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Nutrients, Volume 10, Issue 1 (January 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) of which ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease are the two [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Inflammatory Effects of a Stauntonia hexaphylla Fruit Extract in Lipopolysaccharide-Activated RAW-264.7 Macrophages and Rats by Carrageenan-Induced Hind Paw Swelling
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010110
Received: 22 November 2017 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
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Abstract
The fruit of Stauntonia hexaphylla is commonly used as a traditional anthelmintic in Korea, Japan, and China. However, its anti-inflammatory activity and the underlying mechanisms have not been studied systematically. In the present study, we examined the anti-inflammatory activities of an aqueous extract
[...] Read more.
The fruit of Stauntonia hexaphylla is commonly used as a traditional anthelmintic in Korea, Japan, and China. However, its anti-inflammatory activity and the underlying mechanisms have not been studied systematically. In the present study, we examined the anti-inflammatory activities of an aqueous extract of S. hexaphylla fruit (SHF) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 cells. The SHF extract contained anti-inflammatory compounds, such as neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, and cryptochlorogenic acid. The extract inhibited protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and the activity of cyclooxygenase enzyme, with concomitant reductions in the production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells. Additionally, the SHF extract reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6. The SHF extract attenuated LPS-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation by decreasing the phosphorylation of its inhibitor, IκBα. Furthermore, the SHF extract showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect in vivo by reducing the volume of carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. Our results suggest that the SHF extract exerts potential anti-inflammatory properties against LPS-activated RAW 254.7 cells, and in an animal model of inflammation. Full article
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Open AccessReview Carbohydrate Counting in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010109
Received: 26 December 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
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Abstract
Carbohydrate counting (CC) is a meal-planning tool for patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) treated with a basal bolus insulin regimen by means of multiple daily injections or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. It is based on an awareness of foods that contain carbohydrates
[...] Read more.
Carbohydrate counting (CC) is a meal-planning tool for patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) treated with a basal bolus insulin regimen by means of multiple daily injections or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. It is based on an awareness of foods that contain carbohydrates and their effect on blood glucose. The bolus insulin dose needed is obtained from the total amount of carbohydrates consumed at each meal and the insulin-to-carbohydrate ratio. Evidence suggests that CC may have positive effects on metabolic control and on reducing glycosylated haemoglobin concentration (HbA1c). Moreover, CC might reduce the frequency of hypoglycaemia. In addition, with CC the flexibility of meals and snacks allows children and teenagers to manage their T1D more effectively within their own lifestyles. CC and the bolus calculator can have possible beneficial effects in improving post-meal glucose, with a higher percentage of values within the target. Moreover, CC might be integrated with the counting of fat and protein to more accurately calculate the insulin bolus. In conclusion, in children and adolescents with T1D, CC may have a positive effect on metabolic control, might reduce hypoglycaemia events, improves quality of life, and seems to do so without influencing body mass index; however, more high-quality clinical trials are needed to confirm this positive impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Metabolism in Health and Disease) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle Micronutrient Gaps in Three Commercial Weight-Loss Diet Plans
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010108
Received: 22 November 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 20 January 2018
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Abstract
Weight-loss diets restrict intakes of energy and macronutrients but overlook micronutrient profiles. Commercial diet plans may provide insufficient micronutrients. We analyzed nutrient profiles of three plans and compared their micronutrient sufficiency to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for male U.S. adults. Hypocaloric vegan (Eat
[...] Read more.
