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Pharmaceutics, Volume 10, Issue 2 (June 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Implants and intravaginal rings can be designed with a core surrounded by a rate-controlling [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview Hydrogels for Atopic Dermatitis and Wound Management: A Superior Drug Delivery Vehicle
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(2), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10020071
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 6 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
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Abstract
Wound management, in addition to presenting a significant burden to patients and their families, also contributes significantly to a country’s healthcare costs. Treatment strategies are numerous, but in most cases not ideal. Hydrogels, three-dimensional polymeric materials that can withstand a great degree of
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Wound management, in addition to presenting a significant burden to patients and their families, also contributes significantly to a country’s healthcare costs. Treatment strategies are numerous, but in most cases not ideal. Hydrogels, three-dimensional polymeric materials that can withstand a great degree of swelling without losing structural integrity, are drawing great attention for their use as topical wound management solutions in the form of films and as vehicles for drug delivery, due to their unique properties of high water content, biocompatibility, and flexibility. Hydrogels, both naturally and synthetically derived, can be tuned to respond to specific stimuli such as pH, temperature and light and they are ideally suited as drug delivery vehicles. Here we provide a brief overview of the history and characteristics of hydrogels, assess their uses in wound management and drug delivery, and compare them with other types of common drug delivery vehicle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Hydrogels for Drug Delivery)
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Open AccessArticle Skull Bone Regeneration Using Chitosan–Siloxane Porous Hybrids—Long-Term Implantation
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(2), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10020070
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 30 May 2018 / Accepted: 4 June 2018 / Published: 8 June 2018
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Abstract
Burr holes in craniotomy are not self-repairing bone defects. To regenerate new bone at the sites of these defects, a good scaffold is required. Biodegradable hybrids including silica or siloxane networks have been investigated as bone tissue scaffolds. This study examined skull bone
[...] Read more.
Burr holes in craniotomy are not self-repairing bone defects. To regenerate new bone at the sites of these defects, a good scaffold is required. Biodegradable hybrids including silica or siloxane networks have been investigated as bone tissue scaffolds. This study examined skull bone regeneration using chitosan-siloxane hybrids after long-term implantation (two and three years). After implantation of the hybrids, the surrounding cells migrated and formed fibrous tissues and blood vessels. Then, bone formation occurred from the surrounding blood vessels. Addition of calcium ions and coating with hydroxyapatite improved bone regeneration. Finally, the regenerated tissue area became smaller than the initial hole, and some areas changed to completed bone tissues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitosan Biomedical Applications: Opportunities and Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle A Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometric Assay for the Quantification of Fabry Disease Biomarker Globotriaosylceramide (GB3) in Fabry Model Mouse
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(2), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10020069
Received: 16 April 2018 / Revised: 2 June 2018 / Accepted: 4 June 2018 / Published: 7 June 2018
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Abstract
Fabry disease is a rare lysosomal storage disorder resulting from the lack of α-Gal A gene activity. Globotriaosylceramide (GB3, ceramide trihexoside) is a novel endogenous biomarker which predicts the incidence of Fabry disease. At the early stage efficacy/biomarker study, a rapid method to
[...] Read more.
Fabry disease is a rare lysosomal storage disorder resulting from the lack of α-Gal A gene activity. Globotriaosylceramide (GB3, ceramide trihexoside) is a novel endogenous biomarker which predicts the incidence of Fabry disease. At the early stage efficacy/biomarker study, a rapid method to determine this biomarker in plasma and in all relevant tissues related to this disease simultaneously is required. However, the limited sample volume, as well as the various levels of GB3 in different matrices makes the GB3 quantitation very challenging. Hereby we developed a rapid method to identify GB3 in mouse plasma and various tissues. Preliminary stability tests were also performed in three different conditions: short-term, freeze-thaw, long-term. The calibration curve was well fitted over the concentration range of 0.042–10 μg/mL for GB3 in plasma and 0.082–20 μg/g for GB3 in various tissues. This method was successfully applied for the comparison of GB3 levels in Fabry model mice (B6;129-Glatm1Kul/J), which has not been performed previously to the best of our knowledge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug Metabolism, Pharmacokinetics and Bioanalysis)
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Open AccessArticle Twin Screw Granulation: Effects of Properties of Primary Powders
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(2), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10020068
Received: 23 April 2018 / Revised: 28 May 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 2 June 2018
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Abstract
Lactose and mannitol are some of the most commonly used powders in the pharmaceutical industry. The limited research published so far highlights the effects of process and formulation parameters on the properties of the granules and the tablets produced using these two types
[...] Read more.
Lactose and mannitol are some of the most commonly used powders in the pharmaceutical industry. The limited research published so far highlights the effects of process and formulation parameters on the properties of the granules and the tablets produced using these two types of powders separately. However, the comparison of the performance of these two types of powders during twin screw wet granulation has received no attention. The present research is focused on understanding the granulation mechanism of different grades of two pharmaceutical powders with varying properties (i.e., primary particle size, structure, and compressibility). Three grades each of lactose and mannitol were granulated at varying liquid to solid ratios (L/S) and screw speed. It was noticed that primary powder morphology plays an important role in determining the granule size and structure, and tablet tensile strength. It was indicated that the processed powders such as spray-dried and granulated lactose and mannitol can be used in formulation for wet granulation where flowability of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is poor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Applications of Hot-melt Extrusion)
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Open AccessArticle Twin Screw Granulation: An Investigation of the Effect of Barrel Fill Level
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(2), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10020067
Received: 23 April 2018 / Revised: 17 May 2018 / Accepted: 26 May 2018 / Published: 1 June 2018
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Abstract
This paper focuses on investigating the influence of varying barrel fill levels on the mean residence time, granule properties (median size, size distribution, and shape), and tensile strength of tablets. Specific feed load (SFL) (powder feed rate divided by screw speed) and powder
[...] Read more.
