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Remote Sens., Volume 3, Issue 8 (August 2011), Pages 1553-1804

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Extracting Buildings from True Color Stereo Aerial Images Using a Decision Making Strategy
Remote Sens. 2011, 3(8), 1553-1567; doi:10.3390/rs3081553
Received: 20 May 2011 / Revised: 11 July 2011 / Accepted: 11 July 2011 / Published: 25 July 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (610 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The automatic extraction of buildings from true color stereo aerial imagery in a dense built-up area is the main focus of this paper. Our approach strategy aimed at reducing the complexity of the image content by means of a three-step procedure combining
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The automatic extraction of buildings from true color stereo aerial imagery in a dense built-up area is the main focus of this paper. Our approach strategy aimed at reducing the complexity of the image content by means of a three-step procedure combining reliable geospatial image analysis techniques. Even if it is a rudimentary first step towards a more general approach, the method presented proved useful in urban sprawl studies for rapid map production in flat area by retrieving indispensable information on buildings from scanned historic aerial photography. After the preliminary creation of a photogrammetric model to manage Digital Surface Model and orthophotos, five intermediate mask-layers data (Elevation, Slope, Vegetation, Shadow, Canny, Shadow, Edges) were processed through the combined use of remote sensing image processing and GIS software environments. Lastly, a rectangular building block model without roof structures (Level of Detail, LoD1) was automatically generated. System performance was evaluated with objective criteria, showing good results in a complex urban area featuring various types of building objects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Remote Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Identification of Mangrove Areas by Remote Sensing: The ROC Curve Technique Applied to the Northwestern Mexico Coastal Zone Using Landsat Imagery
Remote Sens. 2011, 3(8), 1568-1583; doi:10.3390/rs3081568
Received: 27 April 2011 / Revised: 5 July 2011 / Accepted: 8 July 2011 / Published: 25 July 2011
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (626 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In remote sensing, traditional methodologies for image classification consider the spectral values of a pixel in different image bands. More recently, classification methods have used neighboring pixels to provide more information. In the present study, we used these more advanced techniques to discriminate
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In remote sensing, traditional methodologies for image classification consider the spectral values of a pixel in different image bands. More recently, classification methods have used neighboring pixels to provide more information. In the present study, we used these more advanced techniques to discriminate between mangrove and non‑mangrove regions in the Gulf of California of northwestern Mexico. A maximum likelihood algorithm was used to obtain a spectral distance map of the vegetation signature characteristic of mangrove areas. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was applied to this map to improve classification. Two classification thresholds were set to determine mangrove and non-mangrove areas, and two performance statistics (sensitivity and specificity) were calculated to express the uncertainty (errors of omission and commission) associated with the two maps. The surface area of the mangrove category obtained by maximum likelihood classification was slightly higher than that obtained from the land cover map generated by the ROC curve, but with the difference of these areas to have a high level of accuracy in the prediction of the model. This suggests a considerable degree of uncertainty in the spectral signatures of pixels that distinguish mangrove forest from other land cover categories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Coastal Ecosystem)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Reduced Spatial Resolution on Mineral Mapping Using Imaging Spectrometry—Examples Using Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI)-Simulated Data
Remote Sens. 2011, 3(8), 1584-1602; doi:10.3390/rs3081584
Received: 6 June 2011 / Revised: 2 July 2011 / Accepted: 14 July 2011 / Published: 25 July 2011
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (1861 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) is a proposed NASA satellite remote sensing system combining a visible to shortwave infrared (VSWIR) imaging spectrometer with over 200 spectral bands between 0.38 and 2.5 μm and an 8-band thermal infrared (TIR) multispectral imager, both at 60
