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Future Internet, Volume 4, Issue 3 (September 2012), Pages 618-864

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Introduction to the Special Issue on Recent Advances in Web Services
Future Internet 2012, 4(3), 618-620; doi:10.3390/fi4030618
Received: 17 June 2012 / Accepted: 18 June 2012 / Published: 27 June 2012
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Abstract
We have collected five papers describing different aspects of web services and cloud computing. Cloud computing is the next stage of application interoperability and it is a logical extension of web services, both approaches being a variety of Service-Oriented Architecture. The papers [...] Read more.
We have collected five papers describing different aspects of web services and cloud computing. Cloud computing is the next stage of application interoperability and it is a logical extension of web services, both approaches being a variety of Service-Oriented Architecture. The papers cover security, migration, certification, and application development. Together, these papers provide a useful panorama of some of the issues of these two technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Web Services)
Open AccessEditorial When the Social Meets the Semantic: Social Semantic Web or Web 2.5
Future Internet 2012, 4(3), 852-864; doi:10.3390/fi4030852
Received: 30 May 2012 / Revised: 28 June 2012 / Accepted: 7 September 2012 / Published: 21 September 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (502 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The social trend is progressively becoming the key feature of current Web understanding (Web 2.0). This trend appears irrepressible as millions of users, directly or indirectly connected through social networks, are able to share and exchange any kind of content, information, feeling [...] Read more.
The social trend is progressively becoming the key feature of current Web understanding (Web 2.0). This trend appears irrepressible as millions of users, directly or indirectly connected through social networks, are able to share and exchange any kind of content, information, feeling or experience. Social interactions radically changed the user approach. Furthermore, the socialization of content around social objects provides new unexplored commercial marketplaces and business opportunities. On the other hand, the progressive evolution of the web towards the Semantic Web (or Web 3.0) provides a formal representation of knowledge based on the meaning of data. When the social meets semantics, the social intelligence can be formed in the context of a semantic environment in which user and community profiles as well as any kind of interaction is semantically represented (Semantic Social Web). This paper first provides a conceptual analysis of the second and third version of the Web model. That discussion is aimed at the definition of a middle concept (Web 2.5) resulting in the convergence and integration of key features from the current and next generation Web. The Semantic Social Web (Web 2.5) has a clear theoretical meaning, understood as the bridge between the overused Web 2.0 and the not yet mature Semantic Web (Web 3.0). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Semantic Interoperability and Knowledge Building)
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Research

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Open AccessArticle Adaptive Measurement-Based Policy-Driven QoS Management with Fuzzy-Rule-based Resource Allocation
Future Internet 2012, 4(3), 646-671; doi:10.3390/fi4030646
Received: 26 January 2012 / Revised: 5 June 2012 / Accepted: 27 June 2012 / Published: 4 July 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1873 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fixed and wireless networks are increasingly converging towards common connectivity with IP-based core networks. Providing effective end-to-end resource and QoS management in such complex heterogeneous converged network scenarios requires unified, adaptive and scalable solutions to integrate and co-ordinate diverse QoS mechanisms of [...] Read more.
Fixed and wireless networks are increasingly converging towards common connectivity with IP-based core networks. Providing effective end-to-end resource and QoS management in such complex heterogeneous converged network scenarios requires unified, adaptive and scalable solutions to integrate and co-ordinate diverse QoS mechanisms of different access technologies with IP-based QoS. Policy-Based Network Management (PBNM) is one approach that could be employed to address this challenge. Hence, a policy-based framework for end-to-end QoS management in converged networks, CNQF (Converged Networks QoS Management Framework) has been proposed within our project. In this paper, the CNQF architecture, a Java implementation of its prototype and experimental validation of key elements are discussed. We then present a fuzzy-based CNQF resource management approach and study the performance of our implementation with real traffic flows on an experimental testbed. The results demonstrate the efficacy of our resource-adaptive approach for practical PBNM systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ITA 11)
Open AccessArticle Stuxnet: What Has Changed?
Future Internet 2012, 4(3), 672-687; doi:10.3390/fi4030672
Received: 17 May 2012 / Revised: 25 June 2012 / Accepted: 11 July 2012 / Published: 16 July 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (210 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper considers the impact of Stuxnet on cyber-attacks and cyber-defense. It first reviews trends in cyber-weapons and how Stuxnet fits into these trends. Because Stuxnet targeted an industrial control system in order to wreak physical damage, the focus is on weapons [...] Read more.
