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Remote Sens., Volume 10, Issue 1 (January 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Advances in computing power and the increased availability of high-resolution remote sensing data [...] Read more.
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle On Statistical Approaches to Generate Level 3 Products from Satellite Remote Sensing Retrievals
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(1), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10010155
Received: 9 November 2017 / Revised: 14 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5909 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Satellite remote sensing of trace gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) has increased our ability to observe and understand Earth’s climate. However, these remote sensing data, specifically Level 2 retrievals, tend to be irregular in space and time, and hence, spatio-temporal
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Satellite remote sensing of trace gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) has increased our ability to observe and understand Earth’s climate. However, these remote sensing data, specifically Level 2 retrievals, tend to be irregular in space and time, and hence, spatio-temporal prediction is required to infer values at any location and time point. Such inferences are not only required to answer important questions about our climate, but they are also needed for validating the satellite instrument, since Level 2 retrievals are generally not co-located with ground-based remote sensing instruments. Here, we discuss statistical approaches to construct Level 3 products from Level 2 retrievals, placing particular emphasis on the strengths and potential pitfalls when using statistical prediction in this context. Following this discussion, we use a spatio-temporal statistical modelling framework known as fixed rank kriging (FRK) to obtain global predictions and prediction standard errors of column-averaged carbon dioxide based on Version 7r and Version 8r retrievals from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) satellite. The FRK predictions allow us to validate statistically the Level 2 retrievals globally even though the data are at locations and at time points that do not coincide with validation data. Importantly, the validation takes into account the prediction uncertainty, which is dependent both on the temporally-varying density of observations around the ground-based measurement sites and on the spatio-temporal high-frequency components of the trace gas field that are not explicitly modelled. Here, for validation of remotely-sensed CO2 data, we use observations from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network. We demonstrate that the resulting FRK product based on Version 8r compares better with TCCON data than that based on Version 7r, in terms of both prediction accuracy and uncertainty quantification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Greenhouse Gases)
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Open AccessLetter Image Degradation for Quality Assessment of Pan-Sharpening Methods
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(1), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10010154
Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 19 January 2018 / Accepted: 20 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
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Abstract
Wald’s protocol is the most widely accepted protocol to assess pan-sharpening algorithms. In particular, the synthesis property—which is usually validated on a reduced scale—is thought to be a necessary and sufficient condition of a success image fusion. Usually, the synthesis property is evaluated
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Wald’s protocol is the most widely accepted protocol to assess pan-sharpening algorithms. In particular, the synthesis property—which is usually validated on a reduced scale—is thought to be a necessary and sufficient condition of a success image fusion. Usually, the synthesis property is evaluated at a reduced resolution scale to take the original multispectral (MS) image as reference; thus, the image degradation method that is employed to produce reduced resolution images is crucial. In the past decade, the standard method has been to decimate the low-pass-filtered image where the filter is designed to match the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the sensor. The paper pointed out the deficiency of the method, and proposed a new image degradation method, referred to as method of spatial degradation for fusion validation (MSD4FV), which takes MTF compensation into account based on a simplified MTF model. The simulation results supported the implicit assumption of Wald’s protocol that image fusion performance is invariant among scales if the images have been properly degraded. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensing Image Processing)
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of the Spatial Characteristics of Four Remotely Sensed Leaf Area Index Products over China: Direct Validation and Relative Uncertainties
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(1), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10010148
Received: 21 November 2017 / Revised: 18 December 2017 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
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Abstract
Leaf area index (LAI) is a key input for many land surface models, ecological models, and yield prediction models. In order to make the model simulation and/or prediction more reliable and applicable, it is crucial to know the characteristics and uncertainties of remotely
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Leaf area index (LAI) is a key input for many land surface models, ecological models, and yield prediction models. In order to make the model simulation and/or prediction more reliable and applicable, it is crucial to know the characteristics and uncertainties of remotely sensed LAI products before they are input into models. In this study, we conducted a comparison of four global remotely sensed LAI products—Global Land Surface Satellite (GLASS), Global LAI Product of Beijing Normal University (GLOBALBNU), Global LAI Map of Chinese Academy of Sciences (GLOBMAP), and Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) LAI, while the former three products are newly developed by three Chinese research groups on the basis of the MODIS land reflectance product over China between 2001 and 2011. Direct validation by comparing the four products to ground LAI observations both globally and over China demonstrates that GLASS LAI shows the best performance, with R2 = 0.70 and RMSE = 0.96 globally and R2 = 0.94 and RMSE = 0.61 over China; MODIS performs worst (R2 = 0.55, RMSE = 1.23 globally and R2 = 0.03, RMSE = 2.12 over China), and GLOBALBNU and GLOBMAP performs moderately. Comparison of the four