Human Metapneumovirus Antagonism of Innate Immune Responses
AbstractHuman metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a recently identified RNA virus belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family, which includes several major human and animal pathogens. Epidemiological studies indicate that hMPV is a significant human respiratory pathogen with worldwide distribution. It is associated with respiratory illnesses in children, adults, and immunocompromised patients, ranging from upper respiratory tract infections to severe bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Interferon (IFN) represents a major line of defense against virus infection, and in response, viruses have evolved countermeasures to inhibit IFN production as well as IFN signaling. Although the strategies of IFN evasion are similar, the specific mechanisms by which paramyxoviruses inhibit IFN responses are quite diverse. In this review, we will present an overview of the strategies that hMPV uses to subvert cellular signaling in airway epithelial cells, the major target of infection, as well as in primary immune cells.
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Kolli, D.; Bao, X.; Casola, A. Human Metapneumovirus Antagonism of Innate Immune Responses. Viruses 2012, 4, 3551-3571.
Kolli D, Bao X, Casola A. Human Metapneumovirus Antagonism of Innate Immune Responses. Viruses. 2012; 4(12):3551-3571.Chicago/Turabian Style
Kolli, Deepthi; Bao, Xiaoyong; Casola, Antonella. 2012. "Human Metapneumovirus Antagonism of Innate Immune Responses." Viruses 4, no. 12: 3551-3571.