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Sustainability 2017, 9(3), 455; doi:10.3390/su9030455

Virtual Sensors for Biodiesel Production in a Batch Reactor

1
Posgrado Electrónica, Tecnológico Nacional de México-Centro Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Interior Internado Palmira S/N, Palmira, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62490, México
2
Departamento de Mecatrónica, Universidad Politécnica de Chiapas, Carretera Tuxtla-Villaflores KM. 1+500, Suchiapa, Chiapas 29150, México
3
Departamento de Ingeniería Electrónica, Tecnológico Nacional de México-Centro Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Interior Internado Palmira S/N, Palmira, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62490, México
4
Catedra CONACYT-Tecnológico Nacional de México-Instituto Tecnológico de Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Carretera Panamericana Km. 1080, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chis 29000, México
5
Departamento de Maestría en Mecatrónica, Tecnológico Nacional de México-Instituto Tecnológico de Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Carretera Panamericana km 1080, Col. Terán, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chis 29050, México
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Doug Arent
Received: 16 January 2017 / Revised: 13 March 2017 / Accepted: 15 March 2017 / Published: 19 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sustainability)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5910 KB, uploaded 20 March 2017]   |  

Abstract

Fossil fuel combustion produces around 98% of coal emissions. Therefore, liquid and gaseous biofuels have become more attractive due to their environmental benefits. The biodiesel production process requires measurements that help to control and supervise the variables involved in the process. The measurements provide valuable information about the operation conditions and give estimations about the critical variables of the process. The information from measurements is essential for monitoring the state of a process and verifying if it has an optimal performance. The objective of this study was the conception of a virtual sensor based on the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and the model of a batch biodiesel reactor for estimating concentrations of triglycerides (TG), diglycerides (DG), monoglycerides (MG), methyl ester (E), alcohol (A), and glycerol (GL) in real-time through measurement of the temperature and pH. Estimation of the TG, DG, MG, E, A, and Gl through this method eliminates the need for additional sensors and allows the use of different types of control. For the performance analysis of the virtual sensor, the data obtained from the EKF are compared with experimental data reported in the literature, with the mean square error of the estimate then being calculated. In addition, the results of this approach can be implemented in a real system, since it only uses measurements available in a reactor such as temperature and pH. View Full-Text
Keywords: biodiesel; extended Kalman filter; batch biodiesel reactor biodiesel; extended Kalman filter; batch biodiesel reactor
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MDPI and ACS Style

López-Zapata, B.Y.; Adam-Medina, M.; Álvarez-Gutiérrez, P.E.; Castillo-González, J.P.; León, H.-D.; Vela-Valdés, L.G. Virtual Sensors for Biodiesel Production in a Batch Reactor. Sustainability 2017, 9, 455.

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