Next Article in Journal
HIV-1 Induced Bystander Apoptosis
Next Article in Special Issue
Insight into Alternative Approaches for Control of Avian Influenza in Poultry, with Emphasis on Highly Pathogenic H5N1
Previous Article in Journal
Multifunctional Nature of the Arenavirus RING Finger Protein Z
Previous Article in Special Issue
Updated Values for Molecular Diagnosis for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Viruses 2012, 4(11), 3012-3019; doi:10.3390/v4113012

Rapid Detection and Differentiation of Swine-Origin Influenza A Virus (H1N1/2009) from Other Seasonal Influenza A Viruses

Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Division of Viral Products, Office of Vaccines Research and Review, CBER, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 August 2012 / Revised: 1 November 2012 / Accepted: 1 November 2012 / Published: 9 November 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue H5N1 Influenza Virus)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [449 KB, uploaded 12 May 2015]   |  


We previously developed a rapid and simple gold nanoparticle(NP)-based genomic microarray assay for identification of the avian H5N1 virus and its discrimination from other influenza A virus strains (H1N1, H3N2). In this study, we expanded the platform to detect the 2009 swine-origin influenza A virus (H1N1/2009). Multiple specific capture and intermediate oligonucleotides were designed for the matrix (M), hemagglutinin (HA), and neuraminidase (NA) genes of the H1N1/2009 virus. The H1N1/2009 microarrays were printed in the same format as those of the seasonal influenza H1N1 and H3N2 for the HA, NA, and M genes. Viral RNA was tested using capture-target-intermediate oligonucleotide hybridization and gold NP-mediated silver staining. The signal from the 4 capture-target-intermediates of the HA and NA genes was specific for H1N1/2009 virus and showed no cross hybridization with viral RNA from other influenza strains H1N1, H3N2, and H5N1. All of the 3 M gene captures showed strong affinity with H1N1/2009 viral RNA, with 2 out of the 3 M gene captures showing cross hybridization with the H1N1, H3N2, and H5N1 samples tested. The current assay was able to detect H1N1/2009 and distinguish it from other influenza A viruses. This new method may be useful for simultaneous detection and subtyping of influenza A viruses and can be rapidly modified to detect other emerging influenza strains in public health settings. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoparticle; H5N1; swine influenza A virus; nanomicroarray nanoparticle; H5N1; swine influenza A virus; nanomicroarray

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, J.; Wang, X.; Ragupathy, V.; Zhang, P.; Tang, W.; Ye, Z.; Eichelberger, M.; Hewlett, I. Rapid Detection and Differentiation of Swine-Origin Influenza A Virus (H1N1/2009) from Other Seasonal Influenza A Viruses. Viruses 2012, 4, 3012-3019.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top