This paper focuses on investigating the influence of varying barrel fill levels on the mean residence time, granule properties (median size, size distribution, and shape), and tensile strength of tablets. Specific feed load (SFL) (powder feed rate divided by screw speed) and powder feed number (PFN) (i.e., powder mass flow rate divided by the product of screw speed, screw diameter, and the material density in the denominator) were considered as surrogates for the barrel fill level. Two type of powders (lactose and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC)) were granulated separately at varying fill levels at different liquid-to-solid ratios (L/S). It was observed that by controlling the barrel fill level, the granule size, shape, and tablet tensile strength can be maintained at specific L/S. It was also noticed that the mean residence time decreased with increasing fill levels in the case of both lactose and MCC powder. However, it was only found to be related to the change in granule size in case of granulating microcrystalline cellulose at varying fill levels. At very high fill levels, granule size decreased, owing to a limited interaction between MCC powder and liquid at high throughput force and short residence time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Applications of Hot-melt Extrusion)
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Open AccessReview Review of Intraocular Pharmacokinetics of Anti-Infectives Commonly Used in the Treatment of Infectious Endophthalmitis
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(2), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10020066
Received: 11 April 2018 / Revised: 23 May 2018 / Accepted: 23 May 2018 / Published: 29 May 2018
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Abstract
Although intravitreal administration of anti-infectives represents the standard treatment for infectious endophthalmitis, the knowledge about their pharmacokinetics is still limited. In this review, we aimed to summarise the factors influencing the pharmacokinetics of the anti-infective agents. We have conducted a comprehensive review of
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Although intravitreal administration of anti-infectives represents the standard treatment for infectious endophthalmitis, the knowledge about their pharmacokinetics is still limited. In this review, we aimed to summarise the factors influencing the pharmacokinetics of the anti-infective agents. We have conducted a comprehensive review of the preclinical pharmacokinetic parameters obtained in different studies of intravitreal injections of anti-infectives performed on animals, mainly rabbits. The two aspects with the biggest influence on pharmacokinetics are the distribution in the vitreous humour and the elimination through the posterior segment. The distribution can be affected by the molecular weight of the drug, the convection flow of the vitreous, the condition of the vitreous humour depending on the age of the patient, the possible interactions between the drug and the components of the vitreous, and the presence of vitrectomy. Meanwhile, the elimination includes the metabolism of the drug, the clearance via the anterior and posterior routes, and the possible inflammation of the eye resulting from the disease. Understanding the pharmacokinetics of the anti-infectives used in clinical practice is essential for a correct application. The information provided in this review could offer guidance for selecting the best therapeutic option according to the characteristics of the drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preclinical Pharmacokinetics and Bioanalysis)
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Open AccessReview Therapeutic Potency of Nanoformulations of siRNAs and shRNAs in Animal Models of Cancers
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(2), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10020065
Received: 6 April 2018 / Revised: 19 May 2018 / Accepted: 22 May 2018 / Published: 26 May 2018
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Abstract
RNA Interference (RNAi) has brought revolutionary transformations in cancer management in the past two decades. RNAi-based therapeutics including siRNA and shRNA have immense scope to silence the expression of mutant cancer genes specifically in a therapeutic context. Although tremendous progress has been made
[...] Read more.
RNA Interference (RNAi) has brought revolutionary transformations in cancer management in the past two decades. RNAi-based therapeutics including siRNA and shRNA have immense scope to silence the expression of mutant cancer genes specifically in a therapeutic context. Although tremendous progress has been made to establish catalytic RNA as a new class of biologics for cancer management, a lot of extracellular and intracellular barriers still pose a long-lasting challenge on the way to clinical approval. A series of chemically suitable, safe and effective viral and non-viral carriers have emerged to overcome physiological barriers and ensure targeted delivery of RNAi. The newly invented carriers, delivery techniques and gene editing technology made current treatment protocols stronger to fight cancer. This review has provided a platform about the chronicle of siRNA development and challenges of RNAi therapeutics for laboratory to bedside translation focusing on recent advancement in siRNA delivery vehicles with their limitations. Furthermore, an overview of several animal model studies of siRNA- or shRNA-based cancer gene therapy over the past 15 years has been presented, highlighting the roles of genes in multiple cancers, pharmacokinetic parameters and critical evaluation. The review concludes with a future direction for the development of catalytic RNA vehicles and design strategies to make RNAi-based cancer gene therapy more promising to surmount cancer gene delivery challenges. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Solubility Improvement of Benexate through Salt Formation Using Artificial Sweetener
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(2), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10020064
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 23 May 2018 / Accepted: 24 May 2018 / Published: 26 May 2018
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Abstract
Benexate, a drug used clinically as a defensive type anti-ulcer agent, has poor solubility and a bitter taste. To improve its solubility, a crystal engineering approach was proposed with the formation of novel salts using an artificial sweetener as a salt co-former. This
[...] Read more.
