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Forests, Volume 5, Issue 3 (March 2014), Pages 384-556

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Estimating Single-Tree Crown Biomass of Norway Spruce by Airborne Laser Scanning: A Comparison of Methods with and without the Use of Terrestrial Laser Scanning to Obtain the Ground Reference Data
Forests 2014, 5(3), 384-403; doi:10.3390/f5030384
Received: 14 November 2013 / Revised: 7 January 2014 / Accepted: 19 February 2014 / Published: 28 February 2014
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (1415 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Several methods to conduct single-tree inventories using airborne laser scanning (ALS) have been proposed, and even terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) has recently emerged as a possible tool for the collection of forest inventory data. In the present study, a novel methodological framework for
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Several methods to conduct single-tree inventories using airborne laser scanning (ALS) have been proposed, and even terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) has recently emerged as a possible tool for the collection of forest inventory data. In the present study, a novel methodological framework for a combined use of ALS and TLS in an inventory was tested and compared to a method without the use of TLS. Single-tree Norway spruce crown biomass was predicted using an ALS-model with training data obtained by TLS. ALS and TLS data were collected for sets of sample trees, including 68 trees with both ALS and TLS data. In total, 29 destructively sampled trees were used to fit a TLS crown biomass model, which then was used to predict crown biomass in a separate set of 68 trees. This dataset was subsequently used to fit an ALS crown biomass model. When validating the model, using a separate dataset with accurately measured crown biomass obtained through destructive sampling, the mean error was 32% of the observed mean biomass. Corresponding crown biomass predictions derived with ALS-predicted diameters and the use of conventional and existing allometric models resulted in a mean error of 35%. Thus, in the present study, a slight improvement, in terms of prediction accuracy, was found when using training data with ground reference values obtained by TLS. Full article
Open AccessArticle Do PES Improve the Governance of Forest Restoration?
Forests 2014, 5(3), 404-424; doi:10.3390/f5030404
Received: 9 December 2013 / Revised: 3 March 2014 / Accepted: 6 March 2014 / Published: 17 March 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (769 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Payments for Environmental Services (PES) are praised as innovative policy instruments and they influence the governance of forest restoration efforts in two major ways. The first is the establishment of multi-stakeholder agencies as intermediary bodies between funders and planters to manage the funds
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Payments for Environmental Services (PES) are praised as innovative policy instruments and they influence the governance of forest restoration efforts in two major ways. The first is the establishment of multi-stakeholder agencies as intermediary bodies between funders and planters to manage the funds and to distribute incentives to planters. The second implication is that specific contracts assign objectives to land users in the form of conditions for payments that are believed to increase the chances for sustained impacts on the ground. These implications are important in the assessment of the potential of PES to operate as new and effective funding schemes for forest restoration. They are analyzed by looking at two prominent payments for watershed service programs in Indonesia—Cidanau (Banten province in Java) and West Lombok (Eastern Indonesia)—with combined economic and political science approaches. We derive lessons for the governance of funding efforts (e.g., multi-stakeholder agencies are not a guarantee of success; mixed results are obtained from a reliance on mandatory funding with ad hoc regulations, as opposed to voluntary contributions by the service beneficiary) and for the governance of financial expenditure (e.g., absolute need for evaluation procedures for the internal governance of farmer groups). Furthermore, we observe that these governance features provide no guarantee that restoration plots with the highest relevance for ecosystem services are targeted by the PES. Full article
Open AccessArticle Soil Carbon Dynamics in Residential Lawns Converted from Appalachian Mixed Oak Stands
Forests 2014, 5(3), 425-438; doi:10.3390/f5030425
Received: 7 January 2014 / Revised: 4 March 2014 / Accepted: 5 March 2014 / Published: 19 March 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (659 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The conversion of unmanaged forest land to homesites dominated by managed turfgrass lawns continues to increase and has large potential impacts on biogeochemical cycling. The conversion process from forest into mowed turfgrass involves a major disturbance to soil properties and shift in ecological
