows that the two parameters, the time limit for completing rescue operations in one buried site and the maximum turning angle for next step, both have a great influence on rescue efficiency, and there exists optimal value for both of them in view of rescue efficiency. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Real-Time Chinese Traffic Sign Detection Algorithm Based on Modified YOLOv2
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 127; doi:10.3390/a10040127
Received: 30 September 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
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Abstract
Traffic sign detection is an important task in traffic sign recognition systems. Chinese traffic signs have their unique features compared with traffic signs of other countries. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have achieved a breakthrough in computer vision tasks and made great success in
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Traffic sign detection is an important task in traffic sign recognition systems. Chinese traffic signs have their unique features compared with traffic signs of other countries. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have achieved a breakthrough in computer vision tasks and made great success in traffic sign classification. In this paper, we present a Chinese traffic sign detection algorithm based on a deep convolutional network. To achieve real-time Chinese traffic sign detection, we propose an end-to-end convolutional network inspired by YOLOv2. In view of the characteristics of traffic signs, we take the multiple 1 × 1 convolutional layers in intermediate layers of the network and decrease the convolutional layers in top layers to reduce the computational complexity. For effectively detecting small traffic signs, we divide the input images into dense grids to obtain finer feature maps. Moreover, we expand the Chinese traffic sign dataset (CTSD) and improve the marker information, which is available online. All experimental results evaluated according to our expanded CTSD and German Traffic Sign Detection Benchmark (GTSDB) indicate that the proposed method is the faster and more robust. The fastest detection speed achieved was 0.017 s per image. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Truss Structure Optimization with Subset Simulation and Augmented Lagrangian Multiplier Method
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 128; doi:10.3390/a10040128
Received: 20 August 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 12 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
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Abstract
This paper presents a global optimization method for structural design optimization, which integrates subset simulation optimization (SSO) and the dynamic augmented Lagrangian multiplier method (DALMM). The proposed method formulates the structural design optimization as a series of unconstrained optimization sub-problems using DALMM and
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This paper presents a global optimization method for structural design optimization, which integrates subset simulation optimization (SSO) and the dynamic augmented Lagrangian multiplier method (DALMM). The proposed method formulates the structural design optimization as a series of unconstrained optimization sub-problems using DALMM and makes use of SSO to find the global optimum. The combined strategy guarantees that the proposed method can automatically detect active constraints and provide global optimal solutions with finite penalty parameters. The accuracy and robustness of the proposed method are demonstrated by four classical truss sizing problems. The results are compared with those reported in the literature, and show a remarkable statistical performance based on 30 independent runs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comparative Analysis of Classifiers for Classification of Emergency Braking of Road Motor Vehicles
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 129; doi:10.3390/a10040129
Received: 30 September 2017 / Revised: 12 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
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Abstract
We investigate the feasibility of classifying (inferring) the emergency braking situations in road vehicles from the motion pattern of the accelerator pedal. We trained and compared several classifiers and employed genetic algorithms to tune their associated hyperparameters. Using offline time series data of
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We investigate the feasibility of classifying (inferring) the emergency braking situations in road vehicles from the motion pattern of the accelerator pedal. We trained and compared several classifiers and employed genetic algorithms to tune their associated hyperparameters. Using offline time series data of the dynamics of the accelerator pedal as the test set, the experimental results suggest that the evolved classifiers detect the emergency braking situation with at least 93% accuracy. The best performing classifier could be integrated into the agent that perceives the dynamics of the accelerator pedal in real time and—if emergency braking is detected—acts by applying full brakes well before the driver would have been able to apply them. Full article
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Open AccessArticle 2-Phase NSGA II: An Optimized Reward and Risk Measurements Algorithm in Portfolio Optimization
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 130; doi:10.3390/a10040130
Received: 17 October 2017 / Revised: 17 November 2017 / Accepted: 23 November 2017 / Published: 28 November 2017
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Abstract
Portfolio optimization is a serious challenge for financial engineering and has pulled down special attention among investors. It has two objectives: to maximize the reward that is calculated by expected return and to minimize the risk. Variance has been considered as a risk
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Portfolio optimization is a serious challenge for financial engineering and has pulled down special attention among investors. It has two objectives: to maximize the reward that is calculated by expected return and to minimize the risk. Variance has been considered as a risk measure. There are many constraints in the world that ultimately lead to a non–convex search space such as cardinality constraint. In conclusion, parametric quadratic programming could not be applied and it seems essential to apply multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA). In this paper, a new efficient multi-objective portfolio optimization algorithm called 2-phase NSGA II algorithm is developed and the results of this algorithm are compared with the NSGA II algorithm. It was found that 2-phase NSGA II significantly outperformed NSGA II algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolutionary Computation for Multiobjective Optimization)
