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Viruses, Volume 6, Issue 5 (May 2014), Pages 1876-2241

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Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Broad-Range PCR-Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) System and Virus Microarrays for Virus Detection
Viruses 2014, 6(5), 1876-1896; doi:10.3390/v6051876
Received: 18 December 2013 / Revised: 4 March 2014 / Accepted: 15 April 2014 / Published: 25 April 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1129 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
Advanced nucleic acid-based technologies are powerful research tools for novel virus discovery but need to be standardized for broader applications such as virus detection in biological products and clinical samples. We have used well-characterized retrovirus stocks to evaluate the limit of detection [...] Read more.
Advanced nucleic acid-based technologies are powerful research tools for novel virus discovery but need to be standardized for broader applications such as virus detection in biological products and clinical samples. We have used well-characterized retrovirus stocks to evaluate the limit of detection (LOD) for broad-range PCR with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS or PLEX-ID), RT-PCR assays, and virus microarrays. The results indicated that in the absence of background cellular nucleic acids, PLEX-ID and RT-PCR had a similar LOD for xenotropic murine retrovirus-related virus (XMRV; 3.12 particles per µL) whereas sensitivity of virus detection was 10-fold greater using virus microarrays. When virus was spiked into a background of cellular nucleic acids, the LOD using PLEX-ID remained the same, whereas virus detection by RT-PCR was 10-fold less sensitive, and no virus could be detected by microarrays. Expected endogenous retrovirus (ERV) sequences were detected in cell lines tested and known species-specific viral sequences were detected in bovine serum and porcine trypsin. A follow-up strategy was developed using PCR amplification, nucleotide sequencing, and bioinformatics to demonstrate that an RD114-like retrovirus sequence that was detected by PLEX-ID in canine cell lines (Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and Cf2Th canine thymus) was due to defective, endogenous gammaretrovirus-related sequences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Open AccessArticle Dynamics of the Presence of Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus in Honey Bee Colonies with Colony Collapse Disorder
Viruses 2014, 6(5), 2012-2027; doi:10.3390/v6052012
Received: 31 March 2014 / Revised: 27 April 2014 / Accepted: 29 April 2014 / Published: 5 May 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (841 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The determinants of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a particular case of collapse of honey bee colonies, are still unresolved. Viruses including the Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) were associated with CCD. We found an apiary with colonies showing typical CCD characteristics that [...] Read more.
The determinants of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a particular case of collapse of honey bee colonies, are still unresolved. Viruses including the Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) were associated with CCD. We found an apiary with colonies showing typical CCD characteristics that bore high loads of IAPV, recovered some colonies from collapse and tested the hypothesis if IAPV was actively replicating in them and infectious to healthy bees. We found that IAPV was the dominant pathogen and it replicated actively in the colonies: viral titers decreased from April to September and increased from September to December. IAPV extracted from infected bees was highly infectious to healthy pupae: they showed several-fold amplification of the viral genome and synthesis of the virion protein VP3. The health of recovered colonies was seriously compromised. Interestingly, a rise of IAPV genomic copies in two colonies coincided with their subsequent collapse. Our results do not imply IAPV as the cause of CCD but indicate that once acquired and induced to replication it acts as an infectious factor that affects the health of the colonies and may determine their survival. This is the first follow up outside the US of CCD-colonies bearing IAPV under natural conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Viruses)
Open AccessArticle Characterization of Cytomegalovirus Lung Infection in Non-HIV Infected Children
Viruses 2014, 6(5), 2038-2051; doi:10.3390/v6052038
