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Forests, Volume 1, Issue 3 (September 2010), Pages 99-193

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Research

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Open AccessArticle A Forest Management Process to Incorporate Multiple Objectives: a Framework for Systematic Public Input
Forests 2010, 1(3), 99-113; doi:10.3390/f1030099
Received: 6 July 2010 / Accepted: 30 July 2010 / Published: 30 July 2010
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (290 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A multi-objective forest management process employing mathematical programming and the analytic hierarchy process has been developed for systematically incorporating public input. The process was tested as a “proof of concept” for four values and five stakeholders in Crown License 5 in New Brunswick.
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A multi-objective forest management process employing mathematical programming and the analytic hierarchy process has been developed for systematically incorporating public input. The process was tested as a “proof of concept” for four values and five stakeholders in Crown License 5 in New Brunswick. The impacts of tradeoffs among various weighting schemes were evaluated. Analyses of stakeholders’ expected satisfaction were conducted for each scenario. The forest management implications of different weighting methods are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
Open AccessArticle Sudden Oak Death-Induced Tanoak Mortality in Coast Redwood Forests: Current and Predicted Impacts to Stand Structure
Forests 2010, 1(3), 114-130; doi:10.3390/f1030114
Received: 24 July 2010 / Revised: 25 August 2010 / Accepted: 26 August 2010 / Published: 27 August 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (937 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus syn. Lithocarpus densiflorus) is one of the most widespread and abundant associates of coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), but little is known about the structural relationships between these two species. Knowledge of such relationships is essential for
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Tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus syn. Lithocarpus densiflorus) is one of the most widespread and abundant associates of coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), but little is known about the structural relationships between these two species. Knowledge of such relationships is essential for a thorough understanding of the impacts of sudden oak death (caused by the exotic pathogen Phytophthora ramorum), which is currently decimating tanoak populations throughout the redwood range. In this study, we utilized a stratified plot design and a stand reconstruction technique to assess structural impacts, at present and in the future, of this emerging disease. We found that residual trees in diseased plots were more aggregated than trees in unaffected plots, and we predicted that the loss of tanoak will lead to the following short-term changes: greater average diameter, height, height-to-live-crown, and crown length, as well as an increase in average nearest neighbor differences for diameter, height, and crown length. In addition, plots lacking tanoak (living or dead)—as compared to plots with tanoak—exhibited greater average diameter and increased nearest neighbor differences with regard to diameter, height, and crown length. We also conducted a preliminary exploration of how sudden oak death-induced structural changes compare with typical old-growth characteristics, and how this disease may affect the structure of old-growth forests. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Boreal Forests of Kamchatka: Structure and Composition
Forests 2010, 1(3), 154-176; doi:10.3390/f1030154
Received: 17 August 2010 / Accepted: 17 September 2010 / Published: 27 September 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (918 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Central Kamchatka abounds in virgin old-growth boreal forest, formed primarily by Larix cajanderi and Betula platyphylla in varying proportions. A series of eight 0.25–0.30 ha plots captured the range of forests present in this region and their structure is described. Overall trends in
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Central Kamchatka abounds in virgin old-growth boreal forest, formed primarily by Larix cajanderi and Betula platyphylla in varying proportions. A series of eight 0.25–0.30 ha plots captured the range of forests present in this region and their structure is described. Overall trends in both uplands and lowlands are for higher sites to be dominated by L. cajanderi with an increasing component of B. platyphylla with decreasing altitude. The tree line on wet sites is commonly formed by mono-dominant B. ermanii forests. Basal area ranged from 7.8–38.1 m2/ha and average tree height from 8.3–24.7 m, both being greater in lowland forests. Size distributions varied considerably among plots, though they were consistently more even for L. cajanderi than B. platyphylla. Upland sites also contained a dense subcanopy of Pinus pumila averaging 38% of ground area. Soil characteristics differed among plots, with upland soils being of lower pH and containing more carbon. Comparisons are drawn with boreal forests elsewhere and the main current threats assessed. These forests provide a potential baseline to contrast with more disturbed regions elsewhere in the world and therefore may be used as a target for restoration efforts or to assess the effects of climate change independent of human impacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
Open AccessArticle Uncertainty in Forest Net Present Value Estimations
Forests 2010, 1(3), 177-193; doi:10.3390/f1030177
Received: 9 August 2010 / Revised: 31 August 2010 / Accepted: 10 September 2010 / Published: 27 September 2010
PDF Full-text (150 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Uncertainty related to inventory data, growth models and timber price fluctuation was investigated in the assessment of forest property net present value (NPV). The degree of uncertainty associated with inventory data was obtained from previous area-based airborne laser scanning (ALS) inventory studies. The
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Uncertainty related to inventory data, growth models and timber price fluctuation was investigated in the assessment of forest property net present value (NPV). The degree of uncertainty associated with inventory data was obtained from previous area-based airborne laser scanning (ALS) inventory studies. The study was performed, applying the Monte Carlo simulation, using stand-level growth and yield projection models and three alternative rates of interest (3, 4 and 5%). Timber price fluctuation was portrayed with geometric mean-reverting (GMR) price models. The analysis was conducted for four alternative forest properties having varying compartment structures: (A) a property having an even development class distribution, (B) sapling stands, (C) young thinning stands, and (D) mature stands. Simulations resulted in predicted yield value (predicted NPV) distributions at both stand and property levels. Our results showed that ALS inventory errors were the most prominent source of uncertainty, leading to a 5.1–7.5% relative deviation of property-level NPV when an interest rate of 3% was applied. Interestingly, ALS inventory led to significant biases at the property level, ranging from 8.9% to 14.1% (3% interest rate). ALS inventory-based bias was the most significant in mature stand properties. Errors related to the growth predictions led to a relative standard deviation in NPV, varying from 1.5% to 4.1%. Growth model-related uncertainty was most significant in sapling stand properties. Timber price fluctuation caused the relative standard deviations ranged from 3.4% to 6.4% (3% interest rate). The combined relative variation caused by inventory errors, growth model errors and timber price fluctuation varied, depending on the property type and applied rates of interest, from 6.4% to 12.6%. By applying the methodology described here, one may take into account the effects of various uncertainty factors in the prediction of forest yield value and to supply the output results with levels of confidence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)