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Open AccessArticle An Indoor Collaborative Coefficient-Triangle APIT Localization Algorithm
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 131; doi:10.3390/a10040131
Received: 23 September 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 28 November 2017
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Abstract
The Approximate Point-In-Triangulation (APIT) localization algorithm is a widely used indoor positioning technology due to its simplicity and low power consumption. However, in practice, In-to-Out misjudgments exist regularly in APIT, and a considerable amount of nodes cannot be positioned due to the low
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The Approximate Point-In-Triangulation (APIT) localization algorithm is a widely used indoor positioning technology due to its simplicity and low power consumption. However, in practice, In-to-Out misjudgments exist regularly in APIT, and a considerable amount of nodes cannot be positioned due to the low node density. To tackle this issue, a Collaborative Coefficient-triangle APIT Localization (CCAL) algorithm is proposed. Firstly, an effective triangle criterion is put forward to reduce the probability of In-to-Out misjudgment and reduce the computational complexity. Then, a further Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) location and weighted triangle coordinate calculation method is adopted to reduce the positioning error. Meanwhile, the idea of iterative collaborative positioning of the positioned unknown nodes is introduced to remarkably expand the localization coverage rate. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms APIT, RSSI, and other improved algorithms in terms of both node location error and localization coverage rate. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hyperspectral Data: Efficient and Secure Transmission
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 132; doi:10.3390/a10040132
Received: 23 October 2017 / Revised: 25 November 2017 / Accepted: 28 November 2017 / Published: 30 November 2017
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Abstract
Airborne and spaceborne hyperspectral sensors collect information which is derived from the electromagnetic spectrum of an observed area. Hyperspectral data are used in several studies and they are an important aid in different real-life applications (e.g., mining and geology applications, ecology, surveillance, etc.).
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Airborne and spaceborne hyperspectral sensors collect information which is derived from the electromagnetic spectrum of an observed area. Hyperspectral data are used in several studies and they are an important aid in different real-life applications (e.g., mining and geology applications, ecology, surveillance, etc.). A hyperspectral image has a three-dimensional structure (a sort of datacube): it can be considered as a sequence of narrow and contiguous spectral channels (bands). The objective of this paper is to present a framework permits the efficient storage/transmission of an input hyperspectral image, and its protection. The proposed framework relies on a reversible invisible watermarking scheme and an efficient lossless compression algorithm. The reversible watermarking scheme is used in conjunction with digital signature techniques in order to permit the verification of the integrity of a hyperspectral image by the receiver. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Neutrosophic Linear Equations and Application in Traffic Flow Problems
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 133; doi:10.3390/a10040133
Received: 2 October 2017 / Revised: 28 November 2017 / Accepted: 30 November 2017 / Published: 1 December 2017
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Abstract
A neutrosophic number (NN) presented by Smarandache can express determinate and/or indeterminate information in real life. NN (z = a + uI) consists of the determinate part a and the indeterminate part uI for a, uR (R
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A neutrosophic number (NN) presented by Smarandache can express determinate and/or indeterminate information in real life. NN (z = a + uI) consists of the determinate part a and the indeterminate part uI for a, uR (R is all real numbers) and indeterminacy I, and is very suitable for representing and handling problems with both determinate and indeterminate information. Based on the concept of NNs, this paper presents for first time the concepts of neutrosophic linear equations and the neutrosophic matrix, and introduces the neutrosophic matrix operations. Then, we propose some solving methods, including the substitution method, the addition method, and the inverse matrix method, for the system of neutrosophic linear equations or the neutrosophic matrix equation. Finally, an applied example about a traffic flow problem is provided to illustrate the application and effectiveness of handling the indeterminate traffic flow problem by using the system of neutrosophic linear equations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Improved Integral Inequalities for Stability Analysis of Interval Time-Delay Systems
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 134; doi:10.3390/a10040134
Received: 28 October 2017 / Revised: 26 November 2017 / Accepted: 30 November 2017 / Published: 3 December 2017
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Abstract
A novel stability analysis for the interval time-delay systems is proposed by employing a new series of integral inequalities for single and double integrals. Different from the recently introduced Wirtinger-based inequalities, refined Jensen inequalities and auxiliary function-based inequalities, the proposed ones can provide
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A novel stability analysis for the interval time-delay systems is proposed by employing a new series of integral inequalities for single and double integrals. Different from the recently introduced Wirtinger-based inequalities, refined Jensen inequalities and auxiliary function-based inequalities, the proposed ones can provide more accurate bounds for the cross terms in derivatives of the Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional (LKF) without involving additional slack variables. Based on the augmented LKF with triple-integral terms, their applications to stability analysis for interval time-delay systems are provided. By virtue of the newly derived inequalities, the resulting criteria are less conservative than some existing literature. Finally, numerical examples are provided to verify the effectiveness and improvement of the proposed approaches. Full article
