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Sustainability 2014, 6(1), 193-216; doi:10.3390/su6010193

Integrating Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services in the Post-2015 Development Agenda: Goal Structure, Target Areas and Means of Implementation

1
PBL Netherlands Environment Assessment Agency, Postbus 303, 3720 AH, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
2
Stockholm Environment Institute, Linnégatan 87 D, Stockholm 115 23, Sweden
3
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and the Built Environment, Division of Environmental Strategies Research, Drottning Kristinas väg 30, Stockholm 100 44, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 November 2013 / Revised: 16 December 2013 / Accepted: 17 December 2013 / Published: 27 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development Goals)
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Abstract

The United Nations’ discussions on defining a new set of post-2015 development goals focus on poverty eradication and sustainable development. Biodiversity and ecosystem services are essential for poverty eradication, which is also one of the foundations of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). Based on an assessment of current proposals of goals and targets, and a quantitative pathway analysis to meet long term biodiversity and food security goals, this paper discusses how biodiversity and ecosystem services can be integrated into a broad set of goals and targets, and concludes with relevant target areas and means of implementation for which specific targets need to be defined. Furthermore, it responds to the call of the CBD to consider the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and the related Aichi biodiversity targets in the post-2015 development agenda. The paper’s analysis identifies three overlapping but also supplemental ways to integrate biodiversity and ecosystem services in the post-2015 agenda: integrated goals, goals addressing earth system functioning and goals addressing environmental limits. It further concludes seven target areas to be included under the goals to address biodiversity and ecosystem services in the context of food and agriculture: access to food, demand for agricultural products, sustainable intensification, ecosystem fragmentation, protected areas, essential ecosystem services and genetic diversity. The Strategic Plan for Biodiversity provides a good basis for integrating biodiversity and ecosystem services in the post-2015 development agenda. Many Aichi targets address the proposed target areas and the means of implementation discussed, while they need to be complemented with targets that specifically address human well-being, as well as institutions and governance.
Keywords: sustainable development goals; biodiversity; ecosystem services; pathways; Aichi targets sustainable development goals; biodiversity; ecosystem services; pathways; Aichi targets
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lucas, P.L.; Kok, M.T.; Nilsson, M.; Alkemade, R. Integrating Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services in the Post-2015 Development Agenda: Goal Structure, Target Areas and Means of Implementation. Sustainability 2014, 6, 193-216.

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