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Viruses 2012, 4(4), 424-446; doi:10.3390/v4040424
Review

Interplay between Interferon-Mediated Innate Immunity and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

1
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1
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1
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2
 and
1,*
1 Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61802, USA 2 Pfizer Animal Health, Kalamazoo, MI 49007, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 January 2012 / Revised: 15 March 2012 / Accepted: 18 March 2012 / Published: 2 April 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Arteriviruses and Coronaviruses)
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Abstract

Innate immunity is the first line of defense against viral infection, and in turn, viruses have evolved to evade host immune surveillance. As a result, viruses may persist in host and develop chronic infections. Type I interferons (IFN-α/β) are among the most potent antiviral cytokines triggered by viral infections. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a disease of pigs that is characterized by negligible induction of type I IFNs and viral persistence for an extended period. For IFN production, RIG-I/MDA5 and JAK-STAT pathways are two major signaling pathways, and recent studies indicate that PRRS virus is armed to modulate type I IFN responses during infection. This review describes the viral strategies for modulation of type I IFN responses. At least three non‑structural proteins (Nsp1, Nsp2, and Nsp11) and a structural protein (N nucleocapsid protein) have been identified and characterized to play roles in the IFN suppression and NF-κB pathways. Nsp’s are early proteins while N is a late protein, suggesting that additional signaling pathways may be involved in addition to the IFN pathway. The understanding of molecular bases for virus-mediated modulation of host innate immune signaling will help us design new generation vaccines and control PRRS.
Keywords: arterivirus; interferon; PRRS; PRRSV; RIG-I; MDA5; NF-κB; JAK-STAT; non-structural proteins; Nsp; nucleocapsid arterivirus; interferon; PRRS; PRRSV; RIG-I; MDA5; NF-κB; JAK-STAT; non-structural proteins; Nsp; nucleocapsid
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Sun, Y.; Han, M.; Kim, C.; Calvert, J.G.; Yoo, D. Interplay between Interferon-Mediated Innate Immunity and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus. Viruses 2012, 4, 424-446.

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