Received: 21 January 2014 / Revised: 29 March 2014 / Accepted: 3 April 2014 / Published: 7 May 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (874 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a prevalent pathogen in the immunocompromised host and invasive pneumonia is a feared complication of the virus in this population. In this pediatric case series we characterized CMV lung infection in 15 non-HIV infected children (median age 3 years; [...] Read more.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a prevalent pathogen in the immunocompromised host and invasive pneumonia is a feared complication of the virus in this population. In this pediatric case series we characterized CMV lung infection in 15 non-HIV infected children (median age 3 years; IQR 0.2–4.9 years), using current molecular and imaging diagnostic modalities, in combination with respiratory signs and symptoms. The most prominent clinical and laboratory findings included cough (100%), hypoxemia (100%), diffuse adventitious breath sounds (100%) and increased respiratory effort (93%). All patients had abnormal lung images characterized by ground glass opacity/consolidation in 80% of cases. CMV was detected in the lung either by CMV PCR in bronchoalveolar lavage (82% detection rate) or histology/immunohistochemistry in lung biopsy (100% detection rate). CMV caused respiratory failure in 47% of children infected and the overall mortality rate was 13.3%. Conclusion: CMV pneumonia is a potential lethal disease in non-HIV infected children that requires a high-index of suspicion. Common clinical and radiological patterns such as hypoxemia, diffuse adventitious lung sounds and ground-glass pulmonary opacities may allow early identification of CMV lung infection in the pediatric population, which may lead to prompt initiation of antiviral therapy and better clinical outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent CMV Research) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Evidence for Retrovirus and Paramyxovirus Infection of Multiple Bat Species in China
Viruses 2014, 6(5), 2138-2154; doi:10.3390/v6052138
Received: 19 February 2014 / Revised: 27 April 2014 / Accepted: 6 May 2014 / Published: 16 May 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1047 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Bats are recognized reservoirs for many emerging zoonotic viruses of public health importance. Identifying and cataloguing the viruses of bats is a logical approach to evaluate the range of potential zoonoses of bat origin. We characterized the fecal pathogen microbiome of both [...] Read more.
Bats are recognized reservoirs for many emerging zoonotic viruses of public health importance. Identifying and cataloguing the viruses of bats is a logical approach to evaluate the range of potential zoonoses of bat origin. We characterized the fecal pathogen microbiome of both insectivorous and frugivorous bats, incorporating 281 individual bats comprising 20 common species, which were sampled in three locations of Yunnan province, by combining reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays and next-generation sequencing. Seven individual bats were paramyxovirus-positive by RT-PCR using degenerate primers, and these paramyxoviruses were mainly classified into three genera (Rubulavirus, Henipavirus and Jeilongvirus). Various additional novel pathogens were detected in the paramyxovirus-positive bats using Illumina sequencing. A total of 7066 assembled contigs (≥200 bp) were constructed, and 105 contigs matched eukaryotic viruses (of them 103 belong to 2 vertebrate virus families, 1 insect virus, and 1 mycovirus), 17 were parasites, and 4913 were homologous to prokaryotic microorganisms. Among the 103 vertebrate viral contigs, 79 displayed low identity (<70%) to known viruses including human viruses at the amino acid level, suggesting that these belong to novel and genetically divergent viruses. Overall, the most frequently identified viruses, particularly in bats from the family Hipposideridae, were retroviruses. The present study expands our understanding of the bat virome in species commonly found in Yunnan, China, and provides insight into the overall diversity of viruses that may be capable of directly or indirectly crossing over into humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses and Bats)
Open AccessArticle Regional Changes in the Sequence of Cotton Leaf Curl Multan Betasatellite
Viruses 2014, 6(5), 2186-2203; doi:10.3390/v6052186
Received: 24 March 2014 / Revised: 2 May 2014 / Accepted: 12 May 2014 / Published: 23 May 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3258 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) in Pakistan and northwestern India is caused by monopartite begomoviruses in association with an essential, disease-specific satellite, Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB). Following a recent upsurge in CLCuD problems in Sindh province (southern Pakistan), sequences of [...] Read more.
Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) in Pakistan and northwestern India is caused by monopartite begomoviruses in association with an essential, disease-specific satellite, Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB). Following a recent upsurge in CLCuD problems in Sindh province (southern Pakistan), sequences of clones of CLCuMB were obtained from Sindh and Punjab province (central Pakistan), where CLCuD has been a problem since the mid-1980s. The sequences were compared to all sequences of CLCuMB available in the databases. Analysis of the sequences shows extensive sequence variation in CLCuMB, most likely resulting from recombination. The range of sequence variants differ between Sindh, the Punjab and northwestern India. The possible significance of the findings with respect to movement of the CLCuD between the three regions is discussed. Additionally, the lack of sequence variation within the only coding sequence of CLCuMB suggests that the betasatellite is not involved in resistance breaking which became a problem after 2001 in the Punjab and subsequently also in northwestern India. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Viruses of Plants, Fungi and Protoza)
Open AccessArticle Development and Application of Quantitative Detection Method for Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHSV) Genogroup IVa
Viruses 2014, 6(5), 2204-2213; doi:10.3390/v6052204
Received: 7 April 2014 / Revised: 8 May 2014 / Accepted: 12 May 2014 / Published: 23 May 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (618 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a problematic pathogen in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) aquaculture farms in Korea. Thus, it is necessary to develop a rapid and accurate diagnostic method to detect this virus. We developed a quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) [...] Read more.
Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a problematic pathogen in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) aquaculture farms in Korea. Thus, it is necessary to develop a rapid and accurate diagnostic method to detect this virus. We developed a quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) method based on the nucleocapsid (N) gene sequence of Korean VHSV isolate (Genogroup IVa). The slope and R2 values of the primer set developed in this study were −0.2928 (96% efficiency) and 0.9979, respectively. Its comparison with viral infectivity calculated by traditional quantifying method (TCID50) showed a similar pattern of kinetic changes in vitro and in vivo. The qRT-PCR method reduced detection time compared to that of TCID50, making it a very useful tool for VHSV diagnosis. Full article

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview Vampire Bat Rabies: Ecology, Epidemiology and Control
Viruses 2014, 6(5), 1911-1928; doi:10.3390/v6051911
Received: 3 February 2014 / Revised: 4 April 2014 / Accepted: 9 April 2014 / Published: 29 April 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (943 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Extensive surveillance in bat populations in response to recent emerging diseases has revealed that this group of mammals acts as a reservoir for a large range of viruses. However, the oldest known association between a zoonotic virus and a bat is that [...] Read more.
Extensive surveillance in bat populations in response to recent emerging diseases has revealed that this group of mammals acts as a reservoir for a large range of viruses. However, the oldest known association between a zoonotic virus and a bat is that between rabies virus and the vampire bat. Vampire bats are only found in Latin America and their unique method of obtaining nutrition, blood-feeding or haematophagy, has only evolved in the New World. The adaptations that enable blood-feeding also make the vampire bat highly effective at transmitting rabies virus. Whether the virus was present in pre-Columbian America or was introduced is much disputed, however, the introduction of Old World livestock and associated landscape modification, which continues to the present day, has enabled vampire bat populations to increase. This in turn has provided the conditions for rabies re-emergence to threaten both livestock and human populations as vampire bats target large mammals. This review considers the ecology of the vampire bat that make it such an efficient vector for rabies, the current status of vampire-transmitted rabies and the future prospects for spread by this virus and its control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses and Bats)
Open AccessReview Hantavirus Reservoirs: Current Status with an Emphasis on Data from Brazil
Viruses 2014, 6(5), 1929-1973; doi:10.3390/v6051929
Received: 25 November 2013 / Revised: 3 February 2014 / Accepted: 7 February 2014 / Published: 29 April 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1435 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Since the recognition of hantavirus as the agent responsible for haemorrhagic fever in Eurasia in the 1970s and, 20 years later, the descovery of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the Americas, the genus Hantavirus has been continually described throughout the World in a [...] Read more.