Benexate, a drug used clinically as a defensive type anti-ulcer agent, has poor solubility and a bitter taste. To improve its solubility, a crystal engineering approach was proposed with the formation of novel salts using an artificial sweetener as a salt co-former. This was also expected to address the bitter taste of the drug. In this work, we report on the preparation and evaluation of the physicochemical properties of the novel salts benexate saccharinate monohydrate and benexate cyclamate whose crystal structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray structure analysis. These novel salts showed higher solubility and faster dissolution profiles that were associated with the occurrence of local layered-like structures. They also showed better moisture uptake profiles and were classified as non-hygroscopic materials. Therefore, benexate saccharinate monohydrate and benexate cyclamate expedited the development of sweet pharmaceutical salts of benexate with improved performances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dissolution Enhancement of Poorly Soluble Drugs)
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Open AccessArticle Dual Acting Polymeric Nano-Aggregates for Liver Cancer Therapy
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(2), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10020063
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 16 May 2018 / Accepted: 24 May 2018 / Published: 26 May 2018
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Abstract
Liver cancer treatments are often hindered by poor drug physicochemical properties, hence there is a need for improvement in order to increase patient survival and outlook. Combination therapies have been studied in order to evaluate whether increased overall efficacy can be achieved. This
[...] Read more.
Liver cancer treatments are often hindered by poor drug physicochemical properties, hence there is a need for improvement in order to increase patient survival and outlook. Combination therapies have been studied in order to evaluate whether increased overall efficacy can be achieved. This study reports the combined treatment of liver cancer cells with a combination treatment of chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel and pro-apoptotic protein cytochrome C. In order to administer both agents in a single formulation, a poly(allylamine)-based amphiphile has been fabricated with the incorporation of a hybrid iron oxide-gold nanoparticle into its structure. Here, the insoluble paclitaxel becomes incorporated into the hydrophobic core of the self-assemblies formed in an aqueous environment (256 nm), while the cytochrome C attaches irreversibly onto the hybrid nanoparticle surface via gold-thiol dative covalent binding. The self-assemblies were capable of solubilising up to 0.698 mg/mL of paclitaxel (700-fold improvement) with 0.012 mg/mL of cytochrome C also attached onto the hybrid iron oxide-gold nanoparticles (HNPs) within the hydrophobic core. The formulation was tested on a panel of liver cancer cells and cytotoxicity was measured. The findings suggested that indeed a significant improvement in combined therapy (33-fold) was observed when compared with free drug, which was double the enhancement observed after polymer encapsulation without the cytochrome C in hepatocellular carcinoma (Huh-7D12) cells. Most excitingly, the polymeric nanoparticles did result in improved cellular toxicity in human endothelian liver cancer (SK-hep1) cells, which proved completely resistant to the free drug. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnology Advances in Cancer Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle Magnetic Nanoparticles Conjugated with Peptides Derived from Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 as a Tool for Targeting Atherosclerosis
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(2), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10020062
Received: 26 April 2018 / Revised: 21 May 2018 / Accepted: 21 May 2018 / Published: 24 May 2018
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Abstract
Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial inflammatory disease that may progress silently for long period, and it is also widely accepted as the main cause of cardiovascular diseases. To prevent atherosclerotic plaques from generating, imaging early molecular markers and quantifying the extent of disease progression
[...] Read more.
Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial inflammatory disease that may progress silently for long period, and it is also widely accepted as the main cause of cardiovascular diseases. To prevent atherosclerotic plaques from generating, imaging early molecular markers and quantifying the extent of disease progression are desired. During inflammation, circulating monocytes leave the bloodstream and migrate into incipient lipid accumulation in the artery wall, following conditioning by local growth factors and proinflammatory cytokines; therefore, monocyte accumulation in the arterial wall can be observed in fatty streaks, rupture-prone plaques, and experimental atherosclerosis. In this work, we synthesized monocyte-targeting iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), which were incorporated with the peptides derived from the chemokine receptor C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2)-binding motif of monocytes chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) as a diagnostic tool for potential atherosclerosis. MCP-1-motif MNPs co-localized with monocytes in in vitro fluorescence imaging. In addition, with MNPs injection in ApoE knockout mice (ApoE KO mice), the well-characterized animal model of atherosclerosis, MNPs were found in specific organs or regions which had monocytes accumulation, especially the aorta of atherosclerosis model mice, through in vivo imaging system (IVIS) imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We also performed Oil Red O staining and Prussian Blue staining to confirm the co-localization of MCP-1-motif MNPs and atherosclerosis. The results showed the promising potential of MCP-1-motif MNPs as a diagnostic agent of atherosclerosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Nanohybrids for Drug Delivery)
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Open AccessArticle Qualification and Application of a Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometric Method for the Determination of Adalimumab in Rat Plasma
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(2), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10020061
Received: 16 April 2018 / Revised: 20 May 2018 / Accepted: 21 May 2018 / Published: 24 May 2018
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Abstract
A liquid chromatography–quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometric method was developed for early-stage research on adalimumab in rats. The method consisted of immunoprecipitation followed by tryptic digestion for sample preparation and LC-QTOF-MS/MS analysis of specific signature peptides of adalimumab in the positive ion mode
[...] Read more.
A liquid chromatography–quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometric method was developed for early-stage research on adalimumab in rats. The method consisted of immunoprecipitation followed by tryptic digestion for sample preparation and LC-QTOF-MS/MS analysis of specific signature peptides of adalimumab in the positive ion mode using electrospray ionization. This specific signature peptide is derived from the complementarity-determining region (CDR) of adalimumab. A quadratic regression (weighted 1/concentration), with an equation y = ax2 + bx + c, was used to fit calibration curves over the concentration range of 1–100 μg/mL for adalimumab. The qualification run met the acceptance criteria of ±25% accuracy and precision values for quality control (QC) samples. This qualified LC-QTOF-MS/MS method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of adalimumab in rats as a case study. This LC-QTOF-MS/MS approach would be useful as a complementary method for adalimumab or its biosimilars at an early stage of research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug Metabolism, Pharmacokinetics and Bioanalysis)
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Open AccessArticle A Repurposed Drug for Brain Cancer: Enhanced Atovaquone Amorphous Solid Dispersion by Combining a Spontaneously Emulsifying Component with a Polymer Carrier
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(2), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10020060
Received: 24 April 2018 / Revised: 14 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 19 May 2018
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Abstract
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal central nervous system tumor. Recently, atovaquone has shown inhibition of signal transducer and activator transcription 3, a promising target for GBM therapy. However, it is currently unable to achieve therapeutic drug concentrations in the
[...] Read more.