products shows that they are generally consistent with each other, giving the smallest spatial correlation coefficient of 0.7 and the relative standard deviation around the order of 0.3. Compared with MODIS LAI, GLOBALBNU LAI is the most similar, followed by GLASS LAI and GLOBMAP. Large differences mainly occur in southern regions of China. LAI difference analysis indicates that evergreen needleleaf forest (ENF), woody savannas (SAV) biome types and temperate dry hot summer, temperate warm summer dry winter and temperate hot summer no dry season climate types correspond to high standard deviation, while ENF and grassland (GRA) biome types and temperate warm summer dry winter and cold dry winter warm summer climate types are responsible for the large relative standard deviation of the four products. Our results indicate that although the three newly developed products have improved the accuracy of LAI estimates, much work remains to improve the LAI products especially in ENF, SAV, and GRA regions and temperate climate zones. Findings from our study can provide guidance to communities regarding the performance of different LAI products over mainland China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Earth Observations for Addressing Global Challenges)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Onboard Spectral and Spatial Cloud Detection for Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Images
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(1), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10010152
Received: 15 November 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 20 January 2018
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Abstract
The accurate onboard detection of clouds in hyperspectral images before lossless compression is beneficial. However, conventional onboard cloud detection methods are not applicable all the time, especially for shadowed clouds or darkened snow-covered surfaces that are not identified in normalized difference snow index
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The accurate onboard detection of clouds in hyperspectral images before lossless compression is beneficial. However, conventional onboard cloud detection methods are not applicable all the time, especially for shadowed clouds or darkened snow-covered surfaces that are not identified in normalized difference snow index (NDSI) tests. In this paper, we propose a new spectral-spatial classification strategy to enhance the performance of an orbiting cloud screen obtained on hyperspectral images by integrating a threshold exponential spectral angle map (TESAM), adaptive Markov random field (aMRF) and dynamic stochastic resonance (DSR). TESAM is applied to roughly classify cloud pixels based on spectral information. Then aMRF is used to do optimal process by using spatial information, which improved the classification performance significantly. Nevertheless, misclassifications occur due to noisy data in the onboard environments, and DSR is employed to eliminate noise data produced by aMRF in binary labeled images. We used level 0.5 data from Hyperion as a dataset, and the average tested accuracy of the proposed algorithm was 96.28% by test. This method can provide cloud mask for the on-going EO-1 and related satellites with the same spectral settings without manual intervention. Experiments indicate that the proposed method has better performance than the conventional onboard cloud detection methods or current state-of-the-art hyperspectral classification methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensing Image Processing)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle New Insights for Detecting and Deriving Thermal Properties of Lava Flow Using Infrared Satellite during 2014–2015 Effusive Eruption at Holuhraun, Iceland
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(1), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10010151
Received: 14 November 2017 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 20 January 2018
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Abstract
A new lava field was formed at Holuhraun in the Icelandic Highlands, north of Vatnajökull glacier, in 2014–2015. It was the largest effusive eruption in Iceland for 230 years, with an estimated lava bulk volume of ~1.44 km3 covering an area of
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A new lava field was formed at Holuhraun in the Icelandic Highlands, north of Vatnajökull glacier, in 2014–2015. It was the largest effusive eruption in Iceland for 230 years, with an estimated lava bulk volume of ~1.44 km3 covering an area of ~84 km2. Satellite-based remote sensing is commonly used as preliminary assessment of large scale eruptions since it is relatively efficient for collecting and processing the data. Landsat-8 infrared datasets were used in this study, and we used dual-band technique to determine the subpixel temperature (Th) of the lava. We developed a new spectral index called the thermal eruption index (TEI) based on the shortwave infrared (SWIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) bands allowing us to differentiate thermal domain within the lava flow field. Lava surface roughness effects are accounted by using the Hurst coefficient (H) for deriving the radiant flux ( Φ rad ) and the crust thickness (Δh). Here, we compare the results derived from satellite images with field measurements. The result from 2 December 2014 shows that a temperature estimate (1096 °C; occupying area of 3.05 m2) from a lava breakout has a close correspondence with a thermal camera measurement (1047 °C; occupying area of 4.52 m2). We also found that the crust thickness estimate in the lava channel during 6 September 2014 (~3.4–7.7 m) compares closely with the lava height measurement from the field (~2.6–6.6 m); meanwhile, the total radiant flux peak is underestimated (~8 GW) compared to other studies (~25 GW), although the trend shows good agreement with both field observation and other studies. This study provides new insights for monitoring future effusive eruption using infrared satellite images. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensing in Geology, Geomorphology and Hydrology)
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Open AccessArticle L-Band Temporal Coherence Assessment and Modeling Using Amplitude and Snow Depth over Interior Alaska
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(1), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10010150
Received: 6 December 2017 / Revised: 2 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 20 January 2018
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Abstract
Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) provides the capability to detect surface deformation. Numerous processing approaches have been developed to improve InSAR results and overcome its limitations. Regardless of the processing methodology, however, temporal decorrelation is a major obstacle for all InSAR applications, especially
[...] Read more.
Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) provides the capability to detect surface deformation. Numerous processing approaches have been developed to improve InSAR results and overcome its limitations. Regardless of the processing methodology, however, temporal decorrelation is a major obstacle for all InSAR applications, especially over vegetated areas and dynamic environments, such as Interior Alaska. Temporal coherence is usually modeled as a univariate exponential function of temporal baseline. It has been, however, documented that temporal variations in surface backscattering due to the change in surface parameters, i.e., dielectric constant, roughness, and the geometry of scatterers, can result in gradual, seasonal, or sudden decorrelations and loss of InSAR coherence. The coherence models introduced so far have largely neglected the effect of the temporal change in backscattering on InSAR coherence. Here, we introduce a new temporal decorrelation model that considers changes in surface backscattering by utilizing the relative change in SAR intensity between two images as a proxy for the change in surface scattering parameters. The model also takes into account the decorrelation due to the change in snow depth between two images. Using the L-band Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS-2) Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR-2) data, the model has been assessed over forested and shrub landscapes in Delta Junction, Interior Alaska. The model decreases the RMS error of temporal coherence estimation from 0.18 to 0.09 on average. The improvements made by the model have been statistically proved to be significant at the 99% confidence level. Additionally, the model shows that the coherence of forested areas are more prone to changes in backscattering than shrub landscape. The model is based on L-band data and may not be expanded to C-band or X-band InSAR observations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in SAR: Sensors, Methodologies, and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle A Satellite-Based Model for Simulating Ecosystem Respiration in the Tibetan and Inner Mongolian Grasslands
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(1), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10010149
Received: 13 December 2017 / Revised: 14 January 2018 / Accepted: 14 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
It is important to accurately evaluate ecosystem respiration (RE) in the alpine grasslands of the Tibetan Plateau and the temperate grasslands of the Inner Mongolian Plateau, as it serves as a sensitivity indicator of regional and global carbon cycles. Here, we
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It is important to accurately evaluate ecosystem respiration (RE) in the alpine grasslands of the Tibetan Plateau and the temperate grasslands of the Inner Mongolian Plateau, as it serves as a sensitivity indicator of regional and global carbon cycles. Here, we combined flux measurements taken between 2003 and 2013 from 16 grassland sites across northern China and the corresponding MODIS land surface temperature (LST), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), and land surface water index (LSWI) to build a satellite-based model to estimate RE at a regional scale. First, the dependencies of both spatial and temporal variations of RE on these biotic and climatic factors were examined explicitly. We found that plant productivity and moisture, but not temperature, can best explain the spatial pattern of RE in northern China’s grasslands; while temperature plays a major role in regulating the temporal variability of RE in the alpine grasslands, and moisture is equally as important as temperature in the temperate grasslands. However, the moisture effect on RE and the explicit representation of spatial variation process are often lacking in most of the existing satellite-based RE models. On this basis, we developed a model by comprehensively considering moisture, temperature, and productivity effects on both temporal and spatial processes of RE, and then, we evaluated the model performance. Our results showed that the model well explained the observed RE in both the alpine (R2 = 0.79, RMSE = 0.77 g C m−2 day−1) and temperate grasslands (R2 = 0.75, RMSE = 0.60 g C m−2 day−1). The inclusion of the LSWI as the water-limiting factor substantially improved the model performance in arid and semi-arid ecosystems, and the spatialized basal respiration rate as an indicator for spatial variation largely determined the regional pattern of RE. Finally, the model accurately reproduced the seasonal and inter-annual variations and spatial variability of RE, and it avoided overestimating RE in water-limited regions compared to the popular process-based model. These findings provide a better understanding of the biotic and climatic controls over spatiotemporal patterns of RE for two typical grasslands and a new alternative up-scaling method for large-scale RE evaluation in grassland ecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Land Surface Fluxes)
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Open AccessArticle Hyperspectral Shallow-Water Remote Sensing with an Enhanced Benthic Classifier
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(1), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10010147
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
Hyperspectral remote sensing inversion models utilize spectral information over optically shallow waters to retrieve optical properties of the water column, bottom depth and reflectance, with the latter used in benthic classification. Accuracy of these retrievals is dependent on the spectral endmember(s) used to