Weight-loss diets restrict intakes of energy and macronutrients but overlook micronutrient profiles. Commercial diet plans may provide insufficient micronutrients. We analyzed nutrient profiles of three plans and compared their micronutrient sufficiency to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for male U.S. adults. Hypocaloric vegan (Eat to Live-Vegan, Aggressive Weight Loss; ETL-VAWL), high-animal-protein low-carbohydrate (Fast Metabolism Diet; FMD) and weight maintenance (Eat, Drink and Be Healthy; EDH) diets were evaluated. Seven single-day menus were sampled per diet (n = 21 menus, 7 menus/diet) and analyzed for 20 micronutrients with the online nutrient tracker CRON-O-Meter. Without adjustment for energy intake, the ETL-VAWL diet failed to provide 90% of recommended amounts for B12, B3, D, E, calcium, selenium and zinc. The FMD diet was low (<90% DRI) in B1, D, E, calcium, magnesium and potassium. The EDH diet met >90% DRIs for all but vitamin D, calcium and potassium. Several micronutrients remained inadequate after adjustment to 2000 kcal/day: vitamin B12 in ETL-VAWL, calcium in FMD and EDH and vitamin D in all diets. Consistent with previous work, micronutrient deficits are prevalent in weight-loss diet plans. Special attention to micronutrient rich foods is required to reduce risk of micronutrient deficiency in design of commercial diets. Full article
Open AccessConcept Paper Utilizing Dietary Micronutrient Ratios in Nutritional Research May be More Informative than Focusing on Single Nutrients
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010107
Received: 7 December 2017 / Revised: 13 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
The 2015 US dietary guidelines advise the importance of good dietary patterns for health, which includes all nutrients. Micronutrients are rarely, if ever, consumed separately, they are not tissue specific in their actions and at the molecular level they are multitaskers. Metabolism functions
[...] Read more.
The 2015 US dietary guidelines advise the importance of good dietary patterns for health, which includes all nutrients. Micronutrients are rarely, if ever, consumed separately, they are not tissue specific in their actions and at the molecular level they are multitaskers. Metabolism functions within a seemingly random cellular milieu however ratios are important, for example, the ratio of adenosine triphosphate to adenosine monophosphate, or oxidized to reduced glutathione. Health status is determined by simple ratios, such as the waist hip ratio, or ratio of fat mass to lean mass. Some nutrient ratios exist and remain controversial such as the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio and the sodium/potassium ratio. Therefore, examining ratios of micronutrients may convey more information about how diet and health outcomes are related. Summarized micronutrient intake data, from food only, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, were used to generate initial ratios. Overall, in this preliminary analysis dietary ratios of micronutrients showed some differences between intakes and recommendations. Principles outlined here could be used in nutritional epidemiology and in basic nutritional research, rather than focusing on individual nutrient intakes. This paper presents the concept of micronutrient ratios to encourage change in the way nutrients are regarded. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Fatty Acids Alter Lipid Profiles and Induce Myocardial Dysfunction without Causing Metabolic Disorders in Mice
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010106
Received: 23 November 2017 / Revised: 8 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
Oversupply of bulk saturated fatty acids (SFA) induces metabolic disorders and myocardial dysfunction. We investigated whether, without causing metabolic disorders, the uptake of individual dietary SFA species alters lipid profiles and induces myocardial dysfunction. C57BL/6 mice were fed various customized long-chain SFA diets
[...] Read more.
Oversupply of bulk saturated fatty acids (SFA) induces metabolic disorders and myocardial dysfunction. We investigated whether, without causing metabolic disorders, the uptake of individual dietary SFA species alters lipid profiles and induces myocardial dysfunction. C57BL/6 mice were fed various customized long-chain SFA diets (40% caloric intake from SFA), including a beef tallow (HBD), cocoa butter (HCD), milk fat (HMD) and palm oil diet (HPD), for 6 months. An isocaloric fat diet, containing medium-chain triglycerides, served as a control (CHD). Long-term intake of dietary long-chain SFA differentially affected the fatty acid composition in cardiac phospholipids. All long-chain SFA diets increased the levels of arachidonic acid and total SFA in cardiac phospholipids. The preferential incorporation of individual SFA into the cardiac phospholipid fraction was dependent on the dietary SFA species. Cardiac ceramide content was elevated in all mice fed long-chain SFA diets, while cardiac hypertrophy was only presented in mice fed HMD or HPD. We have demonstrated that the intake of long-chain SFA species differentially alters cardiac lipid profiles and induces cardiac dysfunction, without causing remarkable metabolic disorders. Full article
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Open AccessCommentary Investigating Binge Eating Using Ecological Momentary Assessment: The Importance of an Appropriate Sampling Frequency
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010105
Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
With great interest, we read the recently published review on emotion regulation in binge eating disorder (BED) by Dingemans et al. [1].[...] Full article
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Validity and Reproducibility of the Zinc-Specific Dietary Intake Questionnaire Conducted for Young Polish Female Respondents
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010104
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
One of the brief methods enabling the assessment of the zinc intake and identification of individuals characterized by insufficient zinc intake, is zinc-specific food frequency questionnaire. The aim of the study was to assess the validity and reproducibility of the elaborated zinc-specific food
[...] Read more.