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal central nervous system tumor. Recently, atovaquone has shown inhibition of signal transducer and activator transcription 3, a promising target for GBM therapy. However, it is currently unable to achieve therapeutic drug concentrations in the brain with the currently reported and marketed formulations. The present study sought to explore the efficacy of atovaquone against GBM as well as develop a formulation of atovaquone that would improve oral bioavailability, resulting in higher amounts of drug delivered to the brain. Atovaquone was formulated as an amorphous solid dispersion using an optimized formulation containing a polymer and a spontaneously emulsifying component (SEC) with greatly improved wetting, disintegration, dispersibility, and dissolution properties. Atovaquone demonstrated cytotoxicity against GBM cell lines as well as provided a confirmed target for atovaquone brain concentrations in in vitro cell viability studies. This new formulation approach was then assessed in a proof-of-concept in vivo exposure study. Based on these results, the enhanced amorphous solid dispersion is promising for providing therapeutically effective brain levels of atovaquone for the treatment of GBM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Applications of Hot-melt Extrusion)
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Open AccessArticle Pre-Clinical and Clinical Efficiency of Complexes of Oligoribonucleotides with D-Mannitol against Respiratory Viruses
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(2), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10020059
Received: 12 March 2018 / Revised: 30 April 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 19 May 2018
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Abstract
Oligoribonucleotides-D-mannitol (ORNs-D-M) complexes possess antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory actions. The aim of the present study was to evaluated an antiviral effect of ORNs-D-M against parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3); influenza CA709, PR834; avian influenza virus H5N2 (AIV) in vitro by a TCID50
[...] Read more.
Oligoribonucleotides-D-mannitol (ORNs-D-M) complexes possess antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory actions. The aim of the present study was to evaluated an antiviral effect of ORNs-D-M against parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3); influenza CA709, PR834; avian influenza virus H5N2 (AIV) in vitro by a TCID50; hemadsorption and neuraminidase activity assays; and clinical efficiency of ORNs-D-M in patients with acute respiratory infections (ARIs) of various etiologies by PCR assay and AmpliSens test systems. It was observed that ORNs-D-M have an antiviral activity against the influenza CA709, PR834, PIV3, and AIV in vitro. The injectable dosage form of ORNs-D-M was shown to have a stronger antiviral effect compared to capsule form. It was also detected that the injectable form of ORNs-D-M significantly reduced the neuraminidase activity of influenza PR834. A complex treatment of patients with ORNs-D-M had a positive effect on the course of the disease, it accelerated patients’ recovery. Treatment with ORNs-D-M caused eradication of adeno- and influenza viruses in patients with ARI. This drug contributed to significant decrease in duration of febrile period and cough. Comprehensive treatment with ORNs-D-M improved the disease clinical findings significantly. Collectively, these results suggested that ORNs-D-M may be used at co-infection with influenza and other respiratory viruses as a medical antiviral drug. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Miniaturized Extruder to Prototype Amorphous Solid Dispersions: Selection of Plasticizers for Hot Melt Extrusion
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10020058
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 7 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 19 May 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (11036 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hot-melt extrusion is an option to fabricate amorphous solid dispersions and to enhance oral bioavailability of poorly soluble compounds. The selection of suitable polymer carriers and processing aids determines the dissolution, homogeneity and stability performance of this solid dosage form. A miniaturized extrusion
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Hot-melt extrusion is an option to fabricate amorphous solid dispersions and to enhance oral bioavailability of poorly soluble compounds. The selection of suitable polymer carriers and processing aids determines the dissolution, homogeneity and stability performance of this solid dosage form. A miniaturized extrusion device (MinEx) was developed and Hypromellose acetate succinate type L (HPMCAS-L) based extrudates containing the model drugs neurokinin-1 (NK1) and cholesterylester transfer protein (CETP) were manufactured, plasticizers were added and their impact on dissolution and solid-state properties were assessed. Similar mixtures were manufactured with a lab-scale extruder, for face to face comparison. The properties of MinEx extrudates widely translated to those manufactured with a lab-scale extruder. Plasticizers, Polyethyleneglycol 4000 (PEG4000) and Poloxamer 188, were homogenously distributed but decreased the storage stability of the extrudates. Stearic acid was found condensed in ultrathin nanoplatelets which did not impact the storage stability of the system. Depending on their distribution and physicochemical properties, plasticizers can modulate storage stability and dissolution performance of extrudates. MinEx is a valuable prototyping-screening method and enables rational selection of plasticizers in a time and material sparing manner. In eight out of eight cases the properties of the extrudates translated to products manufactured in lab-scale extrusion trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Applications of Hot-melt Extrusion)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Impact of Particle Size and Polydispersity Index on the Clinical Applications of Lipidic Nanocarrier Systems
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(2), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10020057
Received: 14 April 2018 / Revised: 15 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2827 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lipid-based drug delivery systems, or lipidic carriers, are being extensively employed to enhance the bioavailability of poorly-soluble drugs. They have the ability to incorporate both lipophilic and hydrophilic molecules and protecting them against degradation in vitro and in vivo. There is a number
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Lipid-based drug delivery systems, or lipidic carriers, are being extensively employed to enhance the bioavailability of poorly-soluble drugs. They have the ability to incorporate both lipophilic and hydrophilic molecules and protecting them against degradation in vitro and in vivo. There is a number of physical attributes of lipid-based nanocarriers that determine their safety, stability, efficacy, as well as their in vitro and in vivo behaviour. These include average particle size/diameter and the polydispersity index (PDI), which is an indication of their quality with respect to the size distribution. The suitability of nanocarrier formulations for a particular route of drug administration depends on their average diameter, PDI and size stability, among other parameters. Controlling and validating these parameters are of key importance for the effective clinical applications of nanocarrier formulations. This review highlights the significance of size and PDI in the successful design, formulation and development of nanosystems for pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and other applications. Liposomes, nanoliposomes, vesicular phospholipid gels, solid lipid nanoparticles, transfersomes and tocosomes are presented as frequently-used lipidic drug carriers. The advantages and limitations of a range of available analytical techniques used to characterize lipidic nanocarrier formulations are also covered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipid-Based Dosage Form)
