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Future Internet, Volume 9, Issue 2 (June 2017)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Decentralized Blind Spectrum Selection in Cognitive Radio Networks Considering Handoff Cost
Future Internet 2017, 9(2), 10; doi:10.3390/fi9020010
Received: 15 February 2017 / Revised: 20 March 2017 / Accepted: 28 March 2017 / Published: 31 March 2017
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Abstract
Due to the spectrum varying nature of cognitive radio networks, secondary users are required to perform spectrum handoffs when the spectrum is occupied by primary users, which will lead to a handoff delay. In this paper, based on the multi-armed bandit framework of
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Due to the spectrum varying nature of cognitive radio networks, secondary users are required to perform spectrum handoffs when the spectrum is occupied by primary users, which will lead to a handoff delay. In this paper, based on the multi-armed bandit framework of medium access in decentralized cognitive radio networks, we investigate blind spectrum selection problem of secondary users whose sensing ability of cognitive radio is limited and the channel statistics are a priori unknown, taking the handoff delay as a fixed handoff cost into consideration. In this scenario, secondary users have to make the choice of either staying foregoing spectrum with low availability or handing off to another spectrum with higher availability. We model the problem and investigate the performance of three representative policies, i.e., ρPRE, SL(K), kth-UCB1. The simulation results show that, despite the inclusion of the fixed handoff cost, these policies achieve the same asymptotic performance as that without handoff cost. Moreover, through comparison of these policies, we found the kth-UCB1 policy has better overall performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Context-Awareness of Mobile Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Participation and Privacy Perception in Virtual Environments: The Role of Sense of Community, Culture and Gender between Italian and Turkish
Future Internet 2017, 9(2), 11; doi:10.3390/fi9020011
Received: 18 October 2016 / Revised: 20 March 2017 / Accepted: 4 April 2017 / Published: 7 April 2017
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Abstract
Advancements in information and communication technologies have enhanced our possibilities to communicate worldwide, eliminating borders and making it possible to interact with people coming from other cultures like never happened before. Such powerful tools have brought us to reconsider our concept of privacy
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Advancements in information and communication technologies have enhanced our possibilities to communicate worldwide, eliminating borders and making it possible to interact with people coming from other cultures like never happened before. Such powerful tools have brought us to reconsider our concept of privacy and social involvement in order to make them fit into this wider environment. It is possible to claim that the information and communication technologies (ICT) revolution is changing our world and is having a core role as a mediating factor for social movements (e.g., Arab spring) and political decisions (e.g., Brexit), shaping the world in a faster and shared brand new way. It is then interesting to explore how the perception of this brand new environment (in terms of social engagement, privacy perception and sense of belonging to a community) differs even in similar cultures separated by recent historical reasons. Recent historical events may in effect have shaped a different psychological representation of Participation, Privacy and Sense of Community in ICT environments, determining a different perception of affordances and concerns of these complex behaviors. The aim of this research is to examine the relation between the constructs of Sense of Community, Participation and Privacy compared with culture and gender, considering the changes that have occurred in the last few years with the introduction of the web environment. A questionnaire, including ad hoc created scales for Participation and Privacy, have been administered to 180 participants from Turkey and Italy. In order to highlight the cultural differences in the perception of these two constructs, we have provided a semantic differential to both sub-samples showing interesting outcomes. The results are then discussed while taking into account the recent history of both countries in terms of the widespread of new technologies, political actions and protest movements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Privacy in Wireless and Mobile Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Spectrum and Energy Efficiency of Uplink Massive MIMO System with D2D Underlay
Future Internet 2017, 9(2), 12; doi:10.3390/fi9020012
Received: 7 March 2017 / Revised: 7 April 2017 / Accepted: 12 April 2017 / Published: 13 April 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, both the spectrum efficiency (SE) and the energy efficiency (EE) are investigated for an uplink massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system coexisting with an underlay device-to-device (D2D) system. The outage probability and the achievable rates of the cellular user equipments (CUEs)
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In this paper, both the spectrum efficiency (SE) and the energy efficiency (EE) are investigated for an uplink massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system coexisting with an underlay device-to-device (D2D) system. The outage probability and the achievable rates of the cellular user equipments (CUEs) and the D2D link are derived in closed-form, respectively. Constrained by the SE of the D2D link and the CUEs, the EE of the massive MIMO system is maximized by jointly optimizing the transmit power of CUEs and the number of BS antennas. An algorithm with low complexity is proposed to solve the optimization problem. Performance results are provided to validate our derived closed-from results and verify the efficiency of our proposed scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Communications and Computing for Sustainable Development Goals)
