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Remote Sens., Volume 2, Issue 6 (June 2010), Pages 1416-1624

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Research

Open AccessArticle Mapping Bush Encroaching Species by Seasonal Differences in Hyperspectral Imagery
Remote Sens. 2010, 2(6), 1416-1438; doi:10.3390/rs2061416
Received: 15 March 2010 / Revised: 12 April 2010 / Accepted: 19 May 2010 / Published: 27 May 2010
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (1034 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bush encroachment is a form of land degradation prominent worldwide, but particularly present in semi-arid areas. In this study, we mapped the spatial distribution of the two encroacher species, Acacia mellifera and Acacia reficiens,in Central Namibia, based on their different phenological behavior.
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Bush encroachment is a form of land degradation prominent worldwide, but particularly present in semi-arid areas. In this study, we mapped the spatial distribution of the two encroacher species, Acacia mellifera and Acacia reficiens,in Central Namibia, based on their different phenological behavior. We used constrained principal curves to extract a one dimensional gradient of phenological change from two hyperspectral images taken in different seasons. Field measurements of species composition and cover values were statistically related to bi-temporal differences in hyperspectral vegetation indices in a direct gradient analysis. The extracted gradient reflected the relationship between species composition and cover values, and the phenological pattern as captured by the image data. Cover values of four dominant plant species were mapped and species responses along the phenological gradient were interpreted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Status and Change by Remote Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Evidence of Hydroperiod Shortening in a Preserved System of Temporary Ponds
Remote Sens. 2010, 2(6), 1439-1462; doi:10.3390/rs2061439
Received: 8 April 2010 / Revised: 17 May 2010 / Accepted: 21 May 2010 / Published: 1 June 2010
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (2782 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Based on field data simultaneous with Landsat overpasses from six different dates, we developed a robust linear model to predict subpixel fractions of water cover. The model was applied to a time series of 174 Landsat TM and ETM+ images to reconstruct the
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Based on field data simultaneous with Landsat overpasses from six different dates, we developed a robust linear model to predict subpixel fractions of water cover. The model was applied to a time series of 174 Landsat TM and ETM+ images to reconstruct the flooding regime of a system of small temporary ponds and to study their spatio-temporal changes in a 23-year period. We tried to differentiate natural fluctuations from trends in hydrologic variables (i.e., hydroperiod shortening) that may threaten the preservation of the system. Although medium-resolution remote sensing data have rarely been applied to the monitoring of small-sized wetlands, this study evidences its utility to understand the hydrology of temporary ponds at a local scale. We show that the temporary ponds in Doñana National Park constitute a large and heterogeneous system with high intra and inter-annual variability. We also evidence that the conservation value of this ecosystem is threatened by the observed tendency to shorter annual hydroperiods in recent years, probably due to aquifer exploitation. This system of temporary ponds deserves special attention for the high density and heterogeneity of natural ponds, not common in Europe. For this reason, management decisions to avoid its destruction or degradation are critical. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Temporal Remote Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Changes in Croplands as a Result of Large Scale Mining and the Associated Impact on Food Security Studied Using Time-Series Landsat Images
Remote Sens. 2010, 2(6), 1463-1480; doi:10.3390/rs2061463
Received: 10 April 2010 / Revised: 25 May 2010 / Accepted: 26 May 2010 / Published: 1 June 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (8621 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Geographic information systems and satellite remote sensing information are emerging technologies in land-cover change assessment. They now provide an opportunity to gain insights into land-cover change properties through the spatio-temporal data capture over several decades. The time series of Landsat images covering the