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The Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) is a proposed NASA satellite remote sensing system combining a visible to shortwave infrared (VSWIR) imaging spectrometer with over 200 spectral bands between 0.38 and 2.5 μm and an 8-band thermal infrared (TIR) multispectral imager, both at 60 m spatial resolution. Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) (2.0–2.5 μm) simulation results are described here using Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data in preparation for the future launch. The simulated data were used to assess the effect of the HyspIRI 60 m spatial resolution on the ability to identify and map minerals at hydrothermally altered and geothermal areas. Mineral maps produced using these data successfully detected and mapped a wide variety of characteristic minerals, including jarosite, alunite, kaolinite, dickite, muscovite-illite, montmorillonite, pyrophyllite, calcite, buddingtonite, and hydrothermal silica. Confusion matrix analysis of the datasets showed overall classification accuracy ranging from 70 to 92% for the 60 m HyspIRI simulated data relative to 15 m spatial resolution data. Classification accuracy was lower for similar minerals and smaller areas, which were not mapped well by the simulated 60 m HyspIRI data due to blending of similar signatures and spectral mixing with adjacent pixels. The simulations demonstrate that HyspIRI SWIR data, while somewhat limited by their relatively coarse spatial resolution, should still be useful for mapping hydrothermal/geothermal systems, and for many other geologic applications requiring mineral mapping. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hyperspectral Remote Sensing)
Open AccessArticle On the Misdiagnosis of Surface Temperature Feedbacks from Variations in Earth’s Radiant Energy Balance
Remote Sens. 2011, 3(8), 1603-1613; doi:10.3390/rs3081603
Received: 24 May 2011 / Revised: 13 July 2011 / Accepted: 15 July 2011 / Published: 25 July 2011
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (370 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The sensitivity of the climate system to an imposed radiative imbalance remains the largest source of uncertainty in projections of future anthropogenic climate change. Here we present further evidence that this uncertainty from an observational perspective is largely due to the masking of
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The sensitivity of the climate system to an imposed radiative imbalance remains the largest source of uncertainty in projections of future anthropogenic climate change. Here we present further evidence that this uncertainty from an observational perspective is largely due to the masking of the radiative feedback signal by internal radiative forcing, probably due to natural cloud variations. That these internal radiative forcings exist and likely corrupt feedback diagnosis is demonstrated with lag regression analysis of satellite and coupled climate model data, interpreted with a simple forcing-feedback model. While the satellite-based metrics for the period 2000–2010 depart substantially in the direction of lower climate sensitivity from those similarly computed from coupled climate models, we find that, with traditional methods, it is not possible to accurately quantify this discrepancy in terms of the feedbacks which determine climate sensitivity. It is concluded that atmospheric feedback diagnosis of the climate system remains an unsolved problem, due primarily to the inability to distinguish between radiative forcing and radiative feedback in satellite radiative budget observations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Individual Tree Detection Error Sources on Forest Management Planning Calculations
Remote Sens. 2011, 3(8), 1614-1626; doi:10.3390/rs3081614
Received: 12 April 2011 / Revised: 20 May 2011 / Accepted: 8 July 2011 / Published: 25 July 2011
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (276 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective was to investigate the error sources of the airborne laser scanning based individual tree detection (ITD), and its effects on forest management planning calculations. The investigated error sources were detection of trees (etd), error in tree height prediction
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The objective was to investigate the error sources of the airborne laser scanning based individual tree detection (ITD), and its effects on forest management planning calculations. The investigated error sources were detection of trees (etd), error in tree height prediction (eh) and error in tree diameter prediction (ed). The effects of errors were analyzed with Monte Carlo simulations. etd was modeled empirically based on a tree’s relative size. A total of five different tree detection scenarios were tested. Effect of eh was investigated using 5% and 0% and effect of ed using 20%, 15%, 10%, 5%, 0% error levels, respectively. The research material comprised 15 forest stands located in Southern Finland. Measurements of 5,300 trees and their timber assortments were utilized as a starting point for the Monte Carlo simulated ITD inventories. ITD carried out for the same study area provided a starting point (Scenario 1) for etd. In Scenario 1, 60.2% from