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Hyperspectral remote sensing inversion models utilize spectral information over optically shallow waters to retrieve optical properties of the water column, bottom depth and reflectance, with the latter used in benthic classification. Accuracy of these retrievals is dependent on the spectral endmember(s) used to model the bottom reflectance during the inversion. Without prior knowledge of these endmember(s) current approaches must iterate through a list of endmember—a computationally demanding task. To address this, a novel lookup table classification approach termed HOPE-LUT was developed for selecting the likely benthic endmembers of any hyperspectral image pixel. HOPE-LUT classifies a pixel as sand, mixture or non-sand, then the latter two are resolved into the three most likely classes. Optimization subsequently selects the class (out of the three) that generated the best fit to the remote sensing reflectance. For a coral reef case, modeling results indicate very high benthic classification accuracy (>90%) for depths less than 4 m of common coral reef benthos. These accuracies decrease substantially with increasing depth due to the loss of bottom information, especially the spectral signatures. We applied this technique to hyperspectral airborne imagery of Heron Reef, Great Barrier Reef and generated benthic habitat maps with higher classification accuracy compared to standard inversion models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensing Image Processing)
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Open AccessCommunication Mineral Mapping Using the Automatized Gaussian Model (AGM)—Application to Two Industrial French Sites at Gardanne and Thann
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(1), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10010146
Received: 23 November 2017 / Revised: 22 December 2017 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
The identification and mapping of the mineral composition of by-products and residues on industrial sites is a topic of growing interest because it may provide information on plant-processing activities and their impact on the surrounding environment. Imaging spectroscopy can provide such information based
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The identification and mapping of the mineral composition of by-products and residues on industrial sites is a topic of growing interest because it may provide information on plant-processing activities and their impact on the surrounding environment. Imaging spectroscopy can provide such information based on the spectral signatures of soil mineral markers. In this study, we use the automatized Gaussian model (AGM), an automated, physically based method relying on spectral deconvolution. Originally developed for the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) range, it has been extended to include information from the visible and near-infrared (VNIR) range to take iron oxides/hydroxides into account. We present the results of its application to two French industrial sites: (i) the Altéo Environnement site in Gardanne, southern France, dedicated to the extraction of alumina from bauxite; and (ii) the Millennium Inorganic Chemicals site in Thann, eastern France, which produces titanium dioxide from ilmenite and rutile, and its associated Séché Éco Services site used to neutralize the resulting effluents, producing gypsum. HySpex hyperspectral images were acquired over Gardanne in September 2013 and an APEX image was acquired over Thann in June 2013. In both cases, reflectance spectra were measured and samples were collected in the field and analyzed for mineralogical and chemical composition. When applying the AGM to the images, both in the VNIR and SWIR ranges, we successfully identified and mapped minerals of interest characteristic of each site: bauxite, Bauxaline® and alumina for Gardanne; and red and white gypsum and calcite for Thann. Identifications and maps were consistent with in situ measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensing in Geology, Geomorphology and Hydrology)
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Open AccessArticle Trend Detection for the Extent of Irrigated Agriculture in Idaho’s Snake River Plain, 1984–2016
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(1), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10010145
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 14 January 2018 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
Understanding irrigator responses to changes in water availability is critical for building strategies to support effective management of water resources. Using remote sensing data, we examine farmer responses to seasonal changes in water availability in Idaho’s Snake River Plain for the time series
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Understanding irrigator responses to changes in water availability is critical for building strategies to support effective management of water resources. Using remote sensing data, we examine farmer responses to seasonal changes in water availability in Idaho’s Snake River Plain for the time series 1984–2016. We apply a binary threshold based on the seasonal maximum of the Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI) using Landsat 5–8 images to distinguish irrigated from non-irrigated lands. We find that the NDMI of irrigated lands increased over time, consistent with trends in irrigation technology adoption and increased crop productivity. By combining remote sensing data with geospatial data describing water rights for irrigation, we show that the trend in NDMI is not universal, but differs by farm size and water source. Farmers with small farms that rely on surface water are more likely than average to have a large contraction (over −25%) in irrigated area over the 33-year period of record. In contrast, those with large farms and access to groundwater are more likely than average to have a large expansion (over +25%) in irrigated area over the same period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensing in Agriculture and Vegetation)