One of the brief methods enabling the assessment of the zinc intake and identification of individuals characterized by insufficient zinc intake, is zinc-specific food frequency questionnaire. The aim of the study was to assess the validity and reproducibility of the elaborated zinc-specific food frequency questionnaire ZINC-FFQ (Zinc INtake Calculation—Food Frequency Questionnaire) in a group of young Polish female respondents. The validity was assessed in comparison with 3-day dietary records, while reproducibility was assessed for the ZINC-FFQ filled in twice (FFQ1 and FFQ2—six weeks apart). Bland–Altman indexes in the assessment of validity were 5.5% (FFQ1) and 6.7% (FFQ2), while in assessment of reproducibility it was 3.3%. In the assessment of reproducibility, 83% of respondents were classified into the same category of zinc intake adequacy and 72% of respondents were classified into the same tertile, that contributed to weighted κ statistic of 0.65 (substantial agreement). It may be concluded, that ZINC-FFQ is characterized by a validity on a satisfactory and reproducibility on a very good level, in a group of young Polish female respondents, and may be applied to indicate individuals characterized by the risk of insufficient intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Zn and Human Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Dietary Acid Load and Potassium Intake Associate with Blood Pressure and Hypertension Prevalence in a Representative Sample of the German Adult Population
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010103
Received: 21 November 2017 / Revised: 10 December 2017 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
Diets rich in fruits and vegetables, like the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-diet, are usually characterized by high potassium intake and reduced dietary acid load, and have been shown to reduce blood pressure (BP). However, the relevance of potential renal acid load
[...] Read more.
Diets rich in fruits and vegetables, like the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-diet, are usually characterized by high potassium intake and reduced dietary acid load, and have been shown to reduce blood pressure (BP). However, the relevance of potential renal acid load (PRAL) for BP has not been compared with the relevance to BP of urinary biomarker (K-urine)- and dietary food frequency questionnaire (K-FFQ)-based estimates of potassium intake in a general adult population sample. For 6788 participants (aged 18–79 years) of the representative German Health-Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1), associations of PRAL, K-urine, and K-FFQ with BP and hypertension prevalence were cross-sectionally examined in multivariable linear and logistic regression models. PRAL was significantly associated with higher systolic BP (p = 0.0002) and higher hypertension prevalence (Odds ratio [OR] high vs. low PRAL = 1.45, p = 0.0004) in models adjusted for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), estimated sodium intake, kidney function, relevant medication, and further important covariates. Higher estimates of K-FFQ and K-urine were related to lower systolic BP (p = 0.04 and p < 0.0001) and lower hypertension prevalence (OR = 0.82, p = 0.04 and OR = 0.77, p = 0.02) as well as a lower diastolic BP (p = 0.03 and p = 0.0003). Our results show, for the first time in a comparative analysis of a large representative population sample, significant relationships of BP and hypertension prevalence with questionnaire- and biomarker-based estimates of potassium intake and with an estimate of dietary acid load. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Prevention and Acid Base Status)
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Open AccessArticle Modifications in the Consumption of Energy, Sugar, and Saturated Fat among the Mexican Adult Population: Simulation of the Effect When Replacing Processed Foods that Comply with a Front of Package Labeling System
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010101
Received: 15 November 2017 / Revised: 5 January 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
A Mexican Committee of Nutrition Experts (MCNE) from the National Institute of Public Health (INSP), free from conflict of interest, established food content standards to place the front-of-package (FOP) logo on foods that meet these nutrition criteria. The objectives were to simulate the
[...] Read more.