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Geographic information systems and satellite remote sensing information are emerging technologies in land-cover change assessment. They now provide an opportunity to gain insights into land-cover change properties through the spatio-temporal data capture over several decades. The time series of Landsat images covering the 1985–2009 period is used here to explore the impacts of surface mining and reclamation, which constitute a dominant force in land-cover changes in the northwestern regions of the Czech Republic. Advanced quantification of the extent of mining activities is important for assessing how these land-cover changes affect ecosystem services such as croplands. The images employed from 1985, 1988, 1990, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 assist in mapping the extent of surface mines and mine reclamation for large surface mines in a few selected areas of interest. The image processing techniques are based on pixel-by-pixel calculation of the vegetation index, such as NDVI. The NDVI values are classified into the defined classes based on CORINE Land Cover 2000 data in a 3280 km2 strip of Landsat images. This distribution of NDVI values is used to estimate the land-cover classes in the local areas of interest (184 km2, 368 km2, 737 km2, and 1,474 km2). Thus, the approximate land-cover stability of the 3,280 km2 strip during the whole 1985–2009 period is used to explore land-cover disturbances in the local areas of surface mines. In the case of NDVI, it also includes variations, presumably caused by seasonal vegetation effects, and local meteorological conditions. However, the main trends related to mining activities during the long-term period can be clearly understood. As a result, other objectives can be explored in the 1985–2009 period, such as cropland changes to other land use classes, changes of cropland patterns, and their impacts on food security. The presented spatio-temporal modeling based on long time series from 12 satellite images provides considerable experience for processing NDVI in the framework of identification of land-cover classes and also, to a certain degree, cropland variability with its impact on food security. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Croplands)
Open AccessArticle Comparison of Area-Based and Individual Tree-Based Methods for Predicting Plot-Level Forest Attributes
Remote Sens. 2010, 2(6), 1481-1495; doi:10.3390/rs2061481
Received: 15 April 2010 / Revised: 20 May 2010 / Accepted: 24 May 2010 / Published: 2 June 2010
Cited by 37 | PDF Full-text (243 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Approaches to deriving forest information from laser scanner data have generally made use of two methods: the area-based and individual tree-based approaches. In this paper, these two methods were evaluated and compared for their abilities to predict forest attributes at the plot level
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Approaches to deriving forest information from laser scanner data have generally made use of two methods: the area-based and individual tree-based approaches. In this paper, these two methods were evaluated and compared for their abilities to predict forest attributes at the plot level using the same datasets. Airborne laser scanner data were collected over the Evo forest area, southern Finland, with an averaging point density of 2.6 points/m2. Mean height, mean diameter and volume were predicted from laser-derived features for plots (area-based method) or tree height, diameter at breast height and volume for individual trees (individual tree-based method) using random forests technique. To evaluate and compare the two forest inventory methods, the root-mean-squared error (RMSE) and correlation coefficient (R) between the predicted and observed plot-level values were computed. The results indicated that both area-based method (with an RMSE of 6.42% for mean height, 10.32% for mean diameter and 20.90% for volume) and individual tree-based method (with an RMSE of 5.69% for mean height, 10.77% for mean diameter and 18.55% for volume) produced promising and compatible results. Increase in point density is expected to increase the accuracy of the individual tree-based technique more than that of the area-based technique. Full article
Open AccessArticle Medium Spatial Resolution Satellite Imagery to Estimate Gross Primary Production in an Urban Area
Remote Sens. 2010, 2(6), 1496-1507; doi:10.3390/rs2061496
Received: 6 April 2010 / Revised: 10 May 2010 / Accepted: 21 May 2010 / Published: 3 June 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1064 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Remote sensing data with medium spatial resolution can provide useful information about Gross Primary Production (GPP), especially on the scale of urban areas. Most models of ecosystem carbon exchange that are based on remote sensing use some form of the light use efficiency
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Remote sensing data with medium spatial resolution can provide useful information about Gross Primary Production (GPP), especially on the scale of urban areas. Most models of ecosystem carbon exchange that are based on remote sensing use some form of the light use efficiency (LUE) model. The aim of this work is to analyze the distribution of annual GPP in the urban area of Denpasar, Bali. Additional analysis using two types of satellite data (ALOS/AVNIR-2 and Aster) addresses the impact of spatial resolution on the detection of various ecosystem processes in Denpasar. Annual GPP estimated using ALOS/AVNIR-2 varied from 0.13 gC m−2 yr−1 to 2,586.18 gC m−2 yr−1. Meanwhile, the Aster estimate varied from 0.14 gC m−2 yr−1 to 2,595.26 gC m−2 yr−1. GPP as measured by ALOS/AVNIR-2 was lower than that from Aster because ALOS/AVNIR-2 has medium spatial resolution and a smaller spectral range than Aster. Variations in land use may influence the measured value of GPP via differences in vegetation type, distribution, and photosynthetic pathway type. The medium spatial resolution of the remote sensing data is crucial for discriminating different land cover types in heterogeneous urban areas. Given the heterogeneity of land cover over Denpasar, ALOS/AVNIR-2 detects a smaller maximum value of GPP than Aster, but the annual mean GPP from ALOS/AVNIR-2 is higher than that from Aster. Based on comparisons with previous work, we find that ALOS/AVNIR-2 and Aster satellite data provided more accurate estimates of maximum GPP in Denpasar and in the tropical Kalimantan-Indonesia and Amazon forest than estimates derived from the MODIS GPP product (MOD17). Full article