stem number and 75.9% from total volume (Vtotal) were detected. When the only error source was etd (tree detection varying from 75.9% to 100% of Vtotal), root mean square errors (RMSEs) in stand characteristics ranged between the scenarios from 32.4% to 0.6%, 29.0% to 0.5%, 7.8% to 0.2% and 5.4% to 0.1% in stand basal area (BA), Vtotal, mean height (Hg) and mean diameter (Dg), respectively. Saw wood volume RMSE varied from 25.1% to 0.2%, as pulp wood volume respective varied from 37.8% to 1.0% when errors stemmed only from etd. The effect of ed was most significant for Vtotal and BA and the decrease in RMSE was from 12.0% to 0.6% (BA) and from 10.9% to 0.5% (Vtotal) in the most accurate tree detection scenario when ed varied from 20% to 0%. The effect of increased accuracy in tree height prediction was minor for all the stand characteristics. The results show that the most important error source in ITD is tree detection. At stand level, unbiased predictions for tree height and diameter are enough, given the present tree detection accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 100 Years ISPRS - Advancing Remote Sensing Science)
Open AccessArticle Soil Heat Flux Modeling Using Artificial Neural Networks and Multispectral Airborne Remote Sensing Imagery
Remote Sens. 2011, 3(8), 1627-1643; doi:10.3390/rs3081627
Received: 16 May 2011 / Revised: 24 July 2011 / Accepted: 27 July 2011 / Published: 2 August 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (357 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The estimation of spatially distributed crop water use or evapotranspiration (ET) can be achieved using the energy balance for land surface algorithm and multispectral imagery obtained from remote sensing sensors mounted on air- or space-borne platforms. In the energy balance model, net radiation
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The estimation of spatially distributed crop water use or evapotranspiration (ET) can be achieved using the energy balance for land surface algorithm and multispectral imagery obtained from remote sensing sensors mounted on air- or space-borne platforms. In the energy balance model, net radiation (Rn) is well estimated using remote sensing; however, the estimation of soil heat flux (G) has had mixed results. Therefore, there is the need to improve the model to estimate soil heat flux and thus improve the efficiency of the energy balance method based on remote sensing inputs. In this study, modeling of airborne remote sensing-based soil heat flux was performed using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). Soil heat flux was modeled using selected measured data from soybean and corn crop covers in Central Iowa, U.S.A. where measured values were obtained with soil heat flux plate sensors. Results in the modeling of G indicated that the combination Rn with air temperature (Tair) and crop height (hc) better reproduced measured values when three independent variables were considered. The combination of Rn with leaf area index (LAI) from remote sensing, and Rn with surface aerodynamic resistance (rah) yielded relative larger overall correlation coefficient values when two independent variables were included using ANN. In addition, air temperature (Tair) may be a key variable in the modeling of G as suggested by the ANN application (r of 0.83). Therefore, it is suggested that Rn, LAI, rah and hc and potentially Tair be considered in future modeling studies of G. Full article
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Sub-Pixel Cloud Noises on MODIS Daily Spectral Indices Based on in situ Measurements
Remote Sens. 2011, 3(8), 1644-1662; doi:10.3390/rs3081644
Received: 8 June 2011 / Revised: 12 July 2011 / Accepted: 27 July 2011 / Published: 3 August 2011
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1913 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cloud contamination is one of the severest problems for the time-series analysis of optical remote sensing data such as vegetation phenology detection. Sub-pixel clouds are especially difficult to identify and remove. It is important for accuracy improvement in various terrestrial remote sensing applications
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Cloud contamination is one of the severest problems for the time-series analysis of optical remote sensing data such as vegetation phenology detection. Sub-pixel clouds are especially difficult to identify and remove. It is important for accuracy improvement in various terrestrial remote sensing applications to clarify the influence of these residual clouds on spectral vegetation indices. This study investigated the noises caused by residual sub-pixel clouds on several frequently-used spectral indices (NDVI, EVI, EVI2, NDWI, and NDII) by using in situ spectral data and sky photographs at the satellite overpass time. We conducted in situ continuous observation at a Japanese deciduous forest for over a year and compared the MODIS spectral indices with the cloud-free in situ spectral indices. Our results revealed that residual sub-pixel clouds potentially contaminated about 40% of the MODIS data after cloud screening by the state flag of MOD09 product. These residual clouds significantly decreased NDVI values during the leaf growing season. However, such noises did not appear in the other indices. This result was thought to be caused by the different combination of wavelengths among spectral indices. Our results suggested that the noises by residual sub-pixel clouds can be reduced by using EVI, NDWI, or NDII in place of NDVI. Full article