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Open AccessArticle Combining MucilAir™ and Vitrocell® Powder Chamber for the In Vitro Evaluation of Nasal Ointments in the Context of Aerosolized Pollen
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(2), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10020056
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 27 April 2018 / Accepted: 27 April 2018 / Published: 10 May 2018
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Abstract
Hay fever is notoriously triggered when nasal mucosa is exposed to allergenic pollen. One possibility to overcome this pollen exposure may be the application of an ointment with physical protective effects. In this context, we have investigated Bepanthen® Eye and Nose Ointment
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Hay fever is notoriously triggered when nasal mucosa is exposed to allergenic pollen. One possibility to overcome this pollen exposure may be the application of an ointment with physical protective effects. In this context, we have investigated Bepanthen® Eye and Nose Ointment and the ointment basis petrolatum as reference while using contemporary in vitro techniques. Pollen from false ragweed (Iva xanthiifolia) was used as an allergy-causing model deposited as aerosol using the Vitrocell® Powder Chamber (VPC) on Transwell® inserts, while being coated with either Bepanthen® Eye and Nose Ointment and petrolatum. No pollen penetration into ointments was observed upon confocal scanning laser microscopy during an incubation period of 2 h at 37 °C. The cellular response was further investigated by integrating the MucilAir™ cell system in the VPC and by applying pollen to Bepanthen® Eye and Nose Ointment covered cell cultures. For comparison, MucilAir™ were stimulated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). No increased cytokine release of IL-6, TNF-α, or IL-8 was found after 4 h of pollen exposure, which demonstrates the safety of such ointments. Since nasal ointments act as a physical barrier against pollen, such preparations might support the prevention and management of hay fever. Full article
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Open AccessReview Sustained Release Drug Delivery Applications of Polyurethanes
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10020055
Received: 13 April 2018 / Revised: 2 May 2018 / Accepted: 4 May 2018 / Published: 9 May 2018
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Abstract
Since their introduction over 50 years ago, polyurethanes have been applied to nearly every industry. This review describes applications of polyurethanes to the development of modified release drug delivery. Although drug delivery research leveraging polyurethanes has been ongoing for decades, there has been
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Since their introduction over 50 years ago, polyurethanes have been applied to nearly every industry. This review describes applications of polyurethanes to the development of modified release drug delivery. Although drug delivery research leveraging polyurethanes has been ongoing for decades, there has been renewed and substantial interest in the field in recent years. The chemistry of polyurethanes and the mechanisms of drug release from sustained release dosage forms are briefly reviewed. Studies to assess the impact of intrinsic drug properties on release from polyurethane-based formulations are considered. The impact of hydrophilic water swelling polyurethanes on drug diffusivity and release rate is discussed. The role of pore formers in modulating drug release rate is examined. Finally, the value of assessing mechanical properties of the dosage form and approaches taken in the literature are described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Applications of Hot-melt Extrusion)
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Open AccessReview Anticancer Activity of Bacterial Proteins and Peptides
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10020054
Received: 23 March 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 30 April 2018
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Abstract
Despite much progress in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, tumour diseases constitute one of the main reasons of deaths worldwide. The side effects of chemotherapy and drug resistance of some cancer types belong to the significant current therapeutic problems. Hence, searching for
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Despite much progress in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, tumour diseases constitute one of the main reasons of deaths worldwide. The side effects of chemotherapy and drug resistance of some cancer types belong to the significant current therapeutic problems. Hence, searching for new anticancer substances and medicines are very important. Among them, bacterial proteins and peptides are a promising group of bioactive compounds and potential anticancer drugs. Some of them, including anticancer antibiotics (actinomycin D, bleomycin, doxorubicin, mitomycin C) and diphtheria toxin, are already used in the cancer treatment, while other substances are in clinical trials (e.g., p28, arginine deiminase ADI) or tested in in vitro research. This review shows the current literature data regarding the anticancer activity of proteins and peptides originated from bacteria: antibiotics, bacteriocins, enzymes, nonribosomal peptides (NRPs), toxins and others such as azurin, p28, Entap and Pep27anal2. The special attention was paid to the still poorly understood active substances obtained from the marine sediment bacteria. In total, 37 chemical compounds or groups of compounds with antitumor properties have been described in the present article. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Therapeutics)
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Open AccessArticle Polymer–Surfactant System Based Amorphous Solid Dispersion: Precipitation Inhibition and Bioavailability Enhancement of Itraconazole
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10020053
Received: 21 March 2018 / Revised: 13 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 24 April 2018
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Abstract
The rapid release of poorly water-soluble drugs from amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) is often associated with the generation of supersaturated solution, which provides a strong driving force for precipitation and results in reduced absorption. Precipitation inhibitors, such as polymers and surfactants, are usually