This paper considers the impact of Stuxnet on cyber-attacks and cyber-defense. It first reviews trends in cyber-weapons and how Stuxnet fits into these trends. Because Stuxnet targeted an industrial control system in order to wreak physical damage, the focus is on weapons that target systems of that type and produce physical effects. The paper then examines the impact of Stuxnet on various domains of action where cyber-attacks play a role, including state-level conflict, terrorism, activism, crime, and pranks. For each domain, it considers the potential for new types of cyber-attacks, especially attacks against industrial control systems, and whether such attacks would be consistent with other trends in the domain. Finally, the paper considers the impact of Stuxnet on cyber-defense. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aftermath of Stuxnet)
Open AccessArticle Traditional Practice vs. New Tools and Routines in Stroke Treatment
Future Internet 2012, 4(3), 688-699; doi:10.3390/fi4030688
Received: 19 April 2012 / Revised: 23 July 2012 / Accepted: 25 July 2012 / Published: 6 August 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (140 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In Norway, it is a national goal to provide more patients with thrombolytic treatment. A referring hospital and a specialist hospital have implemented videoconferencing (VC) equipment to share knowledge and discuss stroke patients, regarding thrombolytic treatment. VC has only been used four [...] Read more.
In Norway, it is a national goal to provide more patients with thrombolytic treatment. A referring hospital and a specialist hospital have implemented videoconferencing (VC) equipment to share knowledge and discuss stroke patients, regarding thrombolytic treatment. VC has only been used four times within the 19 months that the service has been available. The objective in this article is to increase the understanding of the contradiction between the need for knowledge-sharing through VC technology, as well as the reasons for low frequency of use when discussing stroke patients. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 professionals. The results illustrate how the technology per se is not the reason for the low frequency use. Health care is shaped by behavior, traditional rules, standards and division of labor. By using cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) as a framework, we illustrate the importance of understanding the historic way of performing an activity to be able to expand the treatment activity in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future e-Health)
Open AccessArticle Raising Risk Awareness on the Adoption of Web 2.0 Technologies in Decision Making Processes
Future Internet 2012, 4(3), 700-718; doi:10.3390/fi4030700
Received: 27 April 2012 / Revised: 14 July 2012 / Accepted: 19 July 2012 / Published: 9 August 2012
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Abstract
In the recent past, the so-called “Web 2.0” became a powerful tool for decision making processes. Politicians and managers, seeking to improve participation, embraced this technology as if it simply were a new, enhanced version of theWorldWideWeb, better suited to retrieve information, [...] Read more.
In the recent past, the so-called “Web 2.0” became a powerful tool for decision making processes. Politicians and managers, seeking to improve participation, embraced this technology as if it simply were a new, enhanced version of theWorldWideWeb, better suited to retrieve information, opinions and feedbacks from the general public on subjects like laws, acts and policies. This approach was often naive, neglecting the less-obvious aspects of the technology, and thus bringing on significant security problems. This paper shows how, in the end, the result could easily be the opposite of what was desired. Malicious attackers, in fact, could quite easily exploit the vulnerabilities in these systems to hijack the process and lead to wrong decisions, also causing the public to lose trust in the systems themselves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Government 2.0)
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Open AccessArticle Connectivity Practices and Activity of Greek Political Blogs
Future Internet 2012, 4(3), 719-736; doi:10.3390/fi4030719
Received: 1 May 2012 / Revised: 19 July 2012 / Accepted: 30 July 2012 / Published: 14 August 2012
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Abstract
This paper uses Social Network Analysis indexes to study Greek political blogs. The indexes describe bloggers’ community recommendations, centrality and bloggers’ attempt to form spheres of influence. Five Social Network Analysis indexes are used: incoming links, normalized betweenness, outgoing links, number of [...] Read more.
This paper uses Social Network Analysis indexes to study Greek political blogs. The indexes describe bloggers’ community recommendations, centrality and bloggers’ attempt to form spheres of influence. Five Social Network Analysis indexes are used: incoming links, normalized betweenness, outgoing links, number of 1-cliques a blog belongs to, and size of blog’s ego-network. By recording 127 Greek political blogs, the paper finds that there are two distinct blog performance properties regarding connectivity: Only a few blogs serve as authority blogs having many incoming links and centrality, while a few others try to expand their influence territory by having many outgoing links and forming larger 1-cliques and ego-networks. Next, the paper associates the proposed indexes with blogs’ and users’ community activity. Authority blogs present high blog activity and users’ community activity, as well. These are recorded by large numbers of posts and comments to the blog posts, respectively. It is shown that blogs, which strive to expand their network by using many outgoing links are more likely to link to the authority blogs. Content analysis reveals that authority blogs provide news and information and promote discussion to a much higher degree compared to the overall Greek political blogosphere. Full article
Open AccessArticle Context-Based Orchestration for Control of Resource-Efficient Manufacturing Processes
Future Internet 2012, 4(3), 737-761; doi:10.3390/fi4030737
Received: 18 June 2012 / Revised: 31 July 2012 / Accepted: 9 August 2012 / Published: 14 August 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1201 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The increasing competition between manufacturers, the shortening of innovation cycles and the growing importance of resource-efficient manufacturing demand a higher versatility of factory automation. Service-oriented approaches depict a promising possibility to realize new control architectures by encapsulating the functionality of mechatronic devices [...] Read more.