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Open AccessArticle Feature-Based Image Watermarking Algorithm Using SVD and APBT for Copyright Protection
Future Internet 2017, 9(2), 13; doi:10.3390/fi9020013
Received: 8 March 2017 / Revised: 4 April 2017 / Accepted: 14 April 2017 / Published: 19 April 2017
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Abstract
Watermarking techniques can be applied in digital images to maintain the authenticity and integrity for copyright protection. In this paper, scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) is combined with local digital watermarking and a digital watermarking algorithm based on SIFT, singular value decomposition (SVD), and
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Watermarking techniques can be applied in digital images to maintain the authenticity and integrity for copyright protection. In this paper, scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) is combined with local digital watermarking and a digital watermarking algorithm based on SIFT, singular value decomposition (SVD), and all phase biorthogonal transform (APBT) is proposed. It describes the generation process of the SIFT algorithm in detail and obtains a series of scale-invariant feature points. A large amount of candidate feature points are selected to obtain the neighborhood which can be used to embed the watermark. For these selected feature points, block-based APBT is carried out on their neighborhoods. Moreover, a coefficients matrix of certain APBT coefficients is generated for SVD to embed the encrypted watermark. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed watermarking algorithm has stronger robustness than some previous schemes. In addition, APBT-based digital watermarking algorithm has good imperceptibility and is more robust to different combinations of attacks, which can be applied for the purpose of copyright protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information Systems Security)
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Open AccessArticle An Energy Efficient MAC Protocol for Wireless Passive Sensor Networks
Future Internet 2017, 9(2), 14; doi:10.3390/fi9020014
Received: 9 March 2017 / Revised: 14 April 2017 / Accepted: 15 April 2017 / Published: 19 April 2017
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Abstract
Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is one of the key network protocols that ensure Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) maintain high performance during communication. MAC protocol design plays an important role in improving the performances of the whole network. First, Wireless Passive Sensor Networks
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Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is one of the key network protocols that ensure Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) maintain high performance during communication. MAC protocol design plays an important role in improving the performances of the whole network. First, Wireless Passive Sensor Networks (WPSNs) and MAC protocols are introduced in this paper. Second, some existing MAC protocols are introduced. Sensor MAC (S-MAC) protocol is analyzed and existing improved backoff algorithms are introduced. A new MAC protocol called Improved Sensor MAC (IS-MAC) is then proposed to solve the problem that the contention window (CW) during carrier sense is fixed in S-MAC protocol. IS-MAC protocol is able to adjust CW in terms of network load, so energy consumption can be decreased. Finally, according to the simulation results on NS2, the proposed protocol has better performance in terms of throughput and energy consumption. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Assessing OpenStreetMap Data Using Intrinsic Quality Indicators: An Extension to the QGIS Processing Toolbox
Future Internet 2017, 9(2), 15; doi:10.3390/fi9020015
Received: 3 March 2017 / Revised: 11 April 2017 / Accepted: 13 April 2017 / Published: 21 April 2017
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Abstract
OpenStreetMap (OSM) is a recent emerging area in computational science. There are several unexplored issues in the quality assessment of OSM. Firstly, researchers are using various established assessment methods by comparing OSM with authoritative dataset. However, these methods are unsuitable to assess OSM
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OpenStreetMap (OSM) is a recent emerging area in computational science. There are several unexplored issues in the quality assessment of OSM. Firstly, researchers are using various established assessment methods by comparing OSM with authoritative dataset. However, these methods are unsuitable to assess OSM data quality in the case of the non-availability of authoritative data. In such a scenario, the intrinsic quality indicators can be used to assess the quality. Secondly, a framework for data assessment specific to different geographic information system (GIS) domains is not available. In this light, the current study presents an extension of the Quantum GIS (QGIS) processing toolbox by using existing functionalities and writing new scripts to handle spatial data. This would enable researchers to assess the completeness of spatial data using intrinsic indicators. The study also proposed a heuristic approach to test the road navigability of OSM data. The developed models are applied on Punjab (India) OSM data. The results suggest that the OSM project in Punjab (India) is progressing at a slow peace, and contributors’ motivation is required to enhance the fitness of data. It is concluded that the scripts developed to provide an intuitive method to assess the OSM data based on quality indicators can be easily utilized for evaluating the fitness-of-use of the data of any region. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Private and Secure Distribution of Targeted Advertisements to Mobile Phones
Future Internet 2017, 9(2), 16; doi:10.3390/fi9020016