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The rapid release of poorly water-soluble drugs from amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) is often associated with the generation of supersaturated solution, which provides a strong driving force for precipitation and results in reduced absorption. Precipitation inhibitors, such as polymers and surfactants, are usually used to stabilize the supersaturated solution by blocking the way of kinetic or thermodynamic crystal growth. To evaluate the combined effect of polymers and surfactants on maintaining the supersaturated state of itraconazole (ITZ), various surfactants were integrated with enteric polymer hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMC AS) to develop polymer–surfactant based solid dispersion. The supersaturation stability was investigated by in vitro supersaturation dissolution test and nucleation induction time measurement. Compared to the ASD prepared with HPMC AS alone, the addition of d-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) exhibited a synergistic effect on precipitation inhibition. The results indicated that the TPGS not only significantly reduced the degree of supersaturation which is the driving force for precipitation, but also provided steric hindrance to delay crystal growth by absorbing onto the surface of small particles. Subsequently, the formulations were evaluated in vivo in beagle dogs. Compared with commercial product Sporanox®, the formulation prepared with HPMC AS/TPGS exhibited a 1.8-fold increase in the AUC (0–24 h) of ITZ and a 1.43-fold increase of hydroxyitraconazole (OH-ITZ) in the plasma. Similarly, the extent of absorption was increased by more than 40% when compared to the formulation prepared with HPMC AS alone. The results of this study demonstrated that the ASD based on polymer–surfactant system could obviously inhibit drug precipitation in vitro and in vivo, which provides a new access for the development of ASD for poorly water-soluble drug. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Applications of Hot-melt Extrusion)
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Open AccessArticle Wool-Like Hollow Polymeric Nanoparticles for CML Chemo-Combinatorial Therapy
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(2), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10020052
Received: 23 March 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 12 April 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
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Abstract
Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is caused by the BCR-ABL oncogene, which encodes the constitutively active BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase. Targeted therapy with tyrosine-kinase inhibitors induces a partial cytogenetic response in most patients. Nanosystems can represent an opportunity for combinatorial therapy with the capacity to
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Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is caused by the BCR-ABL oncogene, which encodes the constitutively active BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase. Targeted therapy with tyrosine-kinase inhibitors induces a partial cytogenetic response in most patients. Nanosystems can represent an opportunity for combinatorial therapy with the capacity to simultaneously release different therapeutic agents, checking the pharmacokinetic properties. In this work, we have developed a novel poly-(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanosystem for combinatorial therapy in CML, composed of a biodegradable pH sensitive core releasing Nilotinib (Nil) and an enzymatic sensitive outer shell releasing Imatinib Mesylate (IM), resulting in wool-like nanoparticles (NPs). The resulting double loaded wool-like hollow PCL NPs showed a high dual-drug encapsulation efficiency, pH and enzymatic sensitivity and synchronized drug release capability. The combinatorial delivery of IM and Nil exhibited an importantly reduced IC50 value of IM and Nil on leukaemia cells compared to single free drugs administration. In vitro results, showed that combinatorial nanomixures preserved the biological activity of loaded drugs for extensive time windows and led to a constant release of active drug. In addition, the combination of IM and Nil in single PCL NPs have shown a more therapeutic efficiency at a low dose with respect to the single drug nanomixures, confirming that both drugs reached the target cell precisely, maximizing the cytotoxicity while minimizing the chances of cell resistance to drugs. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial Penetration Enhancement of Topical Formulations
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10020051
Received: 8 April 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
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Abstract
This special issue, which is entitled “Penetration Enhancement of Topical Formulations”, presents a selection of the latest research that elucidates the challenges facing topical formulations for human skin in addition to proposing interesting solutions.[…] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Penetration Enhancement of Topical Formulations)
Open AccessArticle Formulation, Development, and In Vitro Evaluation of a CD22 Targeted Liposomal System Containing a Non-Cardiotoxic Anthracycline for B Cell Malignancies
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10020050
Received: 17 March 2018 / Revised: 9 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 15 April 2018
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Abstract
Doxorubicin cardiotoxicity has led to the development of superior chemotherapeutic agents such as AD 198. However, depletion of healthy neutrophils and thrombocytes from AD 198 therapy must be limited. This can be done by the development of a targeted drug delivery system that
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Doxorubicin cardiotoxicity has led to the development of superior chemotherapeutic agents such as AD 198. However, depletion of healthy neutrophils and thrombocytes from AD 198 therapy must be limited. This can be done by the development of a targeted drug delivery system that delivers AD 198 to the malignant cells. The current research highlights the development and in vitro analysis of targeted liposomes containing AD 198. The best lipids were identified and optimized for physicochemical effects on the liposomal system. Physiochemical characteristics such as size, ζ-potential, and dissolution were also studied. Active targeting to CD22 positive cells was achieved by conjugating anti-CD22 Fab’ to the liposomal surface. Size and ζ-potential of the liposomes was between 115 and 145 nm, and −8 to−15 mV. 30% drug was released over 72 h. Higher cytotoxicity was observed in CD22+ve Daudi cells compared to CD22−ve Jurkat cells. The route of uptake was a clathrin- and caveolin-independent pathway. Intracellular localization of the liposomes was in the endolysosomes. Upon drug release, apoptotic pathways were activated partly by the regulation of apoptotic and oncoproteins such as caspase-3 and c-myc. It was observed that the CD22 targeted drug delivery system was more potent and specific compared to other untargeted formulations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Inline Determination of Residence Time Distribution in Hot-Melt-Extrusion
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10020049
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 15 April 2018
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Abstract
In the framework of Quality-by-Design (QbD), the inline determination of process parameters or quality attributes of a product using sufficient process analytical technology (PAT) is a center piece for the establishment of continuous processes as a standard pharmaceutical technology. In this context, Twin-Screw-Extrusion