Review

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Open AccessReview A Synthesis of Sierran Forest Biomass Management Studies and Potential Effects on Water Quality
Forests 2010, 1(3), 131-153; doi:10.3390/f1030131
Received: 20 July 2010 / Revised: 20 August 2010 / Accepted: 26 August 2010 / Published: 2 September 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (998 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Lake Tahoe basin, located along the California and Nevada border between the Carson and Sierra Nevada mountain ranges, represents a complex forested ecosystem consisting of numerous sub-watersheds and tributaries that discharge directly to Lake Tahoe. This synthesis focuses on historical and current
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The Lake Tahoe basin, located along the California and Nevada border between the Carson and Sierra Nevada mountain ranges, represents a complex forested ecosystem consisting of numerous sub-watersheds and tributaries that discharge directly to Lake Tahoe. This synthesis focuses on historical and current nutrient pools and the effects of biomass management in watersheds of the basin relative to their potential impacts on nutrient (N, P) related discharge water quality. An accumulating forest floor as a result of fire suppression has resulted in the build-up of large nutrient pools that now provide a “natural” source of long term nutrient availability to surface waters. As a consequence, stand and forest floor replacing wildfire may cause a large magnitude nutrient mobilization impact on runoff water quality. Hence, mechanical harvest and controlled burning have become popular management strategies. The most ecologically significant long-term effects of controlled fire appear to be the loss of C and N from the forest floor. Although the application of controlled fire may have some initial impact on overland/litter interflow nutrient loading, controlled burning in conjunction with mechanical harvest has the potential to improve runoff water quality by reducing N and P discharge and improving the overall health of forest ecosystems without the danger of a high intensity wildfire. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)

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