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The conversion of unmanaged forest land to homesites dominated by managed turfgrass lawns continues to increase and has large potential impacts on biogeochemical cycling. The conversion process from forest into mowed turfgrass involves a major disturbance to soil properties and shift in ecological conditions, which could affect soil physical, chemical and biological properties, including carbon sequestration. We conducted a study on 64 residential properties, ranging from 5 to 52 years since development, to compare soil carbon content, bulk density, temperature, and moisture, between lawns and the surrounding forests from which they were converted. Homeowners were surveyed on lawn management practices and environmental attitudes, and the relationships between these and soil properties were investigated. Soil bulk density was significantly higher in the upper 10 cm of lawns compared to adjacent forest (35% higher at 0–5 cm and 15.6% higher at 5–10 cm). Total soil C content to 30 cm of lawn (6.5 kg C m−2) and forest (7.1 kg C m−2) marginally differed (p = 0.08), and lawns contained significantly greater C (0.010 g C cm−3) than forests (0.007 g C cm−3) at the 20–30 cm soil depth (p = 0.0137). In the lawns, there was a positive relationship between time since development and surface (0–5 cm) C concentration (p = 0.04), but a negative relationship at 20–30 cm (p = 0.03). Surface soils also exhibited a positive correlation between fertilization frequency and C (p = 0.0005) content. Lawn management intensity (fertilizer and pesticide use) increased with environmental commitment. Homeowners with a higher environmental commitment had lawns with greater soil carbon levels. Our results indicate that converting unmanaged Appalachian hardwood forest into managed, turfgrass-dominated residential landscapes may affect C depth distribution, but results in little change in total soil carbon sequestration in the upper 30 cm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest and Wood Vegetation Carbon Stores and Sequestration)
Open AccessArticle Cellulolytic Bacteria Associated with the Gut of Dendroctonus armandi Larvae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)
Forests 2014, 5(3), 455-465; doi:10.3390/f5030455
Received: 13 January 2014 / Revised: 26 February 2014 / Accepted: 17 March 2014 / Published: 21 March 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (800 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The object of this study was to investigate the cellulolytic bacterial community in the intestine of the Chinese white pine beetle (Dendroctonus armandi) larvae. A total of 91 cellulolytic bacteria were isolated and assigned to 11 genotypes using amplified ribosomal DNA
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The object of this study was to investigate the cellulolytic bacterial community in the intestine of the Chinese white pine beetle (Dendroctonus armandi) larvae. A total of 91 cellulolytic bacteria were isolated and assigned to 11 genotypes using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). Partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis and morphological tests were used to assign the 11 representative isolates. The results showed that the isolates belonged to α-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Members of γ-Proteobacteria were the most frequently represented species and accounted for 73.6% of all the cellulolytic bacteria. The majority of cellulolytic bacteria in D. armandi larva gut were identified as Serratia and accounted for 49.5%, followed by Pseudomonas, which accounted for 22%. In addition, members of Bacillus, Brevundimonas, Paenibacillus, Pseudoxanthomonas, Methylobacterium and Sphingomonas were found in the D. armandi larva gut. Brevundimonas kwangchunensis, Brevundimonas vesicularis, Methylobacterium populi and Pseudoxanthomonas mexicana were reported to be cellulolytic for the first time in this study. Information generated from the present study might contribute towards understanding the relationship between bark beetle and its gut flora. Full article
Open AccessArticle Comparison of Pyrolysis Mass Spectrometry and Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Genetic Analysis of Lignocellulose Chemical Composition in Populus
Forests 2014, 5(3), 466-481; doi:10.3390/f5030466
Received: 15 January 2014 / Revised: 7 March 2014 / Accepted: 12 March 2014 / Published: 21 March 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1309 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Genetic analysis of wood chemical composition is often limited by the cost and throughput of direct analytical methods. The speed and low cost of Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) overcomes many of these limitations, but it is an indirect method relying on calibration
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Genetic analysis of wood chemical composition is often limited by the cost and throughput of direct analytical methods. The speed and low cost of Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) overcomes many of these limitations, but it is an indirect method relying on calibration models that are typically developed and validated with small sample sets. In this study, we used >1500 young greenhouse grown trees from a clonally propagated single Populus family, grown at low and high nitrogen, and compared FT-NIR calibration sample sizes of 150, 250, 500 and 750 on calibration and prediction model statistics, and heritability estimates developed with pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry (pyMBMS) wood chemical composition. As calibration sample size increased from 150 to 750, predictive model statistics improved slightly. Overall, stronger calibration and prediction statistics were obtained with lignin, S-lignin, S/G ratio, and m/z 144 (an ion from cellulose), than with C5 and C6 carbohydrates, and m/z 114 (an ion from xylan). Although small differences in model statistics were observed between the 250 and 500 sample calibration sets, when predicted values were used for calculating genetic control, the 500 sample set gave substantially more similar results to those obtained with the pyMBMS data. With the 500 sample calibration models, genetic correlations obtained with FT-NIR and pyMBMS methods were similar. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis with pyMBMS and FT-NIR predictions identified only three common loci for lignin traits. FT-NIR identified four QTLs that were not found with pyMBMS data, and these QTLs were for the less well predicted carbohydrate traits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Wood Quality from Planted Forests)