Since the recognition of hantavirus as the agent responsible for haemorrhagic fever in Eurasia in the 1970s and, 20 years later, the descovery of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the Americas, the genus Hantavirus has been continually described throughout the World in a variety of wild animals. The diversity of wild animals infected with hantaviruses has only recently come into focus as a result of expanded wildlife studies. The known reservoirs are more than 80, belonging to 51 species of rodents, 7 bats (order Chiroptera) and 20 shrews and moles (order Soricomorpha). More than 80genetically related viruses have been classified within Hantavirus genus; 25 recognized as human pathogens responsible for a large spectrum of diseases in the Old and New World. In Brazil, where the diversity of mammals and especially rodents is considered one of the largest in the world, 9 hantavirus genotypes have been identified in 12 rodent species belonging to the genus Akodon, Calomys, Holochilus, Oligoryzomys, Oxymycterus, Necromys and Rattus. Considering the increasing number of animals that have been implicated as reservoirs of different hantaviruses, the understanding of this diversity is important for evaluating the risk of distinct hantavirus species as human pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hantaviruses)
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Open AccessReview Universal Influenza Vaccines, a Dream to Be Realized Soon
Viruses 2014, 6(5), 1974-1991; doi:10.3390/v6051974
Received: 24 February 2014 / Revised: 5 April 2014 / Accepted: 22 April 2014 / Published: 29 April 2014
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (447 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to frequent viral antigenic change, current influenza vaccines need to be re-formulated annually to match the circulating strains for battling seasonal influenza epidemics. These vaccines are also ineffective in preventing occasional outbreaks of new influenza pandemic viruses. All these challenges call [...] Read more.
Due to frequent viral antigenic change, current influenza vaccines need to be re-formulated annually to match the circulating strains for battling seasonal influenza epidemics. These vaccines are also ineffective in preventing occasional outbreaks of new influenza pandemic viruses. All these challenges call for the development of universal influenza vaccines capable of conferring broad cross-protection against multiple subtypes of influenza A viruses. Facilitated by the advancement in modern molecular biology, delicate antigen design becomes one of the most effective factors for fulfilling such goals. Conserved epitopes residing in virus surface proteins including influenza matrix protein 2 and the stalk domain of the hemagglutinin draw general interest for improved antigen design. The present review summarizes the recent progress in such endeavors and also covers the encouraging progress in integrated antigen/adjuvant delivery and controlled release technology that facilitate the development of an affordable universal influenza vaccine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus-based Vaccines)
Open AccessReview Viruses and Tetraspanins: Lessons from Single Molecule Approaches
Viruses 2014, 6(5), 1992-2011; doi:10.3390/v6051992
Received: 7 February 2014 / Revised: 24 March 2014 / Accepted: 10 April 2014 / Published: 5 May 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (870 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tetraspanins are four-span membrane proteins that are widely distributed in multi-cellular organisms and involved in several infectious diseases. They have the unique property to form a network of protein-protein interaction within the plasma membrane, due to the lateral associations with one another [...] Read more.
Tetraspanins are four-span membrane proteins that are widely distributed in multi-cellular organisms and involved in several infectious diseases. They have the unique property to form a network of protein-protein interaction within the plasma membrane, due to the lateral associations with one another and with other membrane proteins. Tracking tetraspanins at the single molecule level using fluorescence microscopy has revealed the membrane behavior of the tetraspanins CD9 and CD81 in epithelial cell lines, providing a first dynamic view of this network. Single molecule tracking highlighted that these 2 proteins can freely diffuse within the plasma membrane but can also be trapped, permanently or transiently, in tetraspanin-enriched areas. More recently, a similar strategy has been used to investigate tetraspanin membrane behavior in the context of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In this review we summarize the main results emphasizing the relationship in terms of membrane partitioning between tetraspanins, some of their partners such as Claudin-1 and EWI-2, and viral proteins during infection. These results will be analyzed in the context of other membrane microdomains, stressing the difference between raft and tetraspanin-enriched microdomains, but also in comparison with virus diffusion at the cell surface. New advanced single molecule techniques that could help to further explore tetraspanin assemblies will be also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses and Tetraspanins)
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Open AccessReview Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses in Xenotransplantation—Molecular Aspects
Viruses 2014, 6(5), 2062-2083; doi:10.3390/v6052062
Received: 30 January 2014 / Revised: 15 April 2014 / Accepted: 26 April 2014 / Published: 13 May 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (722 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the context of the shortage of organs and other tissues for use in human transplantation, xenotransplantation procedures with material taken from pigs have come under increased consideration. However, there are unclear consequences of the potential transmission of porcine pathogens to humans. [...] Read more.