A Mexican Committee of Nutrition Experts (MCNE) from the National Institute of Public Health (INSP), free from conflict of interest, established food content standards to place the front-of-package (FOP) logo on foods that meet these nutrition criteria. The objectives were to simulate the effect on nutrient intake in the Mexican adult population (20–59 years old) after replacing commonly consumed processed foods with those that meet the FOP nutrition-labeling criteria. Twenty-four hour dietary recalls were collected from the 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (n = 2164 adults). A food database from the INSP was used. Weighted medians and 25–75 inter-quartile ranges (IQR) of energy and nutrient intake were calculated for all subjects by sociodemographic characteristics before and after replacing foods. Significant decreases were observed in energy (−5.4%), saturated fatty acids (−18.9%), trans-fatty acids (−20%), total sugar (−36.8%) and sodium (−10.7%) intake and a significant increase in fiber intake (+15.5%) after replacing foods, using the MCNE nutrition criteria. Replacing commonly consumed processed foods in the diet with foods that meet the FOP nutrition-labeling criteria set by the MCNE can lead to improvements in energy and nutrient intake in the Mexican adult population. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sources of Added Sugars in Young Children, Adolescents, and Adults with Low and High Intakes of Added Sugars
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010102
Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 8 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 17 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (231 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
High intake of added sugars is associated with excess energy intake and poorer diet quality. The objective of this cross-sectional study (n = 16,806) was to estimate usual intakes and the primary food sources of added sugars across the range of intakes
[...] Read more.
High intake of added sugars is associated with excess energy intake and poorer diet quality. The objective of this cross-sectional study (n = 16,806) was to estimate usual intakes and the primary food sources of added sugars across the range of intakes (i.e., deciles) among U.S. children (2–8 years), adolescents and teens (9–18 years), and adults (≥19 years) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination (NHANES) data from 2009–2012. The percent energy contributed by added sugars was 14.3 ± 0.2% (2–8 years), 16.2 ± 0.2% (9–18 years), and 13.1 ± 0.2% (≥19 years), suggesting the highest intakes are among adolescents and teens. However, the primary foods/beverages that contribute to added sugars were remarkably consistent across the range of intakes, with the exception of the lowest decile, and include sweetened beverages and sweet bakery products. Interestingly across all age groups, even those in the lowest decile of added sugars exceed the 10% guidelines. Additional foods contributing to high intakes were candy and other desserts (e.g., ice cream) in children and adolescents, and coffee and teas in adults. Tailoring public health messaging to reduce intakes of these identified food groups may be of utility in designing effective strategies to reduce added sugar intake in the U.S. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperReview Development of Databases on Iodine in Foods and Dietary Supplements
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010100
Received: 16 November 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2018 / Published: 17 January 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (288 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Iodine is an essential micronutrient required for normal growth and neurodevelopment; thus, an adequate intake of iodine is particularly important for pregnant and lactating women, and throughout childhood. Low levels of iodine in the soil and groundwater are common in many parts of
[...] Read more.
Iodine is an essential micronutrient required for normal growth and neurodevelopment; thus, an adequate intake of iodine is particularly important for pregnant and lactating women, and throughout childhood. Low levels of iodine in the soil and groundwater are common in many parts of the world, often leading to diets that are low in iodine. Widespread salt iodization has eradicated severe iodine deficiency, but mild-to-moderate deficiency is still prevalent even in many developed countries. To understand patterns of iodine intake and to develop strategies for improving intake, it is important to characterize all sources of dietary iodine, and national databases on the iodine content of major dietary contributors (including foods, beverages, water, salts, and supplements) provide a key information resource. This paper discusses the importance of well-constructed databases on the iodine content of foods, beverages, and dietary supplements; the availability of iodine databases worldwide; and factors related to variability in iodine content that should be considered when developing such databases. We also describe current efforts in iodine database development in the United States, the use of iodine composition data to develop food fortification policies in New Zealand, and how iodine content databases might be used when considering the iodine intake and status of individuals and populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements) Printed Edition available
Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Nutrients in 2017
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010099
Received: 16 January 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 16 January 2018
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Abstract
Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that Nutrients maintains high quality standards for its published papers [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle The Sodium and Potassium Content of the Most Commonly Available Street Foods in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan in the Context of the FEEDCities Project
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010098
Received: 27 November 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 16 January 2018
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Abstract
This cross-sectional study is aimed at assessing sodium (Na) and potassium (K) content and the molar Na:K ratios of the most commonly available ready-to-eat street foods in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. Four different samples of each of these foods were collected and 62 food
[...] Read more.