Open AccessArticle From Target to Implementation: Perspectives for the International Governance of Forest Landscape Restoration
Forests 2014, 5(3), 482-497; doi:10.3390/f5030482
Received: 11 November 2013 / Revised: 28 February 2014 / Accepted: 7 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (503 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Continuing depletion of forest resources, particularly in tropical developing countries, has turned vast areas of intact ecosystems into urbanized and agricultural lands. The degree of degradation varies, but in most cases, the ecosystem functions and the ability to provide a variety of ecosystem
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Continuing depletion of forest resources, particularly in tropical developing countries, has turned vast areas of intact ecosystems into urbanized and agricultural lands. The degree of degradation varies, but in most cases, the ecosystem functions and the ability to provide a variety of ecosystem services are severely impaired. In addition to many other challenges, successful forest restoration of these lands requires considerable resources and funding, but the ecological, economic and social benefits have the potential to outweigh the investment. As a consequence, at the international policy level, restoration is seen as a field of land use activities that provides significant contributions to simultaneously achieving different environmental and social policy objectives. Accordingly, different policy processes at the international policy level have made ecological landscape restoration a global priority, in particular the Convention on Biological Diversity with the Aichi Target 15 agreed upon in 2010, which aims at restoring 15% of all degraded land areas by 2020. While such ambitious policy targets are important for recognizing and agreeing upon solutions for environmental problems, they are unlikely to be further substantiated or governed. The objective of this paper is thus to develop a complementary governance approach to the top-down implementation of the Aichi target. Drawing on collaborative and network governance theories, we discuss the potential of a collaborative networked governance approach and perspectives for overcoming the inherent challenges facing a rapid large-scale restoration of degraded lands. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effects of Restoration Techniques on Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Florida Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris) Sandhill Forests
Forests 2014, 5(3), 498-517; doi:10.3390/f5030498
Received: 23 December 2013 / Revised: 27 February 2014 / Accepted: 12 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (806 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Historic fire suppression and intensive forest management in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) sandhill forests has resulted in hardwood encroachment and degradation of this fire-dependent ecosystem. Active management is now required to restore native community structure and composition, but little is known
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Historic fire suppression and intensive forest management in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) sandhill forests has resulted in hardwood encroachment and degradation of this fire-dependent ecosystem. Active management is now required to restore native community structure and composition, but little is known about the long-term impacts of typical restoration techniques on ecosystem properties. In 1994, the Longleaf Pine Restoration Project (LPRP) was established in fire-excluded longleaf pine sandhills of Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, to explore the effects of restoration treatments on plant and animal community composition and soil processes. Experimental treatments applied included three hardwood reduction techniques and delayed burn. Reference sites were concurrently monitored. Fifteen years later, we revisited the LPRP plots to determine whether soil processes showed lasting treatment effects. This study showed that there were no differences in soil C and N between the reference and the fire-suppressed plots prior to the treatments, suggesting that soil C and N were relatively resistant to degradation. This study also showed that the restoration treatments had a significant effect by reducing soil C, but this effect was only short-lived (<3 years). In addition, a MRPP (multi-response permutation procedure) analysis showed that only the herbicide treatment was still different from the reference plots 15 years after the initial treatments. Thus, this study suggests that repeated fires (or lack of) or hardwood removal treatments have little detectable effect on soil nutrients in these nutrient-poor ecosystems. Full article
Open AccessArticle Process-Based Modeling to Assess the Effects of Recent Climatic Variation on Site Productivity and Forest Function across Western North America
Forests 2014, 5(3), 518-534; doi:10.3390/f5030518