Open AccessArticle Change Detection Accuracy and Image Properties: A Study Using Simulated Data
Remote Sens. 2010, 2(6), 1508-1529; doi:10.3390/rs2061508
Received: 14 April 2010 / Revised: 27 May 2010 / Accepted: 2 June 2010 / Published: 3 June 2010
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (3988 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Simulated data were used to investigate the relationships between image properties and change detection accuracy in a systematic manner. The image properties examined were class separability, radiometric normalization and image spectral band-to-band correlation. The change detection methods evaluated were post-classification comparison, direct classification
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Simulated data were used to investigate the relationships between image properties and change detection accuracy in a systematic manner. The image properties examined were class separability, radiometric normalization and image spectral band-to-band correlation. The change detection methods evaluated were post-classification comparison, direct classification of multidate imagery, image differencing, principal component analysis, and change vector analysis. The simulated data experiments showed that the relative accuracy of the change detection methods varied with changes in image properties, thus confirming the hypothesis that caution should be used in generalizing from studies that use only a single image pair. In most cases, direct classification and post-classification comparison were the least sensitive to changes in the image properties of class separability, radiometric normalization error and band correlation. Furthermore, these methods generally produced the highest accuracy, or were amongst those with a high accuracy. PCA accuracy was highly variable; the use of four principal components consistently resulted in substantial decreased classification accuracy relative to using six components, or classification using the original six bands. The accuracy of image differencing also varied greatly in the experiments. Of the three methods that require radiometric normalization, image differencing was the method most affected by radiometric error, relative to change vector and classification methods, for classes that have moderate and low separability. For classes that are highly separable, image differencing was relatively unaffected by radiometric normalization error. CVA was found to be the most accurate method for classes with low separability and all but the largest radiometric errors. CVA accuracy tended to be the least affected by changes in the degree of band correlation in situations where the class means were moderately dispersed, or clustered near the diagonal. For all change detection methods, the classification accuracy increased as simulated band correlation increased, and direct classification methods consistently had the highest accuracy, while PCA generally had the lowest accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Temporal Remote Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Investigation on the Patterns of Global Vegetation Change Using a Satellite-Sensed Vegetation Index
Remote Sens. 2010, 2(6), 1530-1548; doi:10.3390/rs2061530
Received: 2 April 2010 / Revised: 18 May 2010 / Accepted: 21 May 2010 / Published: 3 June 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (724 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The pattern of vegetation change in response to global change still remains a controversial issue. A Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) dataset compiled by the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) was used for analysis. For the period 1982–2006, GIMMS-NDVI analysis indicated
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The pattern of vegetation change in response to global change still remains a controversial issue. A Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) dataset compiled by the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) was used for analysis. For the period 1982–2006, GIMMS-NDVI analysis indicated that monthly NDVI changes show homogenous trends in middle and high latitude areas in the northern hemisphere and within, or near, the Tropic of Cancer and Capricorn; with obvious spatio-temporal heterogeneity on a global scale over the past two decades. The former areas featured increasing vegetation activity during growth seasons, and the latter areas experienced an even greater amplitude in places where precipitation is adequate. The discussion suggests that one should be cautious of using the NDVI time-series to analyze local vegetation dynamics because of its coarse resolution and uncertainties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Status and Change by Remote Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Analysis and Modeling of Urban Land Cover Change in Setúbal and Sesimbra, Portugal
Remote Sens. 2010, 2(6), 1549-1563; doi:10.3390/rs2061549
Received: 24 March 2010 / Revised: 31 May 2010 / Accepted: 2 June 2010 / Published: 9 June 2010