Open AccessArticle Japan Tsunami Current Flows Observed by HF Radars on Two Continents
Remote Sens. 2011, 3(8), 1663-1679; doi:10.3390/rs3081663
Received: 9 June 2011 / Revised: 27 July 2011 / Accepted: 28 July 2011 / Published: 3 August 2011
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (2535 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Quantitative real-time observations of a tsunami have been limited to deep-water, pressure-sensor observations of changes in the sea surface elevation and observations of sea level fluctuations at the coast, which are essentially point measurements. Constrained by these data, models have been used for
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Quantitative real-time observations of a tsunami have been limited to deep-water, pressure-sensor observations of changes in the sea surface elevation and observations of sea level fluctuations at the coast, which are essentially point measurements. Constrained by these data, models have been used for predictions and warning of the arrival of a tsunami, but to date no detailed verification of flow patterns nor area measurements have been possible. Here we present unique HF-radar area observations of the tsunami signal seen in current velocities as the wave train approaches the coast. Networks of coastal HF-radars are now routinely observing surface currents in many countries and we report clear results from five HF radar sites spanning a distance of 8,200 km on two continents following the magnitude 9.0 earthquake off Sendai, Japan, on 11 March 2011. We confirm the tsunami signal with three different methodologies and compare the currents observed with coastal sea level fluctuations at tide gauges. The distance offshore at which the tsunami can be detected, and hence the warning time provided, depends on the bathymetry: the wider the shallow continental shelf, the greater this time. Data from these and other radars around the Pacific rim can be used to further develop radar as an important tool to aid in tsunami observation and warning as well as post-processing comparisons between observation and model predictions. Full article
Open AccessArticle Timing Constraints on Remote Sensing of Wildland Fire Burned Area in the Southeastern US
Remote Sens. 2011, 3(8), 1680-1690; doi:10.3390/rs3081680
Received: 29 June 2011 / Revised: 5 August 2011 / Accepted: 9 August 2011 / Published: 15 August 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (400 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Remote sensing using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery is increasingly used for mapping wildland fire burned area and burn severity, owing to its frequency of collection, relatively high resolution, and availability free of charge. However, rapid response of vegetation following fire and
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Remote sensing using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery is increasingly used for mapping wildland fire burned area and burn severity, owing to its frequency of collection, relatively high resolution, and availability free of charge. However, rapid response of vegetation following fire and frequent cloud cover pose challenges to this approach in the southeastern US. We assessed these timing constraints by using a series of Landsat TM images to determine how rapidly the remotely sensed burn scar signature fades following prescribed burns in wet flatwoods and depression swamp community types in the Apalachicola National Forest, Florida, USA during 2006. We used both the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) of reflectance bands sensitive to vegetation and exposed soil cover, as well as the change in NBR from before to after fire (dNBR), to estimate burned area. We also determined the average and maximum amount of time following fire required to obtain a cloud-free image for burns in each month of the year, as well as the predicted effect of this time lag on percent accuracy of burn scar estimates. Using both NBR and dNBR, the detectable area decreased linearly 9% per month on average over the first four months following fire. Our findings suggest that the NBR and dNBR methods for monitoring burned area in common southeastern US vegetation community types are limited to an average of 78–90% accuracy among months of the year, with individual burns having values as low as 38%, if restricted to use of Landsat 5 TM imagery. However, the majority of burns can still be mapped at accuracies similar to those in other regions of the US, and access to additional sources of satellite imagery would improve overall accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Remote Sensing of Wildland Fires)
