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Viruses, Volume 4, Issue 7 (July 2012), Pages 1034-1181

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Molecular Identification of Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus Infection in Apis mellifera Colonies in Japan
Viruses 2012, 4(7), 1093-1103; doi:10.3390/v4071093
Received: 7 June 2012 / Revised: 15 June 2012 / Accepted: 23 June 2012 / Published: 29 June 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (607 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) infection causes chronic paralysis and loss of workers in honey bee colonies around the world. Although CBPV shows a worldwide distribution, it had not been molecularly detected in Japan. Our investigation of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana japonica
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Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) infection causes chronic paralysis and loss of workers in honey bee colonies around the world. Although CBPV shows a worldwide distribution, it had not been molecularly detected in Japan. Our investigation of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana japonica colonies with RT-PCR has revealed CBPV infection in A. mellifera but not A. c. japonica colonies in Japan. The prevalence of CBPV is low compared with that of other viruses: deformed wing virus (DWV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), Israel acute paralysis virus (IAPV), and sac brood virus (SBV), previously reported in Japan. Because of its low prevalence (5.6%) in A. mellifera colonies, the incidence of colony losses by CBPV infection must be sporadic in Japan. The presence of the (−) strand RNA in dying workers suggests that CBPV infection and replication may contribute to their symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates a geographic separation of Japanese isolates from European, Uruguayan, and mainland US isolates. The lack of major exchange of honey bees between Europe/mainland US and Japan for the recent 26 years (1985–2010) may have resulted in the geographic separation of Japanese CBPV isolates. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Legume Lectins Inhibit Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 2 Infection by Interfering with the Entry
Viruses 2012, 4(7), 1104-1115; doi:10.3390/v4071104
Received: 30 May 2012 / Revised: 15 June 2012 / Accepted: 27 June 2012 / Published: 2 July 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1367 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Three lectins with different sugar binding specificities were investigated for anti-viral activity against human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV-2). The lectins, concanavalin A (Con A), lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA) and peanut agglutinin (PNA), inhibited cell fusion and hemadsorption induced by hPIV-2. Virus nucleoprotein
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Three lectins with different sugar binding specificities were investigated for anti-viral activity against human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV-2). The lectins, concanavalin A (Con A), lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA) and peanut agglutinin (PNA), inhibited cell fusion and hemadsorption induced by hPIV-2. Virus nucleoprotein (NP) gene synthesis was largely inhibited, but fusion (F) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene syntheses were not. An indirect immunofluorescence study showed that Con A inhibited virus NP, F and HN protein syntheses, but LCA did not completely inhibit them, and that PNA inhibited only NP protein synthesis. Using a recombinant green fluorescence protein-expressing hPIV-2, without matrix protein (rghPIV-2ΔM), it was found that virus entry into the cells was not completely prevented. The lectins considerably reduced the number of viruses released compared with that of virus infected cells. The lectins bound to cell surface within 10 min, and many aggregates were observed at 30 min. Con A and LCA slightly disrupted actin microfilaments and microtubules, but PNA had almost no effect on them. These results indicated that the inhibitory effects of the lectins were caused mainly by the considerable prevention of virus adsorption to the cells by the lectin binding to their receptors. Full article
Open AccessArticle Complete Nucleotide Sequence of Watermelon Chlorotic Stunt Virus Originating from Oman
Viruses 2012, 4(7), 1169-1181; doi:10.3390/v4071169
Received: 21 June 2012 / Revised: 6 July 2012 / Accepted: 20 July 2012 / Published: 24 July 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (3195 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) is a bipartite begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) that causes economic losses to cucurbits, particularly watermelon, across the Middle East and North Africa. Recently squash (Cucurbita moschata) grown in an experimental field in Oman
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Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) is a bipartite begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) that causes economic losses to cucurbits, particularly watermelon, across the Middle East and North Africa. Recently squash (Cucurbita moschata) grown in an experimental field in Oman was found to display symptoms such as leaf curling, yellowing and stunting, typical of a begomovirus infection. Sequence analysis of the virus isolated from squash showed 97.6–99.9% nucleotide sequence identity to previously described WmCSV isolates for the DNA A component and 93–98% identity for the DNA B component. Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation to Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in the development of symptoms fifteen days post inoculation. This is the first bipartite begomovirus identified in Oman. Overall the Oman isolate showed the highest levels of sequence identity to a WmCSV isolate originating from Iran, which was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. This suggests that WmCSV present in Oman has been introduced from Iran. The significance of this finding is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses)