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In the framework of Quality-by-Design (QbD), the inline determination of process parameters or quality attributes of a product using sufficient process analytical technology (PAT) is a center piece for the establishment of continuous processes as a standard pharmaceutical technology. In this context, Twin-Screw-Extrusion (TSE) processes, such as Hot-Melt-Extrusion (HME), are one key aspect of current research. The main benefit of this process technology is the combination of different unit operations. Several of these sub-processes are linked to the Residence Time Distribution (RTD) of the material within the apparatus. In this study a UV/Vis spectrophotometer from ColVisTec was tested regarding the suitability for the inline determination of the RTD of an HME process. Two different measuring positions within a co-rotating Twin-Screw-Extruder were compared to an offline HPLC–UV as reference method. The obtained results were overall in good agreement and therefore the inline UV/Vis spectrophotometer is suitable for the determination of the RTD in TSE. An influence of the measuring position on repeatability was found and has to be taken into consideration for the implementation of PATs. An effect of the required amount of marker on process rheology is not likely due to the low Limit-of-Quantification (LoQ). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Applications of Hot-melt Extrusion)
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Open AccessArticle Combined Effect of Anticancer Agents and Cytochrome C Decorated Hybrid Nanoparticles for Liver Cancer Therapy
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10020048
Received: 23 March 2018 / Revised: 8 April 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
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Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma is an aggressive form of liver cancer that displays minimal symptoms until its late stages. Unfortunately, patient prognosis still remains poor with only 10% of patients surviving more than five years after diagnosis. Current chemotherapies alone are not offering efficient treatment,
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Hepatocellular carcinoma is an aggressive form of liver cancer that displays minimal symptoms until its late stages. Unfortunately, patient prognosis still remains poor with only 10% of patients surviving more than five years after diagnosis. Current chemotherapies alone are not offering efficient treatment, hence alternative therapeutic approaches are urgently required. In this work, we highlight the potential of combination of treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma with existing chemotherapies in combination with pro-apoptotic factor cytochrome C. In order to allow cytochrome C to cross the cellular membrane and become internalized, it has been immobilised onto the surface of hybrid iron oxide-gold nanoparticles. This novel approach has been tested in vitro on HepG2, Huh-7D and SK-hep-1 cell lines in order to elucidate potential as a possible alternative therapy with greater efficacy. The data from our studies show consistently that combining treatment of clinically used anticancer agents (doxorubicin, paclitaxel, oxaliplatin, vinblastine and vincristine) significantly increases the levels of apoptosis within the cell lines, which leads to cellular death. Hence, this combined approach may hold promise for future treatment regimes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnology Advances in Cancer Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Solvent Composition on the Performance of Spray-Dried Co-Amorphous Formulations
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10020047
Received: 9 March 2018 / Revised: 6 April 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
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Abstract
Ball-milling is usually used to prepare co-amorphous drug–amino acid (AA) mixtures. In this study, co-amorphous drug–AA mixtures were produced using spray-drying, a scalable industrially preferred preparation method. The influence of the solvent type and solvent composition was investigated. Mixtures of indomethacin (IND) and
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Ball-milling is usually used to prepare co-amorphous drug–amino acid (AA) mixtures. In this study, co-amorphous drug–AA mixtures were produced using spray-drying, a scalable industrially preferred preparation method. The influence of the solvent type and solvent composition was investigated. Mixtures of indomethacin (IND) and each of the three AAs arginine, histidine, and lysine were ball-milled and spray-dried at a 1:1 molar ratio, respectively. Spray-drying was performed at different solvent ratios in (a) ethanol and water mixtures and (b) acetone and water mixtures. Different ratios of these solvents were chosen to study the effect of solvent mixtures on co-amorphous formulation. Residual crystallinity, thermal properties, salt/partial salt formation, and powder dissolution profiles of the IND–AA mixtures were investigated and compared to pure crystalline and amorphous IND. It was found that using spray-drying as a preparation method, all IND–AA mixtures could be successfully converted into the respective co-amorphous forms, irrespective of the type of solvent used, but depending on the solvent mixture ratios. Both ball-milled and spray-dried co-amorphous samples showed an enhanced dissolution rate and maintained supersaturation compared to the crystalline and amorphous IND itself. The spray-dried samples resulting in co-amorphous samples were stable for at least seven months of storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dissolution Enhancement of Poorly Soluble Drugs)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Acyclovir-Loaded Chitosan Nanospheres from Nano-Emulsion Templating for the Topical Treatment of Herpesviruses Infections
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10020046
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 6 April 2018 / Published: 10 April 2018
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Abstract
Acyclovir is not a good candidate for passive permeation since its polarity and solubility limit is partitioning into the stratum corneum. This work aims to develop a new topical formulation for the acyclovir delivery. New chitosan nanospheres (NS) were prepared by a modified
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Acyclovir is not a good candidate for passive permeation since its polarity and solubility limit is partitioning into the stratum corneum. This work aims to develop a new topical formulation for the acyclovir delivery. New chitosan nanospheres (NS) were prepared by a modified nano-emulsion template method. Chitosan NS were characterized by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and an in vitro release study. The in vitro skin permeation experiment was carried out using Franz cells and was equipped with porcine skin. Biological studies were performed on the Vero cell line infected by HSV-1 and HSV-2 strains. The acyclovir loaded chitosan NS appeared with a spherical shape, a size of about 200 nm, and a negative zeta potential of about 40.0 mV. The loading capacity of the drug was about 8.5%. In vitro release demonstrated that the percentage of acyclovir delivered from the nanospheres was approximately 30% after six hours. The in vitro skin permeation studies confirmed an improved amount of permeated acyclovir. The acyclovir-NS complex displayed a higher antiviral activity than that of free acyclovir against both the HSV-1 and the HSV-2 strain. The acyclovir-loaded NS showed no anti-proliferative activity and no signs of cytotoxicity induced by NS was detected. Confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed that the NS are taken up by the cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitosan Biomedical Applications: Opportunities and Challenges)
