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Forests 2017, 8(3), 87; doi:10.3390/f8030087

Acute Oak Decline and Agrilus biguttatus: The Co-Occurrence of Stem Bleeding and D-Shaped Emergence Holes in Great Britain

1
Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park campus, Ascot SL5 7PY, UK
2
Centre for Ecosystems, Society and Biosecurity, Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham GU 4LH, UK
3
Department of Computational and Systems Biology, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden AL5 2JQ, UK
4
Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, Silwood Park campus, Ascot SL5 7PY, UK
5
NIAB East Malling Research (EMR), New Road, East Malling ME19 6BJ, UK
6
Animal and Plant Health Unit, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), 43126 Parma, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sigrid Netherer
Received: 10 January 2017 / Revised: 2 March 2017 / Accepted: 14 March 2017 / Published: 17 March 2017
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Abstract

Acute Oak Decline (AOD) is a new condition affecting both species of native oak, Quercus robur and Quercus petraea, in Great Britain. The decline is characterised by a distinctive set of externally visible stem symptoms; bark cracks that “weep” dark exudate are found above necrotic lesions in the inner bark. Emergence holes of the buprestid beetle, Agrilus biguttatus are often also seen on the stems of oak within affected woodlands. This investigation assesses the extent to which the external symptoms of these two agents co-occur and reveals the spatial and temporal patterns present in affected woodland. Annual monitoring in eight affected woodlands showed that stem bleeding and emergence holes frequently occur on the same trees, with new emergence holes significantly more likely to occur when trees already have stem bleeds. Trials with coloured prism traps confirm A. biguttatus was present at all experimental sites. Beetle emergence is linked primarily to a few heavily declining trees, indicating that susceptibility may vary between hosts and that those with reduced health may be predisposed to AOD. Stem bleeds occur on trees in close proximity to the locations of trees with exit holes. View Full-Text
Keywords: decline; predisposition; Agrilus; prism traps decline; predisposition; Agrilus; prism traps
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MDPI and ACS Style

Brown, N.; Jeger, M.; Kirk, S.; Williams, D.; Xu, X.; Pautasso, M.; Denman, S. Acute Oak Decline and Agrilus biguttatus: The Co-Occurrence of Stem Bleeding and D-Shaped Emergence Holes in Great Britain. Forests 2017, 8, 87.

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