Open AccessArticle Deriving Fuel Mass by Size Class in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning
Remote Sens. 2011, 3(8), 1691-1709; doi:10.3390/rs3081691
Received: 1 July 2011 / Revised: 26 July 2011 / Accepted: 4 August 2011 / Published: 16 August 2011
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (2626 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Requirements for describing coniferous forests are changing in response to wildfire concerns, bio-energy needs, and climate change interests. At the same time, technology advancements are transforming how forest properties can be measured. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) is yielding promising results for measuring tree
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Requirements for describing coniferous forests are changing in response to wildfire concerns, bio-energy needs, and climate change interests. At the same time, technology advancements are transforming how forest properties can be measured. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) is yielding promising results for measuring tree biomass parameters that, historically, have required costly destructive sampling and resulted in small sample sizes. Here we investigate whether TLS intensity data can be used to distinguish foliage and small branches (≤0.635 cm diameter; coincident with the one-hour timelag fuel size class) from larger branchwood (>0.635 cm) in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) branch specimens. We also consider the use of laser density for predicting biomass by size class. Measurements are addressed across multiple ranges and scan angles. Results show TLS capable of distinguishing fine fuels from branches at a threshold of one standard deviation above mean intensity. Additionally, the relationship between return density and biomass is linear by fuel type for fine fuels (r2 = 0.898; SE 22.7%) and branchwood (r2 = 0.937; SE 28.9%), as well as for total mass (r2 = 0.940; SE 25.5%). Intensity decays predictably as scan distances increase; however, the range-intensity relationship is best described by an exponential model rather than 1/d2. Scan angle appears to have no systematic effect on fine fuel discrimination, while some differences are observed in density-mass relationships with changing angles due to shadowing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Scanning in Forests)
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Open AccessArticle An Object-Based Classification Approach for Mapping Migrant Housing in the Mega-Urban Area of the Pearl River Delta (China)
Remote Sens. 2011, 3(8), 1710-1723; doi:10.3390/rs3081710
Received: 20 June 2011 / Revised: 19 July 2011 / Accepted: 8 August 2011 / Published: 16 August 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (969 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Urban areas develop on formal and informal levels. Informal development is often highly dynamic, leading to a lag of spatial information about urban structure types. In this work, an object-based remote sensing approach will be presented to map the migrant housing urban structure
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Urban areas develop on formal and informal levels. Informal development is often highly dynamic, leading to a lag of spatial information about urban structure types. In this work, an object-based remote sensing approach will be presented to map the migrant housing urban structure type in the Pearl River Delta, China. SPOT5 data were utilized for the classification (auxiliary data, particularly up-to-date cadastral data, were not available). A hierarchically structured classification process was used to create (spectral) independence from single satellite scenes and to arrive at a transferrable classification process. Using the presented classification approach, an overall classification accuracy of migrant housing of 68.0% is attained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Remote Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Comprehensive Utilization of Temporal and Spatial Domain Outlier Detection Methods for Mobile Terrestrial LiDAR Data
Remote Sens. 2011, 3(8), 1724-1742; doi:10.3390/rs3081724
Received: 25 June 2011 / Revised: 29 July 2011 / Accepted: 8 August 2011 / Published: 16 August 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (795 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Terrestrial LiDAR provides many disciplines with an effective and efficient means of producing realistic three-dimensional models of real world objects. With the advent of mobile terrestrial LiDAR, this ability has been expanded to include the rapid collection of three-dimensional models of large urban