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Open AccessReview Molecular Targeting of Acid Ceramidase in Glioblastoma: A Review of Its Role, Potential Treatment, and Challenges
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10020045
Received: 5 March 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 9 April 2018
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Abstract
Glioblastoma is the most common, malignant primary tumor of the central nervous system. The average prognosis for life expectancy after diagnosis, with the triad of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, is less than 1.5 years. Chemotherapy treatment is mostly limited to temozolomide. In
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Glioblastoma is the most common, malignant primary tumor of the central nervous system. The average prognosis for life expectancy after diagnosis, with the triad of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, is less than 1.5 years. Chemotherapy treatment is mostly limited to temozolomide. In this paper, the authors review an emerging, novel drug called acid ceramidase, which targets glioblastoma. Its role in cancer treatment in general, and more specifically, in the treatment of glioblastoma, are discussed. In addition, the authors provide insights on acid ceramidase as a potential druggable target for glioblastoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipid-Based Dosage Form)
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Open AccessArticle Material Considerations for Fused-Filament Fabrication of Solid Dosage Forms
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10020044
Received: 11 March 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 2 April 2018
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Abstract
Material choice is a fundamental consideration when it comes to designing a solid dosage form. The matrix material will ultimately determine the rate of drug release since the physical properties (solubility, viscosity, and more) of the material control both fluid ingress and disintegration
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Material choice is a fundamental consideration when it comes to designing a solid dosage form. The matrix material will ultimately determine the rate of drug release since the physical properties (solubility, viscosity, and more) of the material control both fluid ingress and disintegration of the dosage form. The bulk properties (powder flow, concentration, and more) of the material should also be considered since these properties will influence the ability of the material to be successfully manufactured. Furthermore, there is a limited number of approved materials for the production of solid dosage forms. The present study details the complications that can arise when adopting pharmaceutical grade polymers for fused-filament fabrication in the production of oral tablets. The paper also presents ways to overcome each issue. Fused-filament fabrication is a hot-melt extrusion-based 3D printing process. The paper describes the problems encountered in fused-filament fabrication with Kollidon® VA64, which is a material that has previously been utilized in direct compression and hot-melt extrusion processes. Formulation and melt-blending strategies were employed to increase the printability of the material. The paper defines for the first time the essential parameter profile required for successful 3D printing and lists several pre-screening tools that should be employed to guide future material formulation for the fused-filament fabrication of solid dosage forms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Applications of Hot-melt Extrusion)
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Open AccessArticle Prediction of Renal Acid Load in Adult Patients on Parenteral Nutrition
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10020043
Received: 12 February 2018 / Revised: 25 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 2 April 2018
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Abstract
Metabolic acidosis and metabolic bone disease are frequent complications in patients on parenteral nutrition (PN). A common contributor to these complications could be a daily high renal acid load. This study aims to find a method for predicting the potential total acid load
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Metabolic acidosis and metabolic bone disease are frequent complications in patients on parenteral nutrition (PN). A common contributor to these complications could be a daily high renal acid load. This study aims to find a method for predicting the potential total acid load (PTAL) and the pH of the compounded parenteral nutrition mixtures. The pH and titratable acidity (TA) of fifty compounded mixtures were measured. The potential metabolic acid load (PMAL) was calculated by considering the amount of nutrients that are acid producers and consumers. The PTAL of the TPN mixtures was calculated by adding TA to PMAL. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to develop a predictive model for the TA and pH of the compounded mixtures. The predicted TA and pH values of the analyzed mixtures agreed with those measured (Passing-Bablok analysis). The PTAL was >50 mmol/day for 82% of the mixtures, >75 mmol/day for 40% of the mixtures, and >100 mmol/day for 22% of the mixtures. The prediction of the renal acid load in patients on long-term PN could allow more appropriate acid-base balancing. Moreover, predicting the pH of such mixtures could be useful to pharmacists to assess the stability and compatibility of the components in the compounded mixtures. Full article
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Open AccessReview Alginate in Wound Dressings
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10020042
Received: 29 January 2018 / Revised: 16 February 2018 / Accepted: 17 February 2018 / Published: 2 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (841 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Alginate is a biopolymer used in a variety of biomedical applications due to its favourable properties, such as biocompatibility and non-toxicity. It has been particularly attractive in wound healing applications to date. It can be tailored to materials with properties suitable for wound
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Alginate is a biopolymer used in a variety of biomedical applications due to its favourable properties, such as biocompatibility and non-toxicity. It has been particularly attractive in wound healing applications to date. It can be tailored to materials with properties suitable for wound healing. Alginate has been used to prepare different forms of materials for wound dressings, such as hydrogels, films, wafers, foams, nanofibres, and in topical formulations. The wound dressings prepared from alginate are able to absorb excess wound fluid, maintain a physiologically moist environment, and minimize bacterial infections at the wound site. The therapeutic efficacy of these wound dressings is influenced by the ratio of other polymers used in combination with alginate, the nature of cross linkers used, the time of crosslinking, nature of excipients used, the incorporation of nanoparticles, and antibacterial agents. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the different forms of wound dressings containing alginate, in vitro, and in vivo results. Full article
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