Review

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Open AccessReview Photodynamic Inactivation of Mammalian Viruses and Bacteriophages
Viruses 2012, 4(7), 1034-1074; doi:10.3390/v4071034
Received: 11 May 2012 / Revised: 12 June 2012 / Accepted: 13 June 2012 / Published: 26 June 2012
Cited by 33 | PDF Full-text (677 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) has been used to inactivate microorganisms through the use of photosensitizers. The inactivation of mammalian viruses and bacteriophages by photosensitization has been applied with success since the first decades of the last century. Due to the fact that mammalian viruses
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Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) has been used to inactivate microorganisms through the use of photosensitizers. The inactivation of mammalian viruses and bacteriophages by photosensitization has been applied with success since the first decades of the last century. Due to the fact that mammalian viruses are known to pose a threat to public health and that bacteriophages are frequently used as models of mammalian viruses, it is important to know and understand the mechanisms and photodynamic procedures involved in their photoinactivation. The aim of this review is to (i) summarize the main approaches developed until now for the photodynamic inactivation of bacteriophages and mammalian viruses and, (ii) discuss and compare the present state of the art of mammalian viruses PDI with phage photoinactivation, with special focus on the most relevant mechanisms, molecular targets and factors affecting the viral inactivation process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Bacteriophage Research) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview Immune Evasion Strategies of Ranaviruses and Innate Immune Responses to These Emerging Pathogens
Viruses 2012, 4(7), 1075-1092; doi:10.3390/v4071075
Received: 22 May 2012 / Revised: 19 June 2012 / Accepted: 20 June 2012 / Published: 28 June 2012
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (1314 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ranaviruses (RV, Iridoviridae) are large double-stranded DNA viruses that infect fish, amphibians and reptiles. For ecological and commercial reasons, considerable attention has been drawn to the increasing prevalence of ranaviral infections of wild populations and in aquacultural settings. Importantly, RVs appear to
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Ranaviruses (RV, Iridoviridae) are large double-stranded DNA viruses that infect fish, amphibians and reptiles. For ecological and commercial reasons, considerable attention has been drawn to the increasing prevalence of ranaviral infections of wild populations and in aquacultural settings. Importantly, RVs appear to be capable of crossing species barriers of numerous poikilotherms, suggesting that these pathogens possess a broad host range and potent immune evasion mechanisms. Indeed, while some of the 95–100 predicted ranavirus genes encode putative evasion proteins (e.g., vIFα, vCARD), roughly two-thirds of them do not share significant sequence identity with known viral or eukaryotic genes. Accordingly, the investigation of ranaviral virulence and immune evasion strategies is promising for elucidating potential antiviral targets. In this regard, recombination-based technologies are being employed to knock out gene candidates in the best-characterized RV member, Frog Virus (FV3). Concurrently, by using animal infection models with extensively characterized immune systems, such as the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, it is becoming evident that components of innate immunity are at the forefront of virus-host interactions. For example, cells of the macrophage lineage represent important combatants of RV infections while themselves serving as targets for viral infection, maintenance and possibly dissemination. This review focuses on the recent advances in the understanding of the RV immune evasion strategies with emphasis on the roles of the innate immune system in ranaviral infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Evasion)
Open AccessReview T Cell Memory in the Context of Persistent Herpes Viral Infections
Viruses 2012, 4(7), 1116-1143; doi:10.3390/v4071116
Received: 4 July 2012 / Revised: 18 July 2012 / Accepted: 19 July 2012 / Published: 20 July 2012
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (738 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The generation of a functional memory T cell pool upon primary encounter with an infectious pathogen is, in combination with humoral immunity, an essential process to confer protective immunity against reencounters with the same pathogen. A prerequisite for the generation and maintenance of
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The generation of a functional memory T cell pool upon primary encounter with an infectious pathogen is, in combination with humoral immunity, an essential process to confer protective immunity against reencounters with the same pathogen. A prerequisite for the generation and maintenance of long-lived memory T cells is the clearance of antigen after infection, which is fulfilled upon resolution of acute viral infections. Memory T cells play also a fundamental role during persistent viral infections by contributing to relative control and immuosurveillance of active replication or viral reactivation, respectively. However, the dynamics, the phenotype, the mechanisms of maintenance and the functionality of memory T cells which develop upon acute/resolved infection as opposed to chronic/latent infection differ substantially. In this review we summarize current knowledge about memory CD8 T cell responses elicited during α-, β-, and γ-herpes viral infections with major emphasis on the induction, maintenance and function of virus-specific memory CD8 T cells during viral latency and we discuss how the peculiar features of these memory CD8 T cell responses are related to the biology of these persistently infecting viruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Evasion)
Open AccessReview Influenza Virus-Mediated Membrane Fusion: Determinants of Hemagglutinin Fusogenic Activity and Experimental Approaches for Assessing Virus Fusion
Viruses 2012, 4(7), 1144-1168; doi:10.3390/v4071144
Received: 7 June 2012 / Revised: 11 July 2012 / Accepted: 17 July 2012 / Published: 24 July 2012
Cited by 33 | PDF Full-text (889 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hemagglutinin (HA) is the viral protein that facilitates the entry of influenza viruses into host cells. This protein controls two critical aspects of entry: virus binding and membrane fusion. In order for HA to carry out these functions, it must first undergo a
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Hemagglutinin (HA) is the viral protein that facilitates the entry of influenza viruses into host cells. This protein controls two critical aspects of entry: virus binding and membrane fusion. In order for HA to carry out these functions, it must first undergo a priming step, proteolytic cleavage, which renders it fusion competent. Membrane fusion commences from inside the endosome after a drop in lumenal pH and an ensuing conformational change in HA that leads to the hemifusion of the outer membrane leaflets of the virus and endosome, the formation of a stalk between them, followed by pore formation. Thus, the fusion machinery is an excellent target for antiviral compounds, especially those that target the conserved stem region of the protein. However, traditional ensemble fusion assays provide a somewhat limited ability to directly quantify fusion partly due to the inherent averaging of individual fusion events resulting from experimental constraints. Inspired by the gains achieved by single molecule experiments and analysis of stochastic events, recently-developed individual virion imaging techniques and analysis of single fusion events has provided critical information about individual virion behavior, discriminated intermediate fusion steps within a single virion, and allowed the study of the overall population dynamics without the loss of discrete, individual information. In this article, we first start by reviewing the determinants of HA fusogenic activity and the viral entry process, highlight some open questions, and then describe the experimental approaches for assaying fusion that will be useful in developing the most effective therapies in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus-Induced Membrane Fusion)

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