This cross-sectional study is aimed at assessing sodium (Na) and potassium (K) content and the molar Na:K ratios of the most commonly available ready-to-eat street foods in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. Four different samples of each of these foods were collected and 62 food categories were evaluated through bromatological analysis. Flame photometry was used to quantify sodium and potassium concentrations. The results show that home-made foods can be important sources of sodium. In particular, main dishes and sandwiches, respectively, contain more than 1400 and nearly 1000 mg Na in an average serving and provide approximately 70% and 50% of the maximum daily recommended values. Wide ranges of sodium content were found between individual samples of the same home-made food collected from different vending sites from both countries. In industrial foods, sodium contents ranged from 1 to 1511 mg/serving in Tajikistan, and from 19 to 658 mg/serving in Kyrgyzstan. Most Na:K ratios exceeded the recommended level of 1.0 and the highest ratios were found in home-made snacks (21.2) from Tajikistan and industrial beverages (16.4) from Kyrgyzstan. These findings not only improve data on the nutritional composition of foods in these countries, but may also serve as baseline information for future policies and interventions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Specific Collagen Peptides Improve Bone Mineral Density and Bone Markers in Postmenopausal Women—A Randomized Controlled Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010097
Received: 4 December 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 16 January 2018
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Abstract
Introduction: Investigations in rodents as well as in vitro experiments have suggested an anabolic influence of specific collagen peptides (SCP) on bone formation and bone mineral density (BMD). The goal of the study was to investigate the effect of 12-month daily oral administration
[...] Read more.
Introduction: Investigations in rodents as well as in vitro experiments have suggested an anabolic influence of specific collagen peptides (SCP) on bone formation and bone mineral density (BMD). The goal of the study was to investigate the effect of 12-month daily oral administration of 5 g SCP vs. placebo (CG: control group) on BMD in postmenopausal women with primary, age-related reduction in BMD. Methods: 131 women were enrolled in this randomized, placebo-controlled double-blinded investigation. The primary endpoint was the change in BMD of the femoral neck and the spine after 12 months. In addition, plasma levels of bone markers—amino-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (P1NP) and C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX 1)—were analysed. Results: A total of 102 women completed the study, but all subjects were included in the intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis (age 64.3 ± 7.2 years; Body Mass Index, BMI 23.6 ± 3.6 kg/m2; T-score spine −2.4 ± 0.6; T-score femoral neck −1.4 ± 0.5). In the SCP group (n = 66), BMD of the spine and of the femoral neck increased significantly compared to the control group (n = 65) (T-score spine: SCP +0.1 ± 0.26; CG −0.03 ± 0.18; ANCOVA p = 0.030; T-score femoral neck: SCP +0.09 ± 0.24; CG −0.01 ± 0.19; ANCOVA p = 0.003). P1NP increased significantly in the SCP group (p = 0.007), whereas CTX 1 increased significantly in the control group (p = 0.011). Conclusions: These data demonstrate that the intake of SCP increased BMD in postmenopausal women with primary, age-related reduction of BMD. In addition, SCP supplementation was associated with a favorable shift in bone markers, indicating increased bone formation and reduced bone degradation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Protein from Meat or Vegetable Sources in Meals Matched for Fiber Content has Similar Effects on Subjective Appetite Sensations and Energy Intake—A Randomized Acute Cross-Over Meal Test Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010096
Received: 25 September 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 16 January 2018
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Abstract
Higher-protein meals decrease hunger and increase satiety compared to lower-protein meals. However, no consensus exists about the different effects of animal and vegetable proteins on appetite. We investigated how a meal based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) affected ad libitum energy intake
[...] Read more.
Higher-protein meals decrease hunger and increase satiety compared to lower-protein meals. However, no consensus exists about the different effects of animal and vegetable proteins on appetite. We investigated how a meal based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) affected ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations, compared to macronutrient-balanced, iso-caloric meals based on animal protein (veal/pork or eggs). Thirty-five healthy men were enrolled in this acute cross-over study. On each test day, participants were presented with one of four test meals (~3550 kilojoules (kJ) 19% of energy from protein), based on fava beans/split peas (28.5 g fiber), pork/veal or eggs supplemented with pea fiber to control for fiber content (28.5 g fiber), or eggs without supplementation of fiber (6.0 g fiber). Subjective appetite sensations were recorded at baseline and every half hour until the ad libitum meal three hours later. There were no differences in ad libitum energy intake across test meals (p > 0.05). Further, no differences were found across meals for hunger, satiety, fullness, prospective food consumption, or composite appetite score (all p > 0.05). Iso-caloric, macronutrient-balanced, fiber-matched meals based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) or animal protein (veal/pork or eggs) had similar effects on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations. Full article
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