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Future Internet, Volume 10, Issue 6 (June 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) In this paper, a secure inter-frame space communication system design is proposed for WLANs to [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Simulating the Cost of Cooperation: A Recipe for Collaborative Problem-Solving
Future Internet 2018, 10(6), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10060055
Received: 7 May 2018 / Revised: 9 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
Collective problem-solving and decision-making, along with other forms of collaboration online, are central phenomena within ICT. There had been several attempts to create a system able to go beyond the passive accumulation of data. However, those systems often neglect important variables such as
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Collective problem-solving and decision-making, along with other forms of collaboration online, are central phenomena within ICT. There had been several attempts to create a system able to go beyond the passive accumulation of data. However, those systems often neglect important variables such as group size, the difficulty of the tasks, the tendency to cooperate, and the presence of selfish individuals (free riders). Given the complex relations among those variables, numerical simulations could be the ideal tool to explore such relationships. We take into account the cost of cooperation in collaborative problem solving by employing several simulated scenarios. The role of two parameters was explored: the capacity, the group’s capability to solve increasingly challenging tasks coupled with the collective knowledge of a group, and the payoff, an individual’s own benefit in terms of new knowledge acquired. The final cooperation rate is only affected by the cost of cooperation in the case of simple tasks and small communities. In contrast, the fitness of the community, the difficulty of the task, and the groups sizes interact in a non-trivial way, hence shedding some light on how to improve crowdsourcing when the cost of cooperation is high. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Techno-Social Smart Systems)
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Open AccessArticle StegNet: Mega Image Steganography Capacity with Deep Convolutional Network
Future Internet 2018, 10(6), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10060054
Received: 6 May 2018 / Revised: 10 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
Traditional image steganography often leans interests towards safely embedding hidden information into cover images with payload capacity almost neglected. This paper combines recent deep convolutional neural network methods with image-into-image steganography. It successfully hides the same size images with a decoding rate of
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Traditional image steganography often leans interests towards safely embedding hidden information into cover images with payload capacity almost neglected. This paper combines recent deep convolutional neural network methods with image-into-image steganography. It successfully hides the same size images with a decoding rate of 98.2% or bpp (bits per pixel) of 23.57 by changing only 0.76% of the cover image on average. Our method directly learns end-to-end mappings between the cover image and the embedded image and between the hidden image and the decoded image. We further show that our embedded image, while with mega payload capacity, is still robust to statistical analysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Privacy Preserving Framework for Worker’s Location in Spatial Crowdsourcing Based on Local Differential Privacy
Future Internet 2018, 10(6), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10060053
Received: 15 April 2018 / Revised: 16 May 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
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Abstract
With the development of the mobile Internet, location-based services are playing an important role in everyday life. As a new location-based service, Spatial Crowdsourcing (SC) involves collecting and analyzing environmental, social, and other spatiotemporal information of individuals, increasing convenience for users. In SC,
[...] Read more.
