Next Article in Journal
Earlywood and Latewood Widths of Picea chihuahuana Show Contrasting Sensitivity to Seasonal Climate
Previous Article in Journal
Optimizing the Wood Value Chain in Northern Norway Taking Into Account National and Regional Economic Trade-Offs
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Forests 2017, 8(5), 169; doi:10.3390/f8050169

Reducing Reforestation Costs in Lebanon: Adaptive Field Trials

1
United Nations Development Programme, Bekaa Office, Ghazzah Center, Bloc B, 2nd floor, Chtaura, main road, Bekaa 1802, Lebanon
2
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, (located off-campus) 827 Countryside Blvd, Hailey, ID 83333, USA
3
Independent Writer/Researcher, 827 Countryside Blvd, Hailey, ID 83333, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Thomas J. Straka and Timothy A. Martin
Received: 3 February 2017 / Revised: 20 April 2017 / Accepted: 6 May 2017 / Published: 17 May 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3696 KB, uploaded 17 May 2017]   |  

Abstract

Lebanon’s Ministry of Environment initiated a project in 2009 to determine low-cost reforestation techniques for stone pine (Pinus pinea) and Lebanon cedar (Cedrus libani) for large-scale land rehabilitation activities in the arid Middle East. Irrigation (several techniques vs. no water), planting (8- to 18-month-old seedlings), seeding, and soil preparation methods were evaluated in three sets of adaptive management field trials. The aim was to reduce reforestation costs while still achieving sufficient regeneration. A key result for management was that non-irrigated seed planting of stone pine and possibly of Lebanon cedar showed promise for cost-effective reforestation and could be competitive with seedlings, given correct seed source and planting conditions. Stone pine seeds collected from nearby mother trees and planted without irrigation on sandy soil showed 35% survival for <600 USD/ha; seedlings planted without irrigation cost about 2500 USD/ha and achieved 50–70% survival (costs based on 800 seedlings/ha). Water supplements increased establishment costs over 2 years without concomitant improvements to survival. Future studies should evaluate how soil texture and soil preparation interact with other factors to affect seed germination and survival for each species. View Full-Text
Keywords: dryland forestry; seedlings; seeding; Cedrus libani; Pinus pinea; nursery techniques dryland forestry; seedlings; seeding; Cedrus libani; Pinus pinea; nursery techniques
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Haroutunian, G.G.; Chojnacky, D.C.; El Riachy, R.; Chojnacky, C.C. Reducing Reforestation Costs in Lebanon: Adaptive Field Trials. Forests 2017, 8, 169.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Forests EISSN 1999-4907 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top