Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Development of Novel Faster-Dissolving Microneedle Patches for Transcutaneous Vaccine Delivery
Previous Article in Journal
Veterinary Pharmaceutics: An Opportunity for Interprofessional Education in New Zealand?
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Pharmaceutics 2017, 9(3), 26; doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics9030026

A Possible Percutaneous Penetration Pathway That Should Be Considered

1
Department of Research, Nagoya Industrial Science Research Institute, 1-13 Yotsuyadori, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-0819, Japan
2
Research & Utilization Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198, Japan
3
Department of Physics, School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 June 2017 / Revised: 19 July 2017 / Accepted: 21 July 2017 / Published: 27 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Technology of Transdermal and Topical Drug Delivery)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1722 KB, uploaded 27 July 2017]   |  

Abstract

The intercellular lipids in the stratum corneum form structures composed of ordered phases with orthorhombic and hexagonal hydrocarbon-chain packing structures and, in addition, a structure composed of a disordered fluid phase. Although the fluid phase plays an important role in percutaneous penetration, little attention has been paid to it in the literature thus far. Recently, a method to estimate the proportion of the fluid phase within the lipids of the stratum corneum was proposed and it was shown to reach about 80%. However, since that study assumed uniform extraction of the intercellular lipids from the stratum corneum, the analysis might give rise to an overestimation of the proportion of the lipids in the fluid phase. We developed a way to investigate the proportion of the lipids in the fluid phase by treating with ethanol, into which the lipids in the fluid phase might be dominantly dissolved. From the experiment we pointed out the possibility that the proportion of the lipids in the fluid phase reached more than 50% of the whole intercellular lipids. Therefore, the fluid-phase region in the intercellular lipid matrix should be taken into account when considering the percutaneous penetration mechanism. View Full-Text
Keywords: ethanol; X-ray diffraction; 500 Da; fluid; hexagonal; hydrocarbon chain; intercellular lipid; orthorhombic; stratum corneum ethanol; X-ray diffraction; 500 Da; fluid; hexagonal; hydrocarbon chain; intercellular lipid; orthorhombic; stratum corneum
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hatta, I.; Ohta, N.; Nakazawa, H. A Possible Percutaneous Penetration Pathway That Should Be Considered. Pharmaceutics 2017, 9, 26.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Pharmaceutics EISSN 1999-4923 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top