In the context of the shortage of organs and other tissues for use in human transplantation, xenotransplantation procedures with material taken from pigs have come under increased consideration. However, there are unclear consequences of the potential transmission of porcine pathogens to humans. Of particular concern are porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs). Three subtypes of PERV have been identified, of which PERV-A and PERV-B have the ability to infect human cells in vitro. The PERV-C subtype does not show this ability but recombinant PERV-A/C forms have demonstrated infectivity in human cells. In view of the risk presented by these observations, the International Xenotransplantation Association recently indicated the existence of four strategies to prevent transmission of PERVs. This article focuses on the molecular aspects of PERV infection in xenotransplantation and reviews the techniques available for the detection of PERV DNA, RNA, reverse transcriptase activity and proteins, and anti-PERV antibodies to enable carrying out these recommendations. These methods could be used to evaluate the risk of PERV transmission in human recipients, enhance the effectiveness and reliability of monitoring procedures, and stimulate discussion on the development of improved, more sensitive methods for the detection of PERVs in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endogenous Viruses)
Open AccessReview Potential for Introduction of Bat-Borne Zoonotic Viruses into the EU: A Review
Viruses 2014, 6(5), 2084-2121; doi:10.3390/v6052084
Received: 7 February 2014 / Revised: 10 April 2014 / Accepted: 6 May 2014 / Published: 16 May 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (865 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bat-borne viruses can pose a serious threat to human health, with examples including Nipah virus (NiV) in Bangladesh and Malaysia, and Marburg virus (MARV) in Africa. To date, significant human outbreaks of such viruses have not been reported in the European Union [...] Read more.
Bat-borne viruses can pose a serious threat to human health, with examples including Nipah virus (NiV) in Bangladesh and Malaysia, and Marburg virus (MARV) in Africa. To date, significant human outbreaks of such viruses have not been reported in the European Union (EU). However, EU countries have strong historical links with many of the countries where NiV and MARV are present and a corresponding high volume of commercial trade and human travel, which poses a potential risk of introduction of these viruses into the EU. In assessing the risks of introduction of these bat-borne zoonotic viruses to the EU, it is important to consider the location and range of bat species known to be susceptible to infection, together with the virus prevalence, seasonality of viral pulses, duration of infection and titre of virus in different bat tissues. In this paper, we review the current scientific knowledge of all these factors, in relation to the introduction of NiV and MARV into the EU. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses and Bats)
Open AccessReview Oncolytic Virotherapy of Canine and Feline Cancer
Viruses 2014, 6(5), 2122-2137; doi:10.3390/v6052122
Received: 5 March 2014 / Revised: 22 April 2014 / Accepted: 30 April 2014 / Published: 16 May 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (344 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cancer is the leading cause of disease-related death in companion animals such as dogs and cats. Despite recent progress in the diagnosis and treatment of advanced canine and feline cancer, overall patient treatment outcome has not been substantially improved. Virotherapy using oncolytic [...] Read more.