The increasing competition between manufacturers, the shortening of innovation cycles and the growing importance of resource-efficient manufacturing demand a higher versatility of factory automation. Service-oriented approaches depict a promising possibility to realize new control architectures by encapsulating the functionality of mechatronic devices into services. An efficient discovery, context-based selection and dynamic orchestration of these services are the key features for the creation of highly adaptable manufacturing processes. We describe a semantic service discovery and ad-hoc orchestration system, which is able to react to new process variants and changed contextual information (e.g., failure of field devices, requirements on the consumption of resources). Because a standardized vocabulary, especially for the description of mechatronic functionalities, is still missing in the manufacturing domain, the semantic description of services, processes and manufacturing plants as well as the semantic interpretation of contextual information play an important part. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Semantic Interoperability and Knowledge Building)
Open AccessArticle Knowledge Representation for Prognosis of Health Status in Rehabilitation
Future Internet 2012, 4(3), 762-775; doi:10.3390/fi4030762
Received: 27 April 2012 / Revised: 31 July 2012 / Accepted: 1 August 2012 / Published: 20 August 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (470 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this article, key points are discussed concerning knowledge representation for clinical decision support systems in the domain of physical medicine and rehabilitation. Information models, classifications and terminologies, such as the “virtual medical record” (vMR), the “international classification of functioning, disability and [...] Read more.
In this article, key points are discussed concerning knowledge representation for clinical decision support systems in the domain of physical medicine and rehabilitation. Information models, classifications and terminologies, such as the “virtual medical record” (vMR), the “international classification of functioning, disability and health” (ICF), the “international classification of diseases” (ICD) and the “systematized nomenclature of medicine—clinical terms” (SNOMED CT), are used for knowledge integration and reasoning. A system is described that supports the measuring of functioning status, diversity, prognosis and similarity between patients in the post-acute stage, thus helping health professionals’ prescription of recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future e-Health)
Open AccessArticle Adapted User-Centered Design: A Strategy for the Higher User Acceptance of Innovative e-Health Services
Future Internet 2012, 4(3), 776-787; doi:10.3390/fi4030776
Received: 18 June 2012 / Revised: 14 August 2012 / Accepted: 16 August 2012 / Published: 27 August 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1069 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Being familiar with all the benefits of e-Health and the strategic plan for the Slovenian health sector’s informatization, Telekom Slovenia and the Faculty of Medicine from the University of Maribor, along with other partners, have initiated an e-Health project. The project group [...] Read more.
Being familiar with all the benefits of e-Health and the strategic plan for the Slovenian health sector’s informatization, Telekom Slovenia and the Faculty of Medicine from the University of Maribor, along with other partners, have initiated an e-Health project. The project group is developing various e-Health services that are based on modern ICT (information and communications technology) solutions and will be available on several screens. In order to meet the users’ needs and expectations and, consequently, achieve the high acceptance of e-Health services, the user-centered design (UCD) approach was employed in the e-Health project. However, during the research it was found that conventional UCD methods are not completely appropriate for older adults: the target population of the e-Health services. That is why the selected UCD methods were modified and adapted for older adults. The modified UCD methods used in the research study are presented in this paper. Using the results of the adapted UCD methods, a prototype for a service named MedReminder was developed. The prototype was evaluated by a group of 12 study participants. The study participants evaluated the MedReminder service as acceptable with a good potential for a high adoption rate among its target population, i.e., older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future e-Health)
Open AccessArticle Towards Annotopia—Enabling the Semantic Interoperability of Web-Based Annotations
Future Internet 2012, 4(3), 788-806; doi:10.3390/fi4030788
Received: 21 June 2012 / Revised: 7 August 2012 / Accepted: 24 August 2012 / Published: 30 August 2012
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Abstract
This paper describes the results of a collaborative effort that has reconciled the Open Annotation Collaboration (OAC) ontology and the Annotation Ontology (AO) to produce a merged data model [the Open Annotation (OA) data model] to describe Web-based annotations—and hence facilitate the [...] Read more.