With the development of the mobile Internet, location-based services are playing an important role in everyday life. As a new location-based service, Spatial Crowdsourcing (SC) involves collecting and analyzing environmental, social, and other spatiotemporal information of individuals, increasing convenience for users. In SC, users (called requesters) publish tasks and other users (called workers) are required to physically travel to specified locations to perform the tasks. However, with SC services, the workers have to disclose their locations to untrusted third parties, such as the Spatial Crowdsourcing Server (SC-server), which could pose a considerable threat to the privacy of workers. In this paper, we propose a new location privacy protection framework based on local difference privacy for spatial crowdsourcing, which does not require the participation of trusted third parties by adding noises locally to workers’ locations. The noisy locations of workers are submitted to the SC-server rather than the real locations. Therefore, the protection of workers’ locations is achieved. Experiments showed that this framework not only preserves the privacy of workers in SC, but also has modest overhead performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Self-Adaptive VM Consolidation Strategy Using Dynamic Multi-Thresholds in IaaS Clouds
Future Internet 2018, 10(6), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10060052
Received: 11 May 2018 / Revised: 31 May 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
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Abstract
With the rapid development of cloud computing, the demand for infrastructure resources in cloud data centers has further increased, which has already led to enormous amounts of energy costs. Virtual machine (VM) consolidation as one of the important techniques in Infrastructure as a
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With the rapid development of cloud computing, the demand for infrastructure resources in cloud data centers has further increased, which has already led to enormous amounts of energy costs. Virtual machine (VM) consolidation as one of the important techniques in Infrastructure as a Service clouds (IaaS) can help resolve energy consumption by reducing the number of active physical machines (PMs). However, the necessity of considering energy-efficiency and the obligation of providing high quality of service (QoS) to customers is a trade-off, as aggressive consolidation may lead to performance degradation. Moreover, most of the existing works of threshold-based VM consolidation strategy are mainly focused on single CPU utilization, although the resource request on different VMs are very diverse. This paper proposes a novel self-adaptive VM consolidation strategy based on dynamic multi-thresholds (DMT) for PM selection, which can be dynamically adjusted by considering future utilization on multi-dimensional resources of CPU, RAM and Bandwidth. Besides, the VM selection and placement algorithm of VM consolidation are also improved by utilizing each multi-dimensional parameter in DMT. The experiments show that our proposed strategy has a better performance than other strategies, not only in high QoS but also in less energy consumption. In addition, the advantage of its reduction on the number of active hosts is much more obvious, especially when it is under extreme workloads. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Driving Behavior Planning and Trajectory Generation Method for Autonomous Electric Bus
Future Internet 2018, 10(6), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10060051
Received: 6 May 2018 / Revised: 4 June 2018 / Accepted: 8 June 2018 / Published: 10 June 2018
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Abstract
A framework of path planning for autonomous electric bus is presented. ArcGIS platform is utilized for map-building and global path planning. Firstly, a high-precision map is built based on GPS in ArcGIS for global planning. Then the global optimal path is obtained by
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A framework of path planning for autonomous electric bus is presented. ArcGIS platform is utilized for map-building and global path planning. Firstly, a high-precision map is built based on GPS in ArcGIS for global planning. Then the global optimal path is obtained by network analysis tool in ArcGIS. To facilitate local planning, WGS-84 coordinates in the map are converted to local coordinates. Secondly, a double-layer finite state machine (FSM) is devised to plan driving behavior under different driving scenarios, such as structured driving, lane changing, turning, and so on. Besides, local optimal trajectory is generated by cubic polynomial, which takes full account of the safety and kinetics of the electric bus. Finally, the simulation results show that the framework is reliable and feasible for driving behavior planning and trajectory generation. Furthermore, its validity is proven with an autonomous bus platform 12 m in length. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fairness and Trust in Virtual Environments: The Effects of Reputation
Future Internet 2018, 10(6), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10060050
Received: 7 May 2018 / Revised: 31 May 2018 / Accepted: 2 June 2018 / Published: 9 June 2018
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Abstract
Reputation supports pro-social behaviors in a variety of social settings and across different ages. When re-encounters are possible, developing a positive reputation can be a valuable asset that will result in better outcomes. However, in real life, cooperative acts are ambiguous and happen
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Reputation supports pro-social behaviors in a variety of social settings and across different ages. When re-encounters are possible, developing a positive reputation can be a valuable asset that will result in better outcomes. However, in real life, cooperative acts are ambiguous and happen in noisy environments in which individuals can have multiple goals, visibility is reduced, and reputation systems may differ. This study examined how reputation within a virtual environment affects fairness in material allocations and trust in information exchange, in a three-actors interaction game in which each player had an incentive to deceive the others. We compared the results of two experimental conditions, one in which informers could be evaluated, and one without reputational opportunities. A reputational system appeared to enhance both trust and fairness even within a virtual environment under anonymous condition. We tested adolescents and adults finding that they were consistently more generous when visibility was increased, but they showed significantly different patterns in resources allocation and information exchange. Male and female participants, across ages, showed other interesting differences. These findings suggest that reputational effects increase fairness and trust even in a noisy, ambiguous and uncertain environment, but this effect is modulated by age and gender. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Techno-Social Smart Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Certificateless Provable Group Shared Data Possession with Comprehensive Privacy Preservation for Cloud Storage