Received: 23 December 2013 / Revised: 11 February 2014 / Accepted: 17 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2023 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A process-based forest growth model, 3-PG (Physiological Principles Predicting Growth), parameterized with values of soil properties constrained by satellite-derived estimates of maximum leaf area index (LAImax), was run for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) to contrast the extent to which site
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A process-based forest growth model, 3-PG (Physiological Principles Predicting Growth), parameterized with values of soil properties constrained by satellite-derived estimates of maximum leaf area index (LAImax), was run for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) to contrast the extent to which site growth potential might vary across western North America between a cool, wet period (1950–1975) and a more recent, generally warmer and drier one (2000–2009). LAImax represents a surrogate for overall site growth potential, as demonstrated from a strong correlation between the two variables, with the latter based on the culmination of mean annual increment estimates made at 3356 ground-based U.S. Forest Service survey plots across the states of Oregon and Washington. Results indicate that since 2000, predicted LAImax has decreased more than 20% in portions of the Southwest USA and for much of the forested area in western Alberta. Similar percentage increases in LAImax were predicted for parts of British Columbia, Idaho and Montana. The modeling analysis included an assessment of changes in seasonal constraints on gross primary production (GPP). A general reduction in limitations caused by spring frost occurred across the entire study area. This has led to a longer growing season, along with notable increases in summer evaporative demand and soil drought for much of the study area away from the maritime influence of the Pacific Ocean. Full article
Open AccessArticle Biomass Equations for Tropical Forest Tree Species in Mozambique
Forests 2014, 5(3), 535-556; doi:10.3390/f5030535
Received: 9 December 2013 / Revised: 17 March 2014 / Accepted: 17 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1125 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chanfuta (Afzelia quanzensis Welw.), Jambire (Millettia stuhlmannii Taub.) and Umbila (Pterocarpus angolensis D.C.) are, among others, three of the main tropical tree species producing commercial timber in Mozambique. The present study employed destructive biomass estimation methods at three localities in
[...] Read more.
Chanfuta (Afzelia quanzensis Welw.), Jambire (Millettia stuhlmannii Taub.) and Umbila (Pterocarpus angolensis D.C.) are, among others, three of the main tropical tree species producing commercial timber in Mozambique. The present study employed destructive biomass estimation methods at three localities in Mozambique (Inhaminga, Mavume, and Tome) to acquire data on the mean diameter at breast height (DBH), and height of trees sampled in 21 stands each of Chanfuta and Jambire, and 15 stands of Umbila. Mean diameter at breast height (DBH) (ob) for Chanfuta, Jambire, and Umbila was: 33.8 ± 12.6 (range 13.5–61.1), 33.4 ± 7.4 (range 21.0–52.2), and 27.0 ± 9.5 (range 14.0–46.5) cm. The mean total values for biomass (kg) of trees of Chanfuta, Jambire, and Umbila trees were 864, 1016, and 321 respectively. The mean percentages of total tree biomass as stem, branch and leaf respectively were 54, 43, and 3 for Chanfuta; 77, 22, and 1 for Jambire; and 46, 51, and 3 for Umbila. The best fit species-specific equation for estimating total above ground biomass (AGB) was the power equation with only DBH considered as independent variable yielding coefficient of determination (R2) ranging from 0.89 to 0.97. At stand level, a total mean of 27.3 tons ha1 biomass was determined of which studied species represented 94.6%. At plot level, total mean biomass for Jambire was 11.8 tons ha1, Chanfuta and Umbila 9.9 and 4.1 tons ha1 respectively. The developed power equation fitted total and stem biomass data well and could be used for biomass prediction of the studied species in Mozambique. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview An Overview of Integrated Management of Leaf-Cutting Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Brazilian Forest Plantations
Forests 2014, 5(3), 439-454; doi:10.3390/f5030439
Received: 18 December 2013 / Revised: 19 February 2014 / Accepted: 19 February 2014 / Published: 20 March 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (572 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Brazilian forest producers have developed integrated management programs to increase the effectiveness of the control of leaf-cutting ants of the genera Atta and Acromyrmex. These measures reduced the costs and quantity of insecticides used in the plantations. Such integrated management programs are
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Brazilian forest producers have developed integrated management programs to increase the effectiveness of the control of leaf-cutting ants of the genera Atta and Acromyrmex. These measures reduced the costs and quantity of insecticides used in the plantations. Such integrated management programs are based on monitoring the ant nests, as well as the need and timing of the control methods. Chemical control employing baits is the most commonly used method, however, biological, mechanical and cultural control methods, besides plant resistance, can reduce the quantity of chemicals applied in the plantations. Full article

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