Open AccessArticle Algebraic Dynamic Programming on Trees
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 135; doi:10.3390/a10040135
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 1 December 2017 / Accepted: 2 December 2017 / Published: 6 December 2017
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Abstract
Where string grammars describe how to generate and parse strings, tree grammars describe how to generate and parse trees. We show how to extend generalized algebraic dynamic programming to tree grammars. The resulting dynamic programming algorithms are efficient and provide the complete feature
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Where string grammars describe how to generate and parse strings, tree grammars describe how to generate and parse trees. We show how to extend generalized algebraic dynamic programming to tree grammars. The resulting dynamic programming algorithms are efficient and provide the complete feature set available to string grammars, including automatic generation of outside parsers and algebra products for efficient backtracking. The complete parsing infrastructure is available as an embedded domain-specific language in Haskell. In addition to the formal framework, we provide implementations for both tree alignment and tree editing. Both algorithms are in active use in, among others, the area of bioinformatics, where optimization problems on trees are of considerable practical importance. This framework and the accompanying algorithms provide a beneficial starting point for developing complex grammars with tree- and forest-based inputs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Detecting Composite Functional Module in miRNA Regulation and mRNA Interaction Network
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 136; doi:10.3390/a10040136
Received: 17 September 2017 / Revised: 1 December 2017 / Accepted: 2 December 2017 / Published: 5 December 2017
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Abstract
The detection of composite miRNA functional module (CMFM) is of tremendous significance and helps in understanding the organization, regulation and execution of cell processes in cancer, but how to identify functional CMFMs is still a computational challenge. In this paper we propose a
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The detection of composite miRNA functional module (CMFM) is of tremendous significance and helps in understanding the organization, regulation and execution of cell processes in cancer, but how to identify functional CMFMs is still a computational challenge. In this paper we propose a novel module detection method called MBCFM (detecting Composite Function Modules based on Maximal Biclique enumeration), specifically designed to bicluster miRNAs and target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) on the basis of multiple biological interaction information and topical network features. In this method, we employ algorithm MICA to enumerate all maximal bicliques and further extract R-pairs from the miRNA-mRNA regulatory network. Compared with two existing methods, Mirsynergy and SNMNMF on ovarian cancer dataset, the proposed method of MBCFM is not only able to extract cohesiveness-preserved CMFMs but also has high efficiency in running time. More importantly, MBCFM can be applied to detect other cancer-associated miRNA functional modules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioinformatics Algorithms and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Weakly Coupled Distributed Calculation of Lyapunov Exponents for Non-Linear Dynamical Systems
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 137; doi:10.3390/a10040137
Received: 19 October 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 7 December 2017
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Abstract
Numerical estimation of Lyapunov exponents in non-linear dynamical systems results in a very high computational cost. This is due to the large-scale computational cost of several Runge–Kutta problems that need to be calculated. In this work we introduce a parallel implementation based on
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Numerical estimation of Lyapunov exponents in non-linear dynamical systems results in a very high computational cost. This is due to the large-scale computational cost of several Runge–Kutta problems that need to be calculated. In this work we introduce a parallel implementation based on MPI (Message Passing Interface) for the calculation of the Lyapunov exponents for a multidimensional dynamical system, considering a weakly coupled algorithm. Since we work on an academic high-latency cluster interconnected with a gigabit switch, the design has to be oriented to reduce the number of messages required. With the design introduced in this work, the computing time is drastically reduced, and the obtained performance leads to close to optimal speed-up ratios. The implemented parallelisation allows us to carry out many experiments for the calculation of several Lyapunov exponents with a low-cost cluster. The numerical experiments showed a high scalability, which we showed with up to 68 cores. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Hierarchical Multi-Label Classification Algorithm for Gene Function Prediction
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 138; doi:10.3390/a10040138
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 28 November 2017 / Published: 8 December 2017
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Abstract
Gene function prediction is a complicated and challenging hierarchical multi-label classification (HMC) task, in which genes may have many functions at the same time and these functions are organized in a hierarchy. This paper proposed a novel HMC algorithm for solving this problem
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Gene function prediction is a complicated and challenging hierarchical multi-label classification (HMC) task, in which genes may have many functions at the same time and these functions are organized in a hierarchy. This paper proposed a novel HMC algorithm for solving this problem based on the Gene Ontology (GO), the hierarchy of which is a directed acyclic graph (DAG) and is more difficult to tackle. In the proposed algorithm, the HMC task is firstly changed into a set of binary classification tasks. Then, two measures are implemented in the algorithm to enhance the HMC performance by considering the hierarchy structure during the learning procedures. Firstly, negative instances selecting policy associated with the SMOTE approach are proposed to alleviate the imbalanced data set problem. Secondly, a nodes interaction method is introduced to combine the results of binary classifiers. It can guarantee that the predictions are consistent with the hierarchy constraint. The experiments on eight benchmark yeast data sets annotated by the Gene Ontology show the promising performance of the proposed algorithm compared with other state-of-the-art algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioinformatics Algorithms and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle An EMD–SARIMA-Based Modeling Approach for Air Traffic Forecasting
