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Viruses 2017, 9(3), 41; doi:10.3390/v9030041

Change in Emiliania huxleyi Virus Assemblage Diversity but Not in Host Genetic Composition during an Ocean Acidification Mesocosm Experiment

1
The Marine Biological Association, The Laboratory, Citadel Hill, Plymouth PL1 2PB, UK
2
The Microbiome Centre, Department of Surgery, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
3
Division of Bioscience, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439, USA
4
Department of Biological Oceanography, NIOZ–Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Corina P.D. Brussaard and Mathias Middelboe
Received: 12 January 2017 / Revised: 23 February 2017 / Accepted: 2 March 2017 / Published: 8 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Viruses 2016)
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Abstract

Effects of elevated pCO2 on Emiliania huxleyi genetic diversity and the viruses that infect E. huxleyi (EhVs) have been investigated in large volume enclosures in a Norwegian fjord. Triplicate enclosures were bubbled with air enriched with CO2 to 760 ppmv whilst the other three enclosures were bubbled with air at ambient pCO2; phytoplankton growth was initiated by the addition of nitrate and phosphate. E. huxleyi was the dominant coccolithophore in all enclosures, but no difference in genetic diversity, based on DGGE analysis using primers specific to the calcium binding protein gene (gpa) were detected in any of the treatments. Chlorophyll concentrations and primary production were lower in the three elevated pCO2 treatments than in the ambient treatments. However, although coccolithophores numbers were reduced in two of the high-pCO2 treatments; in the third, there was no suppression of coccolithophores numbers, which were very similar to the three ambient treatments. In contrast, there was considerable variation in genetic diversity in the EhVs, as determined by analysis of the major capsid protein (mcp) gene. EhV diversity was much lower in the high-pCO2 treatment enclosure that did not show inhibition of E. huxleyi growth. Since virus infection is generally implicated as a major factor in terminating phytoplankton blooms, it is suggested that no study of the effect of ocean acidification in phytoplankton can be complete if it does not include an assessment of viruses. View Full-Text
Keywords: Emiliania huxleyi; CO2; ocean acidification; climate change; Coccolithovirus; EhV Emiliania huxleyi; CO2; ocean acidification; climate change; Coccolithovirus; EhV
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MDPI and ACS Style

Highfield, A.; Joint, I.; Gilbert, J.A.; Crawfurd, K.J.; Schroeder, D.C. Change in Emiliania huxleyi Virus Assemblage Diversity but Not in Host Genetic Composition during an Ocean Acidification Mesocosm Experiment. Viruses 2017, 9, 41.

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