Received: 4 April 2017 / Revised: 24 April 2017 / Accepted: 26 April 2017 / Published: 1 May 2017
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Abstract
Online Behavioural Advertising (OBA) enables promotion companies to effectively target users with ads that best satisfy their purchasing needs. This is highly beneficial for both vendors and publishers who are the owners of the advertising platforms, such as websites and app developers, but
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Online Behavioural Advertising (OBA) enables promotion companies to effectively target users with ads that best satisfy their purchasing needs. This is highly beneficial for both vendors and publishers who are the owners of the advertising platforms, such as websites and app developers, but at the same time creates a serious privacy threat for users who expose their consumer interests. In this paper, we categorize the available ad-distribution methods and identify their limitations in terms of security, privacy, targeting effectiveness and practicality. We contribute our own system, which utilizes opportunistic networking in order to distribute targeted adverts within a social network. We improve upon previous work by eliminating the need for trust among the users (network nodes) while at the same time achieving low memory and bandwidth overhead, which are inherent problems of many opportunistic networks. Our protocol accomplishes this by identifying similarities between the consumer interests of users and then allows them to share access to the same adverts, which need to be downloaded only once. Although the same ads may be viewed by multiple users, privacy is preserved as the users do not learn each other’s advertising interests. An additional contribution is that malicious users cannot alter the ads in order to spread malicious content, and also, they cannot launch impersonation attacks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Privacy in Wireless and Mobile Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Towards Rack Utilization in Internet Datacenters: An Approach Based on Dynamic Programming
Future Internet 2017, 9(2), 17; doi:10.3390/fi9020017
Received: 20 February 2017 / Revised: 24 April 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 6 May 2017
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Abstract
In the datacenter rented to Internet Service Providers (ISPs), the low utilization of racks can seriously affect ISPs’ benefit because the ISPs are charged by “rack per year” rather than servers. Based on our analysis about the utilization data from production systems, we
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In the datacenter rented to Internet Service Providers (ISPs), the low utilization of racks can seriously affect ISPs’ benefit because the ISPs are charged by “rack per year” rather than servers. Based on our analysis about the utilization data from production systems, we find that the over-provisioning of power results in low power utilization, which potentially decreases rack utilization as well as the ISPs’ benefit. To improve the rack utilization, maximizing the number of servers in racks is an effective way. In this paper, we propose a server placement algorithm to minimize the power fragment in a rack. The experimental results show that it can save more than 50% leasing cost (rack utilization improvement) in evaluation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Simple Approach to Dynamic Optimisation of Flexible Optical Networks with Practical Application
Future Internet 2017, 9(2), 18; doi:10.3390/fi9020018
Received: 20 April 2017 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 23 May 2017
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Abstract
This paper provides an initial introduction to, and definition of, the ‘Dynamically Powered Relays for a Flexible Optical Network’ (DPR-FON) problem for opto-electro-optical (OEO) regenerators used in optical networks. In such networks, optical transmission parameters can be varied dynamically as traffic patterns change.
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This paper provides an initial introduction to, and definition of, the ‘Dynamically Powered Relays for a Flexible Optical Network’ (DPR-FON) problem for opto-electro-optical (OEO) regenerators used in optical networks. In such networks, optical transmission parameters can be varied dynamically as traffic patterns change. This will provide different bandwidths, but also change the regeneration limits as a result. To support this flexibility, OEOs (‘relays’) may be switched on and off as required, thus saving power. DPR-FON is shown to be NP-complete; consequently, solving such a dynamic problem in real-time requires a fast heuristic capable of delivering an acceptable approximation to the optimal configuration with low complexity. In this paper, just such an algorithm is developed, implemented, and evaluated against more computationally-demanding alternatives for two known cases. A number of real-world extensions are considered as the paper develops, combining to produce the ‘Generalised Dynamically Powered Relays for a Flexible Optical Network’ (GDPR-FON) problem. This, too, is analysed and an associated fast heuristic proposed, along with an exploration of the further research that is required. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Adaptive Back-Off Mechanism for Wireless Sensor Networks
Future Internet 2017, 9(2), 19; doi:10.3390/fi9020019
Received: 6 April 2017 / Revised: 11 May 2017 / Accepted: 22 May 2017 / Published: 1 June 2017
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Abstract
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been extensively applied in many domains such as smart homes and Internet of Things (IoT). As part of WSNs’ communication protocols, back-off mechanisms play an essential role in the deployment of wireless channels for network nodes and have
