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Viruses 2017, 9(10), 296; doi:10.3390/v9100296

A Next-Generation Sequencing Approach Uncovers Viral Transcripts Incorporated in Poxvirus Virions

1
Centre for Biological Threats and Special Pathogens, Highly Pathogenic Viruses (ZBS 1), Robert Koch Institute, Seestr. 10, 13353 Berlin, Germany
2
Centre for Biological Threats and Special Pathogens, Proteomics and Spectroscopy (ZBS 6), Robert Koch Institute, Seestr. 10, 13353 Berlin, Germany
3
Methodology and Research Infrastructure, Bioinformatics (MF 1), Robert Koch Institute, Nordufer 20, 13353 Berlin, Germany
4
Centre for Biological Threats and Special Pathogens (ZBS), Robert Koch Institute, Nordufer 20, 13353 Berlin, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 September 2017 / Revised: 9 October 2017 / Accepted: 10 October 2017 / Published: 13 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smallpox and Emerging Zoonotic Orthopoxviruses: What Is Coming Next?)
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Abstract

Transcripts are known to be incorporated in particles of DNA viruses belonging to the families of Herpesviridae and Mimiviridae, but the presence of transcripts in other DNA viruses, such as poxviruses, has not been analyzed yet. Therefore, we first established a next-generation-sequencing (NGS)-based protocol, enabling the unbiased identification of transcripts in virus particles. Subsequently, we applied our protocol to analyze RNA in an emerging zoonotic member of the Poxviridae family, namely Cowpox virus. Our results revealed the incorporation of 19 viral transcripts, while host identifications were restricted to ribosomal and mitochondrial RNA. Most viral transcripts had an unknown and immunomodulatory function, suggesting that transcript incorporation may be beneficial for poxvirus immune evasion. Notably, the most abundant transcript originated from the D5L/I1R gene that encodes a viral inhibitor of the host cytoplasmic DNA sensing machinery. View Full-Text
Keywords: transcript incorporation; poxvirus; cowpox virus; next-generation sequencing transcript incorporation; poxvirus; cowpox virus; next-generation sequencing
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Grossegesse, M.; Doellinger, J.; Haldemann, B.; Schaade, L.; Nitsche, A. A Next-Generation Sequencing Approach Uncovers Viral Transcripts Incorporated in Poxvirus Virions. Viruses 2017, 9, 296.

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