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Open AccessArticle Building Extraction in Very High Resolution Remote Sensing Imagery Using Deep Learning and Guided Filters
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(1), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10010144
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
Very high resolution (VHR) remote sensing imagery has been used for land cover classification, and it tends to a transition from land-use classification to pixel-level semantic segmentation. Inspired by the recent success of deep learning and the filter method in computer vision, this
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Very high resolution (VHR) remote sensing imagery has been used for land cover classification, and it tends to a transition from land-use classification to pixel-level semantic segmentation. Inspired by the recent success of deep learning and the filter method in computer vision, this work provides a segmentation model, which designs an image segmentation neural network based on the deep residual networks and uses a guided filter to extract buildings in remote sensing imagery. Our method includes the following steps: first, the VHR remote sensing imagery is preprocessed and some hand-crafted features are calculated. Second, a designed deep network architecture is trained with the urban district remote sensing image to extract buildings at the pixel level. Third, a guided filter is employed to optimize the classification map produced by deep learning; at the same time, some salt-and-pepper noise is removed. Experimental results based on the Vaihingen and Potsdam datasets demonstrate that our method, which benefits from neural networks and guided filtering, achieves a higher overall accuracy when compared with other machine learning and deep learning methods. The method proposed shows outstanding performance in terms of the building extraction from diversified objects in the urban district. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deep Learning for Remote Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Downscaling GRACE Remote Sensing Datasets to High-Resolution Groundwater Storage Change Maps of California’s Central Valley
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(1), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10010143
Received: 30 August 2017 / Revised: 8 January 2018 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) has already proven to be a powerful data source for regional groundwater assessments in many areas around the world. However, the applicability of GRACE data products to more localized studies and their utility to water management
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NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) has already proven to be a powerful data source for regional groundwater assessments in many areas around the world. However, the applicability of GRACE data products to more localized studies and their utility to water management authorities have been constrained by their limited spatial resolution (~200,000 km2). Researchers have begun to address these shortcomings with data assimilation approaches that integrate GRACE-derived total water storage estimates into complex regional models, producing higher-resolution estimates of hydrologic variables (~2500 km2). Here we take those approaches one step further by developing an empirically based model capable of downscaling GRACE data to a high-resolution (~16 km2) dataset of groundwater storage changes over a portion of California’s Central Valley. The model utilizes an artificial neural network to generate a series of high-resolution maps of groundwater storage change from 2002 to 2010 using GRACE estimates of variations in total water storage and a series of widely available hydrologic variables (PRISM precipitation and temperature data, digital elevation model (DEM)-derived slope, and Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soil type). The neural network downscaling model is able to accurately reproduce local groundwater behavior, with acceptable Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) values for calibration and validation (ranging from 0.2445 to 0.9577 and 0.0391 to 0.7511, respectively). Ultimately, the model generates maps of local groundwater storage change at a 100-fold higher resolution than GRACE gridded data products without the use of computationally intensive physical models. The model’s simulated maps have the potential for application to local groundwater management initiatives in the region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Groundwater from River Basin to Global Scales)
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Open AccessArticle Dependence of C-Band Backscatter on Ground Temperature, Air Temperature and Snow Depth in Arctic Permafrost Regions
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(1), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10010142
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 2 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
Microwave remote sensing has found numerous applications in areas affected by permafrost and seasonally frozen ground. In this study, we focused on data obtained by the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT, C-band) during winter periods when the ground is assumed to be frozen. This paper