Cancer is the leading cause of disease-related death in companion animals such as dogs and cats. Despite recent progress in the diagnosis and treatment of advanced canine and feline cancer, overall patient treatment outcome has not been substantially improved. Virotherapy using oncolytic viruses is one promising new strategy for cancer therapy. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) preferentially infect and lyse cancer cells, without causing excessive damage to surrounding healthy tissue, and initiate tumor-specific immunity. The current review describes the use of different oncolytic viruses for cancer therapy and their application to canine and feline cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Antivirals & Vaccines)
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Open AccessReview The DNA Damage Response Induced by Infection with Human Cytomegalovirus and Other Viruses
Viruses 2014, 6(5), 2155-2185; doi:10.3390/v6052155
Received: 31 January 2014 / Revised: 2 May 2014 / Accepted: 8 May 2014 / Published: 23 May 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1134 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Viruses use different strategies to overcome the host defense system. Recent studies have shown that viruses can induce DNA damage response (DDR). Many of these viruses use DDR signaling to benefit their replication, while other viruses block or inactivate DDR signaling. This [...] Read more.
Viruses use different strategies to overcome the host defense system. Recent studies have shown that viruses can induce DNA damage response (DDR). Many of these viruses use DDR signaling to benefit their replication, while other viruses block or inactivate DDR signaling. This review focuses on the effects of DDR and DNA repair on human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication. Here, we review the DDR induced by HCMV infection and its similarities and differences to DDR induced by other viruses. As DDR signaling pathways are critical for the replication of many viruses, blocking these pathways may represent novel therapeutic opportunities for the treatment of certain infectious diseases. Lastly, future perspectives in the field are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent CMV Research) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview Immunogenetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility of Humans and Rodents to Hantaviruses and the Clinical Course of Hantaviral Disease in Humans
Viruses 2014, 6(5), 2214-2241; doi:10.3390/v6052214
Received: 29 November 2013 / Revised: 17 March 2014 / Accepted: 16 May 2014 / Published: 26 May 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1040 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We reviewed the associations of immunity-related genes with susceptibility of humans and rodents to hantaviruses, and with severity of hantaviral diseases in humans. Several class I and class II HLA haplotypes were linked with severe or benign hantavirus infections, and these haplotypes [...] Read more.
We reviewed the associations of immunity-related genes with susceptibility of humans and rodents to hantaviruses, and with severity of hantaviral diseases in humans. Several class I and class II HLA haplotypes were linked with severe or benign hantavirus infections, and these haplotypes varied among localities and hantaviruses. The polymorphism of other immunity-related genes including the C4A gene and a high-producing genotype of TNF gene associated with severe PUUV infection. Additional genes that may contribute to disease or to PUUV infection severity include non-carriage of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) allele 2 and IL-1β (-511) allele 2, polymorphisms of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) and platelet GP1a. In addition, immunogenetic studies have been conducted to identify mechanisms that could be linked with the persistence/clearance of hantaviruses in reservoirs. Persistence was associated during experimental infections with an upregulation of anti-inflammatory responses. Using natural rodent population samples, polymorphisms and/or expression levels of several genes have been analyzed. These genes were selected based on the literature of rodent or human/hantavirus interactions (some Mhc class II genes, Tnf promoter, and genes encoding the proteins TLR4, TLR7, Mx2 and β3 integrin). The comparison of genetic differentiation estimated between bank vole populations sampled over Europe, at neutral and candidate genes, has allowed to evidence signatures of selection for Tnf, Mx2 and the Drb Mhc class II genes. Altogether, these results corroborated the hypothesis of an evolution of tolerance strategies in rodents. We finally discuss the importance of these results from the medical and epidemiological perspectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hantaviruses)
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Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessShort Communication Molecular Phylogeny of Hantaviruses Harbored by Insectivorous Bats in Côte d’Ivoire and Vietnam
Viruses 2014, 6(5), 1897-1910; doi:10.3390/v6051897
Received: 24 February 2014 / Revised: 4 April 2014 / Accepted: 8 April 2014 / Published: 29 April 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1619 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The recent discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews and moles prompted a further exploration of their host diversification by analyzing frozen, ethanol-fixed and RNAlater®-preserved archival tissues and fecal samples from 533 bats (representing seven families, 28 [...] Read more.