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Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been extensively applied in many domains such as smart homes and Internet of Things (IoT). As part of WSNs’ communication protocols, back-off mechanisms play an essential role in the deployment of wireless channels for network nodes and have been at the core of ensuring effective communication. The performance of many back-off algorithms is excellent in light or middle load networks. However, it degrades dramatically in heavy load networks. In this paper, we propose an adaptive contention window medium access control (MAC) protocol to improve the throughput performance under heavy load. By using the number of historical collisions as the parameter in the back-off mechanism to reflect the channel status, the size of the contention window is adjusted automatically, and the throughput of network is then improved. Simulation results show that our optimized MAC protocol has higher throughput and energy efficiency. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Access Control Model for Preventing Virtual Machine Escape Attack
Future Internet 2017, 9(2), 20; doi:10.3390/fi9020020
Received: 26 March 2017 / Revised: 20 May 2017 / Accepted: 23 May 2017 / Published: 2 June 2017
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Abstract
With the rapid development of Internet, the traditional computing environment is making a big migration to the cloud-computing environment. However, cloud computing introduces a set of new security problems. Aiming at the virtual machine (VM) escape attack, we study the traditional attack model
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With the rapid development of Internet, the traditional computing environment is making a big migration to the cloud-computing environment. However, cloud computing introduces a set of new security problems. Aiming at the virtual machine (VM) escape attack, we study the traditional attack model and attack scenarios in the cloud-computing environment. In addition, we propose an access control model that can prevent virtual machine escape (PVME) by adapting the BLP (Bell-La Padula) model (an access control model developed by D. Bell and J. LaPadula). Finally, the PVME model has been implemented on full virtualization architecture. The experimental results show that the PVME module can effectively prevent virtual machine escape while only incurring 4% to 8% time overhead. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Energy Efficient Power Allocation for the Uplink of Distributed Massive MIMO Systems
Future Internet 2017, 9(2), 21; doi:10.3390/fi9020021
Received: 19 March 2017 / Revised: 27 May 2017 / Accepted: 2 June 2017 / Published: 9 June 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (350 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, an energy efficient power allocation scheme is proposed for a distributed massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system with a circular antenna array. Single-antenna users simultaneously transmit signal to the base station (BS) with a large number of distributed antennas. The tight
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In this paper, an energy efficient power allocation scheme is proposed for a distributed massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system with a circular antenna array. Single-antenna users simultaneously transmit signal to the base station (BS) with a large number of distributed antennas. The tight approximation of the energy efficiency (EE) is derived in closed form expressions. Through jointly optimizing the power allocation and the antenna number of BS, an NP-hard problem is formulated to maximize the EE. The equal power allocation is proved to be optimal given the total transmit power and the number of antennas. Finally, the optimal antenna number is determined by one dimension search. It is noteworthy that the NP-hard problem is solved by one dimension search. Simulation results validate the accuracy and the low-complexity of our proposed scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Communications and Computing for Sustainable Development Goals)
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Open AccessArticle A Method for Identifying the Mood States of Social Network Users Based on Cyber Psychometrics
Future Internet 2017, 9(2), 22; doi:10.3390/fi9020022
Received: 19 April 2017 / Revised: 11 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 16 June 2017
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Abstract
Analyzing people’s opinions, attitudes, sentiments, and emotions based on user-generated content (UGC) is feasible for identifying the psychological characteristics of social network users. However, most studies focus on identifying the sentiments carried in the micro-blogging text and there is no ideal calculation method
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Analyzing people’s opinions, attitudes, sentiments, and emotions based on user-generated content (UGC) is feasible for identifying the psychological characteristics of social network users. However, most studies focus on identifying the sentiments carried in the micro-blogging text and there is no ideal calculation method for users’ real emotional states. In this study, the Profile of Mood State (POMS) is used to characterize users’ real mood states and a regression model is built based on cyber psychometrics and a multitask method. Features of users’ online behavior are selected through structured statistics and unstructured text. Results of the correlation analysis of different features demonstrate that users’ real mood states are not only characterized by the messages expressed through texts, but also correlate with statistical features of online behavior. The sentiment-related features in different timespans indicate different correlations with the real mood state. The comparison among various regression algorithms suggests that the multitask learning method outperforms other algorithms in root-mean-square error and error ratio. Therefore, this cyber psychometrics method based on multitask learning that integrates structural features and temporal emotional information could effectively obtain users’ real mood states and could be applied in further psychological measurements and predictions. Full article
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