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Microwave remote sensing has found numerous applications in areas affected by permafrost and seasonally frozen ground. In this study, we focused on data obtained by the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT, C-band) during winter periods when the ground is assumed to be frozen. This paper discusses the relationships of ASCAT backscatter with snow depth, air and ground temperature through correlations and the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to quantify influences on backscatter values during situations of frozen ground. We studied sites in Alaska, Northern Canada, Scandinavia and Siberia. Air temperature and snow depth data were obtained from 19 World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and 4 Snow Telemetry (SNOTEL) stations. Ground temperature data were obtained from 36 boreholes through the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost Database (GTN-P) and additional records from central Yamal. Results suggest distinct differences between sites with and without underlying continuous permafrost. Sites characterized by high freezing indices (>4000 degree-days) have consistently stronger median correlations of ASCAT backscatter with ground temperature for all measurement depths. We show that the dynamics in winter-time backscatter cannot be solely explained through snow processes, but are also highly correlated with ground temperature up to a considerable depth (60 cm). These findings have important implications for both freeze/thaw and snow water equivalent retrieval algorithms based on C-band radar measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cryospheric Remote Sensing II)
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Open AccessArticle Target Recognition in SAR Images Based on Information-Decoupled Representation
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(1), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10010138
Received: 25 November 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
This paper proposes an automatic target recognition (ATR) method for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images based on information-decoupled representation. A typical SAR image of a ground target can be divided into three parts: target region, shadow and background. From the aspect of SAR
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This paper proposes an automatic target recognition (ATR) method for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images based on information-decoupled representation. A typical SAR image of a ground target can be divided into three parts: target region, shadow and background. From the aspect of SAR target recognition, the target region and shadow contain discriminative information. However, they also include some confusing information because of the similarities of different targets. The background mainly contains redundant information, which has little contribution to the target recognition. Because the target segmentation may impair the discriminative information in the target region, the relatively simpler shadow segmentation is performed to separate the shadow region for information decoupling. Then, the information-decoupled representations are generated, i.e., the target image, shadow and original image. The background is retained in the target image, which represents the coupling of target backscattering and background. The original image and generated target image are classified using the sparse representation-based classification (SRC). Then, their classification results are combined by a score-level fusion for target recognition. The shadow image is not used because of its lower discriminability and possible segmentation errors. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, extensive experiments are conducted on the Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition (MSTAR) dataset under both standard operating condition (SOC) and various extended operating conditions (EOCs). The proposed method can correctly classify 10 classes of targets with the percentage of correct classification (PCC) of 94.88% under SOC. With the PCCs of 93.15% and 75.03% under configuration variance and 45° depression angle, respectively, the superiority of the proposed is demonstrated in comparison with other methods. The robustness of the proposed method to both uniform and nonuniform shadow segmentation errors is validated with the PCCs over 93%. Moreover, with the maximum average precision of 0.9580, the proposed method is more effective than the reference methods on outlier rejection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensing Image Processing)
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Open AccessArticle Aerosol Optical Depth Retrieval over East Asia Using Himawari-8/AHI Data
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(1), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10010137
Received: 6 December 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
This paper presents a new algorithm to retrieve the aerosol optical depth (AOD) from a Himawari-8 Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI). Six typical aerosol models that derived from the long-term ground-based observations of East Asia are used in AOD retrieval. To accurately determine the
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This paper presents a new algorithm to retrieve the aerosol optical depth (AOD) from a Himawari-8 Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI). Six typical aerosol models that derived from the long-term ground-based observations of East Asia are used in AOD retrieval. To accurately determine the surface reflectance, improved channel relationships between red, blue, and shortwave infrared (SWIR) are built up according to the infrared Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVISWIR). Based on the new derived aerosol models and improved channel relationships, AOD over East Asian is retrieved by using the AHI data. The results are compared with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol products (MOD04 and MYD04) and yielded a correlation coefficient lager than 0.8 (R = 0.87 and 0.92, respectively). In addition, the retrieved AOD values are also validated by ground-based measurements at 12 Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) locations and revealed a good agreement between them (R = 0.86). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aerosol Remote Sensing)
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