Cited by 42 | PDF Full-text (1081 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The expansion of cities entails the abandonment of forest and agricultural lands, and these lands’ conversion into urban areas, which results in substantial impacts on ecosystems. Monitoring these changes and planning urban development can be successfully achieved using multitemporal remotely sensed data, spatial
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The expansion of cities entails the abandonment of forest and agricultural lands, and these lands’ conversion into urban areas, which results in substantial impacts on ecosystems. Monitoring these changes and planning urban development can be successfully achieved using multitemporal remotely sensed data, spatial metrics, and modeling. In this paper, urban land use change analysis and modeling was carried out for the Concelhos of Setúbal and Sesimbra in Portugal. An existing land cover map for the year 1990, together with two derived land cover maps from multispectral satellite images for the years 2000 and 2006, were utilized using an object-oriented classification approach. Classification accuracy assessment revealed satisfactory results that fulfilled minimum standard accuracy levels. Urban land use dynamics, in terms of both patterns and quantities, were studied using selected landscape metrics and the Shannon Entropy index. Results show that urban areas increased by 91.11% between 1990 and 2006. In contrast, the change was only 6.34% between 2000 and 2006. The entropy value was 0.73 for both municipalities in 1990, indicating a high rate of urban sprawl in the area. In 2006, this value, for both Sesimbra and Setúbal, reached almost 0.90. This is demonstrative of a tendency toward intensive urban sprawl. Urban land use change for the year 2020 was modeled using a Cellular Automata based approach. The predictive power of the model was successfully validated using Kappa variations. Projected land cover changes show a growing tendency in urban land use, which might threaten areas that are currently reserved for natural parks and agricultural lands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Temporal Remote Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Light Environment Variability in Broadleaved Forest Canopies Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning
Remote Sens. 2010, 2(6), 1564-1574; doi:10.3390/rs2061564
Received: 27 April 2010 / Revised: 1 June 2010 / Accepted: 7 June 2010 / Published: 14 June 2010
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (602 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Light availability inside a forest canopy is of key importance to many ecosystem processes, such as photosynthesis and transpiration. Assessment of light availability and within-canopy light variability enables a more detailed understanding of these biophysical processes. The changing light-vegetation interaction in a homogeneous
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Light availability inside a forest canopy is of key importance to many ecosystem processes, such as photosynthesis and transpiration. Assessment of light availability and within-canopy light variability enables a more detailed understanding of these biophysical processes. The changing light-vegetation interaction in a homogeneous oak (Quercus robur L.) stand was studied at different moments during the growth season using terrestrial laser scanning datasets and ray tracing technology. Three field campaigns were organized at regular time intervals (24 April 2008; 07 May 2008; 23 May 2008) to monitor the increase of foliage material. The laser scanning data was used to generate 3D representations of the forest stands, enabling structure feature extraction and light interception modeling, using the Voxel-Based Light Interception Model (VLIM). The VLIM is capable of estimating the relative light intensity or Percentage of Above Canopy Light (PACL) at any arbitrary point in the modeled crown space. This resulted in a detailed description of the dynamic light environments inside the canopy. Mean vertical light extinction profiles were calculated for the three time frames, showing significant differences in light attenuation by the canopy between April 24 on the one hand, and May 7 and May 23 on the other hand. The proposed methodology created the opportunity to link these within-canopy light distributions to the increasing amount of photosynthetically active leaf material and its distribution in the considered 3D space. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Temporal Remote Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle On the Exportability of Robust Satellite Techniques (RST) for Active Volcano Monitoring
Remote Sens. 2010, 2(6), 1575-1588; doi:10.3390/rs2061575
Received: 10 April 2010 / Revised: 27 May 2010 / Accepted: 8 June 2010 / Published: 17 June 2010
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1072 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Satellite remote sensing has increasingly become a crucial tool for volcanic activity monitoring thanks to continuous observations at global scale, provided with different spatial/spectral/temporal resolutions, on the base of specific satellite platforms, and at relatively low costs. Among the satellite techniques developed for