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 139; doi:10.3390/a10040139
Received: 21 September 2017 / Revised: 9 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 14 December 2017
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Abstract
The ever-increasing air traffic demand in China has brought huge pressure on the planning and management of, and investment in, air terminals as well as airline companies. In this context, accurate and adequate short-term air traffic forecasting is essential for the operations of
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The ever-increasing air traffic demand in China has brought huge pressure on the planning and management of, and investment in, air terminals as well as airline companies. In this context, accurate and adequate short-term air traffic forecasting is essential for the operations of those entities. In consideration of such a problem, a hybrid air traffic forecasting model based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and seasonal auto regressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) has been proposed in this paper. The model proposed decomposes the original time series into components at first, and models each component with the SARIMA forecasting model, then integrates all the models together to form the final combined forecast result. By using the monthly air cargo and passenger flow data from the years 2006 to 2014 available at the official website of the Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC), the effectiveness in forecasting of the model proposed has been demonstrated, and by a horizontal performance comparison between several other widely used forecasting models, the advantage of the proposed model has also been proved. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Control-Oriented Models for SO Fuel Cells from the Angle of V&V: Analysis, Simplification Possibilities, Performance
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 140; doi:10.3390/a10040140
Received: 23 October 2017 / Revised: 8 December 2017 / Accepted: 11 December 2017 / Published: 18 December 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, we take a look at the analysis and parameter identification for control-oriented, dynamic models for the thermal subsystem of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) from the systematized point of view of verification and validation (V&V). First, we give a possible
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In this paper, we take a look at the analysis and parameter identification for control-oriented, dynamic models for the thermal subsystem of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) from the systematized point of view of verification and validation (V&V). First, we give a possible classification of models according to their verification degree which depends, for example, on the kind of arithmetic used for both formulation and simulation. Typical SOFC models, consisting of several coupled differential equations for gas preheaters and the temperature distribution in the stack module, do not have analytical solutions because of spatial nonlinearity. Therefore, in the next part of the paper, we describe in detail two possible ways to simplify such models so that the underlying differential equations can be solved analytically while still being sufficiently accurate to serve as the basis for control synthesis. The simplifying assumption is to approximate the heat capacities of the gases by zero-order polynomials (or first-oder polynomials, respectively) in the temperature. In the last, application-oriented part of the paper, we identify the parameters of these models as well as compare their performance and their ability to reflect the reality with the corresponding characteristics of models in which the heat capacities are represented by quadratic polynomials (the usual case). For this purpose, the framework UniVerMeC (Unified Framework for Verified GeoMetric Computations) is used, which allows us to employ different kinds of arithmetics including the interval one. This latter possibility ensures a high level of reliability of simulations and of the subsequent validation. Besides, it helps to take into account bounded uncertainty in measurements. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Linked Data for Life Sciences
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 126; doi:10.3390/a10040126
Received: 27 September 2017 / Revised: 11 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
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Abstract
Massive amounts of data are currently available and being produced at an unprecedented rate in all domains of life sciences worldwide. However, this data is disparately stored and is in different and unstructured formats making it very hard to integrate. In this review,
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Massive amounts of data are currently available and being produced at an unprecedented rate in all domains of life sciences worldwide. However, this data is disparately stored and is in different and unstructured formats making it very hard to integrate. In this review, we examine the state of the art and propose the use of the Linked Data (LD) paradigm, which is a set of best practices for publishing and connecting structured data on the Web in a semantically meaningful format. We argue that utilizing LD in the life sciences will make data sets better Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable. We identify three tiers of the research cycle in life sciences, namely (i) systematic review of the existing body of knowledge, (ii) meta-analysis of data, and (iii) knowledge discovery of novel links across different evidence streams to primarily utilize the proposed LD paradigm. Finally, we demonstrate the use of LD in three use case scenarios along the same research question and discuss the future of data/knowledge integration in life sciences and the challenges ahead. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algorithmic Methods for Computational Molecular Biology)
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