The recent discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews and moles prompted a further exploration of their host diversification by analyzing frozen, ethanol-fixed and RNAlater®-preserved archival tissues and fecal samples from 533 bats (representing seven families, 28 genera and 53 species in the order Chiroptera), captured in Asia, Africa and the Americas in 1981–2012, using RT-PCR. Hantavirus RNA was detected in Pomona roundleaf bats (Hipposideros pomona) (family Hipposideridae), captured in Vietnam in 1997 and 1999, and in banana pipistrelles (Neoromicia nanus) (family Vespertilionidae), captured in Côte d’Ivoire in 2011. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the full-length S- and partial M- and L-segment sequences using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, demonstrated that the newfound hantaviruses formed highly divergent lineages, comprising other recently recognized bat-borne hantaviruses in Sierra Leone and China. The detection of bat-associated hantaviruses opens a new era in hantavirology and provides insights into their evolutionary origins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses and Bats)
Open AccessShort Communication Rapid Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for the Detection of Hantavirus-Specific Antibodies in Divergent Small Mammals
Viruses 2014, 6(5), 2028-2037; doi:10.3390/v6052028
Received: 5 December 2013 / Revised: 16 April 2014 / Accepted: 20 April 2014 / Published: 6 May 2014
PDF Full-text (771 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We assessed the utility of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of hantavirus-specific antibodies from sera of Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, the principal reservoir of Andes virus (ANDV), using an antigen previously developed for detection of antibodies to Sin Nombre virus [...] Read more.
We assessed the utility of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of hantavirus-specific antibodies from sera of Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, the principal reservoir of Andes virus (ANDV), using an antigen previously developed for detection of antibodies to Sin Nombre virus (SNV) in sera from Peromyscus maniculatus. The assay uses a protein A/G horseradish peroxidase conjugate and can be performed in as little as 1.5 hours. Serum samples from Oligoryzomys longicaudatus collected in central-south Chile were used and the assay identified several that were antibody positive. This assay can be used for the rapid detection of antibodies to divergent hantaviruses from geographically and phylogenetically distant rodent species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hantaviruses)
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Open AccessShort Communication A Novel Adenovirus in Chinstrap Penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica) in Antarctica
Viruses 2014, 6(5), 2052-2061; doi:10.3390/v6052052
Received: 19 March 2014 / Revised: 26 April 2014 / Accepted: 28 April 2014 / Published: 7 May 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (884 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Adenoviruses (family Adenoviridae) infect various organ systems and cause diseases in a wide range of host species. In this study, we examined multiple tissues from Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica), collected in Antarctica during 2009 and 2010, for the presence [...] Read more.
Adenoviruses (family Adenoviridae) infect various organ systems and cause diseases in a wide range of host species. In this study, we examined multiple tissues from Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica), collected in Antarctica during 2009 and 2010, for the presence of novel adenoviruses by PCR. Analysis of a 855-bp region of the hexon gene of a newly identified adenovirus, designated Chinstrap penguin adenovirus 1 (CSPAdV-1), showed nucleotide (amino acid) sequence identity of 71.8% (65.5%) with South Polar skua 1 (SPSAdV-1), 71% (70%) with raptor adenovirus 1 (RAdV-1), 71.4% (67.6%) with turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3) and 61% (61.6%) with frog adenovirus 1 (FrAdV-1). Based on the genetic and phylogenetic analyses, CSPAdV-1 was classified as a member of the genus, Siadenovirus. Virus isolation attempts from kidney homogenates in the MDTC-RP19 (ATCC® CRL-8135™) cell line were unsuccessful. In conclusion, this study provides the first evidence of new adenovirus species in Antarctic penguins. Full article

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