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Satellite remote sensing has increasingly become a crucial tool for volcanic activity monitoring thanks to continuous observations at global scale, provided with different spatial/spectral/temporal resolutions, on the base of specific satellite platforms, and at relatively low costs. Among the satellite techniques developed for volcanic activity monitoring, the RST (Robust Satellite Techniques) approach has shown high performances in detecting hot spots as well as in automatically identifying ash plumes, effectively discriminating them from weather clouds. This method, based on an extensive, multi-temporal analysis of long-term time series of homogeneous satellite records, has recently been implemented on EOS-MODIS and MSG-SEVIRI data for which further performance improvements are expected. These satellite systems, in fact, offer improved spectral and/or temporal resolutions. In this paper, some preliminarily results of these analyses are presented, both regarding hot spot identification and ash cloud detection and tracking. The potential of RST, to be used within early warning systems devoted to volcanic hazard monitoring and mitigation, will also be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Temporal Remote Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Monitoring Global Croplands with Coarse Resolution Earth Observations: The Global Agriculture Monitoring (GLAM) Project
Remote Sens. 2010, 2(6), 1589-1609; doi:10.3390/rs2061589
Received: 19 April 2010 / Revised: 7 June 2010 / Accepted: 8 June 2010 / Published: 18 June 2010
Cited by 47 | PDF Full-text (1281 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years there has been a dramatic increase in the demand for timely, comprehensive global agricultural intelligence. Timely information on global crop production is indispensable for combating the growing stress on the world’s crop production and for securing both short-term and long-term
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In recent years there has been a dramatic increase in the demand for timely, comprehensive global agricultural intelligence. Timely information on global crop production is indispensable for combating the growing stress on the world’s crop production and for securing both short-term and long-term stable and reliable supply of food. Global agriculture monitoring systems are critical to providing this kind of intelligence and global earth observations are an essential component of an effective global agricultural monitoring system as they offer timely, objective, global information on croplands distribution, crop development and conditions as the growing season progresses. The Global Agriculture Monitoring Project (GLAM), a joint NASA, USDA, UMD and SDSU initiative, has built a global agricultural monitoring system that provides the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) with timely, easily accessible, scientifically-validated remotely-sensed data and derived products as well as data analysis tools, for crop-condition monitoring and production assessment. This system is an integral component of the USDA’s FAS Decision Support System (DSS) for agriculture. It has significantly improved the FAS crop analysts’ ability to monitor crop conditions, and to quantitatively forecast crop yields through the provision of timely, high-quality global earth observations data in a format customized for FAS alongside a suite of data analysis tools. FAS crop analysts use these satellite data in a ‘convergence of evidence’ approach with meteorological data, field reports, crop models, attaché reports and local reports. The USDA FAS is currently the only operational provider of timely, objective crop production forecasts at the global scale. These forecasts are routinely used by the other US Federal government agencies as well as by commodity trading companies, farmers, relief agencies and foreign governments. This paper discusses the operational components and new developments of the GLAM monitoring system as well as the future role of earth observations in global agricultural monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Croplands)
Open AccessArticle Static Calibration and Analysis of the Velodyne HDL-64E S2 for High Accuracy Mobile Scanning
Remote Sens. 2010, 2(6), 1610-1624; doi:10.3390/rs2061610
Received: 7 June 2010 / Revised: 17 June 2010 / Accepted: 18 June 2010 / Published: 22 June 2010
Cited by 46 | PDF Full-text (520 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The static calibration and analysis of the Velodyne HDL-64E S2 scanning LiDAR system is presented and analyzed. The mathematical model for measurements for the HDL-64E S2 scanner is derived and discussed. A planar feature based least squares adjustment approach is presented and utilized
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The static calibration and analysis of the Velodyne HDL-64E S2 scanning LiDAR system is presented and analyzed. The mathematical model for measurements for the HDL-64E S2 scanner is derived and discussed. A planar feature based least squares adjustment approach is presented and utilized in a minimally constrained network in order to derive an optimal solution for the laser’s internal calibration parameters. Finally, the results of the adjustment along with a detailed examination of the adjustment residuals are given. A three-fold improvement in the planar misclosure residual RMSE over the standard factory calibration model was achieved by the proposed calibration. Results also suggest that there may still be some unmodelled distortions in the range measurements from the scanner. However, despite this, the overall precision of the adjusted laser scanner data appears to make it a viable choice for high accuracy mobile scanning applications. Full article
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