Future Internet 2018, 10(6), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10060049
Received: 5 May 2018 / Revised: 31 May 2018 / Accepted: 5 June 2018 / Published: 7 June 2018
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Abstract
Provable Data Possession (PDP) protocol makes it possible for cloud users to check whether the cloud servers possess their original data without downloading all the data. However, most of the existing PDP schemes are based on either public key infrastructure (PKI) or identity-based
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Provable Data Possession (PDP) protocol makes it possible for cloud users to check whether the cloud servers possess their original data without downloading all the data. However, most of the existing PDP schemes are based on either public key infrastructure (PKI) or identity-based cryptography, which will suffer from issues of expensive certificate management or key escrow. In this paper, we propose a new construction of certificateless provable group shared data possession (CL-PGSDP) protocol by making use of certificateless cryptography, which will eliminate the above issues. Meanwhile, by taking advantage of zero-knowledge protocol and randomization method, the proposed CL-PGSDP protocol leaks no information of the stored data and the group user’s identity to the verifiers during the verifying process, which is of the property of comprehensive privacy preservation. In addition, our protocol also supports efficient user revocation from the group. Security analysis and experimental evaluation indicate that our CL-PGSDP protocol provides strong security with desirable efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Big Data and Internet of Thing)
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Open AccessArticle On the Future of Legal Publishing Services in the Semantic Web
Future Internet 2018, 10(6), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10060048
Received: 16 March 2018 / Revised: 23 May 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 5 June 2018
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Abstract
The development of the Semantic Web represents an essential precondition to the definition of new scenarios for the future Internet. This perspective is of particular interest in the legal information domain for the specialized nature of legal information and the peculiarities of the
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The development of the Semantic Web represents an essential precondition to the definition of new scenarios for the future Internet. This perspective is of particular interest in the legal information domain for the specialized nature of legal information and the peculiarities of the legal users’ information needs. In this paper, the evolution in recent years of the Semantic Web in the legal domain is reviewed, with particular emphasis to the most recent developments related to Linked Open Data initiative and to the role, in the legal Semantic Web, of the Publications Office of the European Union in its two-fold role of public institution and legal publisher. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Secure Inter-Frame Space Communications for Wireless LANs
Future Internet 2018, 10(6), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10060047
Received: 19 April 2018 / Revised: 1 June 2018 / Accepted: 3 June 2018 / Published: 4 June 2018
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Abstract
The internet of things (IoTs) offers a wide range of consumer benefits, from personal portable devices to internet-connected infrastructure. The wireless local area network (WLAN) is one of the potential candidates for IoTs technology to connect billions of smart devices. Long-range WLAN is
[...] Read more.
The internet of things (IoTs) offers a wide range of consumer benefits, from personal portable devices to internet-connected infrastructure. The wireless local area network (WLAN) is one of the potential candidates for IoTs technology to connect billions of smart devices. Long-range WLAN is widely deployed in dense networks as an alternative to cellular networks or satellite internet access because of its low cost, high performance, and existing ecosystem. However, due to the nature of unregulated communications in industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) bands, WLANs experience interferences from other radios such as radars and frequency hopping devices. Once interference is detected at a WLAN device, the channel is avoided and other channels become crowded. Thus, it degrades network throughput and channel utilization. In this paper, a secure inter-frame space communication system design is proposed for WLANs to share the ISM bands with other radio systems that generate periodic radio signals. The proposed secure inter-frame communication scheme achieves the goal by designing accurate radar detection and secure inter-frame space communication. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme significantly increases the receiver sensitivity and user datagram protocol throughput. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Tiered Control Plane Model for Service Function Chaining Isolation
Future Internet 2018, 10(6), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10060046
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 18 May 2018 / Accepted: 2 June 2018 / Published: 4 June 2018
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Abstract
This article presents an architecture for encryption automation in interconnected Network Function Virtualization (NFV) domains. Current NFV implementations are designed for deployment within trusted domains, where overlay networks with static trusted links are utilized for enabling network security. Nevertheless, within a Service Function
[...] Read more.