This paper describes the results of a collaborative effort that has reconciled the Open Annotation Collaboration (OAC) ontology and the Annotation Ontology (AO) to produce a merged data model [the Open Annotation (OA) data model] to describe Web-based annotations—and hence facilitate the discovery, sharing and re-use of such annotations. Using a number of case studies that include digital scholarly editing, 3D museum artifacts and sensor data streams, we evaluate the OA model’s capabilities. We also describe our implementation of an online annotation server that supports the storage, search and retrieval of OA-compliant annotations across multiple applications and disciplines. Finally we discuss outstanding problem issues associated with the OA ontology, and the impact that certain design decisions have had on the efficient storage, indexing, search and retrieval of complex structured annotations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Semantic Interoperability and Knowledge Building)
Open AccessArticle Semantic Observation Integration
Future Internet 2012, 4(3), 807-829; doi:10.3390/fi4030807
Received: 18 June 2012 / Revised: 6 August 2012 / Accepted: 21 August 2012 / Published: 3 September 2012
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Abstract
Although the integration of sensor-based information into analysis and decision making has been a research topic for many years, semantic interoperability has not yet been reached. The advent of user-generated content for the geospatial domain, Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI), makes it even [...] Read more.
Although the integration of sensor-based information into analysis and decision making has been a research topic for many years, semantic interoperability has not yet been reached. The advent of user-generated content for the geospatial domain, Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI), makes it even more difficult to establish semantic integration. This paper proposes a novel approach to integrating conventional sensor information and VGI, which is exploited in the context of detecting forest fires. In contrast to common logic-based semantic descriptions, we present a formal system using algebraic specifications to unambiguously describe the processing steps from natural phenomena to value-added information. A generic ontology of observations is extended and profiled for forest fire detection in order to illustrate how the sensing process, and transformations between heterogeneous sensing systems, can be represented as mathematical functions and grouped into abstract data types. We discuss the required ontological commitments and a possible generalization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Semantic Interoperability and Knowledge Building)
Open AccessArticle Semantic Web Approach to Ease Regulation Compliance Checking in Construction Industry
Future Internet 2012, 4(3), 830-851; doi:10.3390/fi4030830
Received: 6 July 2012 / Revised: 23 August 2012 / Accepted: 27 August 2012 / Published: 11 September 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1003 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Regulations in the Building Industry are becoming increasingly complex and involve more than one technical area, covering products, components and project implementations. They also play an important role in ensuring the quality of a building, and to minimize its environmental impact. Control [...] Read more.
Regulations in the Building Industry are becoming increasingly complex and involve more than one technical area, covering products, components and project implementations. They also play an important role in ensuring the quality of a building, and to minimize its environmental impact. Control or conformance checking are becoming more complex every day, not only for industrials, but also for organizations charged with assessing the conformity of new products or processes. This paper will detail the approach taken by the CSTB (Centre Scientifique et Technique du Bâtiment) in order to simplify this conformance control task. The approach and the proposed solutions are based on semantic web technologies. For this purpose, we first establish a domain-ontology, which defines the main concepts involved and the relationships, including one based on OWL (Web Ontology Language) [1]. We rely on SBVR (Semantics of Business Vocabulary and Business Rules) [2] and SPARQL (SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language) [3] to reformulate the regulatory requirements written in natural language, respectively, in a controlled and formal language. We then structure our control process based on expert practices. Each elementary control step is defined as a SPARQL query and assembled into complex control processes “on demand”, according to the component tested and its semantic definition. Finally, we represent in RDF (Resource Description Framework) [4] the association between the SBVR rules and SPARQL queries representing the same regulatory constraints. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Semantic Interoperability and Knowledge Building)

Review

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Open AccessReview e-Health Cloud: Opportunities and Challenges
Future Internet 2012, 4(3), 621-645; doi:10.3390/fi4030621
Received: 12 April 2012 / Revised: 5 June 2012 / Accepted: 25 June 2012 / Published: 4 July 2012
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (416 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As the costs of healthcare services rise and healthcare professionals are becoming scarce and hard to find, it is imminent that healthcare organizations consider adopting health information technology (HIT) systems. HIT allows health organizations to streamline many of their processes and provide [...] Read more.
As the costs of healthcare services rise and healthcare professionals are becoming scarce and hard to find, it is imminent that healthcare organizations consider adopting health information technology (HIT) systems. HIT allows health organizations to streamline many of their processes and provide services in a more efficient and cost-effective manner. The latest technological trends such as Cloud Computing (CC) provide a strong infrastructure and offer a true enabler for HIT services over the Internet. This can be achieved on a pay-as-you-use model of the “e-Health Cloud” to help the healthcare industry cope with current and future demands yet keeping their costs to a minimum. Despite its great potential, HIT as a CC model has not been addressed extensively in the literature. There are no apparent frameworks which clearly encompass all viable schemes and interrelationships between HIT and CC. Therefore, analyzing and comparing the effectiveness of such schemes is important. In this paper we introduce the concept of “e-Health Cloud” highlighting many of its constituents and proposing building an e-health environment and elucidating many of the challenges confronting the success of the e-Health Cloud. We will also discuss different possible solutions to address challenges such as security and privacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future e-Health)

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