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Terrestrial LiDAR provides many disciplines with an effective and efficient means of producing realistic three-dimensional models of real world objects. With the advent of mobile terrestrial LiDAR, this ability has been expanded to include the rapid collection of three-dimensional models of large urban scenes. For all its usefulness, it does have drawbacks. One of the major problems faced by the LiDAR industry today is the automatic removal of outlying data points from LiDAR point clouds. This paper discusses the development and combined implementation of two methods of performing outlier detection in georeferenced point clouds. These methods made use of the raw data available from most time-of-flight mobile terrestrial LiDAR scanners in both the temporal and spatial domains. The first method involved a moving fixed interval smoother derived from the well-known position velocity acceleration Kalman Filter. The second method fitted a quadratic curved surface to sections of LiDAR data. The combined use of these routines is discussed through examples with real LiDAR data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Terrestrial Laser Scanning)
Open AccessArticle Segment-Based Land Cover Mapping of a Suburban Area—Comparison of High-Resolution Remotely Sensed Datasets Using Classification Trees and Test Field Points
Remote Sens. 2011, 3(8), 1777-1804; doi:10.3390/rs3081777
Received: 14 June 2011 / Revised: 11 July 2011 / Accepted: 5 August 2011 / Published: 19 August 2011
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (2405 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to better understand and exploit the rich information content of new remotely sensed datasets, there is a need for comparative land cover classification studies. In this study, the automatic classification of a suburban area was investigated by using (1) digital aerial
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In order to better understand and exploit the rich information content of new remotely sensed datasets, there is a need for comparative land cover classification studies. In this study, the automatic classification of a suburban area was investigated by using (1) digital aerial image data; (2) digital aerial image data and laser scanner data; (3) a high-resolution optical QuickBird satellite image; (4) high-resolution airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data; and (5) SAR data and laser scanner data. A segment-based approach was applied. The classification rules for distinguishing buildings, trees, vegetated ground, and non-vegetated ground were created automatically by using permanent test field points in a training area and the classification tree method. The accuracy of the results was evaluated by using test field points in validation areas. The highest overall accuracies were obtained when laser scanner data were used to separate high and low objects: 97% in Test 2, and 82% in Test 5. The overall accuracies in the other tests were 74% (Test 1), 67% (Test 3), and 68% (Test 4). An important contributing factor for the lower accuracy in Tests 3 and 4 was the lower spatial resolution of the datasets. The classification tree method and test field points provided a feasible and automated means of comparing the classifications. The approach is well suited for rapid analyses of new datasets to predict their quality and potential for land cover classification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Remote Sensing)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Collective Sensing: Integrating Geospatial Technologies to Understand Urban Systems—An Overview
Remote Sens. 2011, 3(8), 1743-1776; doi:10.3390/rs3081743
Received: 24 June 2011 / Revised: 5 August 2011 / Accepted: 10 August 2011 / Published: 19 August 2011
Cited by 37 | PDF Full-text (3111 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cities are complex systems composed of numerous interacting components that evolve over multiple spatio-temporal scales. Consequently, no single data source is sufficient to satisfy the information needs required to map, monitor, model, and ultimately understand and manage our interaction within such urban systems.
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Cities are complex systems composed of numerous interacting components that evolve over multiple spatio-temporal scales. Consequently, no single data source is sufficient to satisfy the information needs required to map, monitor, model, and ultimately understand and manage our interaction within such urban systems. Remote sensing technology provides a key data source for mapping such environments, but is not sufficient for fully understanding them. In this article we provide a condensed urban perspective of critical geospatial technologies and techniques: (i) Remote Sensing; (ii) Geographic Information Systems; (iii) object-based image analysis; and (iv) sensor webs, and recommend a holistic integration of these technologies within the language of open geospatial consortium (OGC) standards in-order to more fully understand urban systems. We then discuss the potential of this integration and conclude that this extends the monitoring and mapping options beyond “hard infrastructure” by addressing “humans as sensors”, mobility and human-environment interactions, and future improvements to quality of life and of social infrastructures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Remote Sensing)

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