This article presents an architecture for encryption automation in interconnected Network Function Virtualization (NFV) domains. Current NFV implementations are designed for deployment within trusted domains, where overlay networks with static trusted links are utilized for enabling network security. Nevertheless, within a Service Function Chain (SFC), Virtual Network Function (VNF) flows cannot be isolated and end-to-end encrypted because each VNF requires direct access to the overall SFC data-flow. This restricts both end-users and Service Providers from enabling end-to-end security, and in extended VNF isolation within the SFC data traffic. Encrypting data flows on a per-flow basis results in an extensive amount of secure tunnels, which cannot scale efficiently in manual configurations. Additionally, creating secure data plane tunnels between NFV providers requires secure exchange of key parameters, and the establishment of an east–west control plane protocol. In this article, we present an architecture focusing on these two problems, investigating how overlay networks can be created, isolated, and secured dynamically. Accordingly, we propose an architecture for automated establishment of encrypted tunnels in NFV, which introduces a novel, tiered east–west communication channel between network controllers in a multi-domain environment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Multiple Access Protocol Based on Gray Forecast for Satellite Network
Future Internet 2018, 10(6), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10060045
Received: 1 May 2018 / Revised: 28 May 2018 / Accepted: 31 May 2018 / Published: 1 June 2018
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Abstract
A satellite network’s multiple access protocol must be well designed to efficiently occupy channel resources and meet various qualities of service requirements. In this paper, a combined free/demand assignment multiple access protocol based on gray forecast is proposed. In terms of access, the
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A satellite network’s multiple access protocol must be well designed to efficiently occupy channel resources and meet various qualities of service requirements. In this paper, a combined free/demand assignment multiple access protocol based on gray forecast is proposed. In terms of access, the adoption of the gray forecast method allows the user to book the number of timeslots to have more than the existing number of burst of packets. In terms of bandwidth allocation, a user priority allocation method is used to prioritize users with high needs and focus on the allocation of satellite resources. Experimental results show that the proposed protocol can effectively improve the channel utilization of the entire system. Thus, this protocol has some advantages over existing protocols in network throughput and end-to-end delay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Smart System infrastructures and Cybersecurity)
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Open AccessArticle Studying Semi-TCP and Its Application in Marine Internet
Future Internet 2018, 10(6), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10060044
Received: 9 April 2018 / Revised: 18 May 2018 / Accepted: 23 May 2018 / Published: 25 May 2018
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Abstract
TCP protocol has good performance on the Internet, but its performance is significantly reduced when it is applied to Marine Internet (MI). How to improve the performance of TCP protocol in Marine Internet has become an important research topic. In this paper, an
[...] Read more.
TCP protocol has good performance on the Internet, but its performance is significantly reduced when it is applied to Marine Internet (MI). How to improve the performance of TCP protocol in Marine Internet has become an important research topic. In this paper, an improved Semi-TCP is adopted for Marine Internet, and the implementation scheme of Semi-TCP congestion control is introduced. The exposed terminal problem and congestion control problem of high load networks are analyzed in detail. By using a timer, the congestion control algorithm is improved. Performance analysis and comparison of TCP-Lite, Semi-TCP-RTS, and improved Semi-TCP (Semi-TCP-RTS-V2) are carried out on Exata simulation platform, and the experimental results show that Semi-TCP-RTS-V2 has better transmission performance in ship ad hoc networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue WSN and IoT in Smart Agriculture)
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