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Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030310

Generic Meal Patterns Identified by Latent Class Analysis: Insights from NANS (National Adult Nutrition Survey)

1
Fundación Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares Carlos III (CNIC), 28029 Madrid, Spain
2
UCD Institute of Food and Health, School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, D04 V1W8 Belfield, Ireland
3
Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 January 2018 / Revised: 22 February 2018 / Accepted: 1 March 2018 / Published: 6 March 2018
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Abstract

Nutritional data reduction methods are widely applied in nutrition epidemiology in order to classify individuals into meaningful groups with similar dietary patterns. To date, none of the existing studies have applied latent class analysis to examine dietary patterns which include meal types consumed throughout a day. We investigated main meal patterns followed on weekend and weekdays, and evaluated their associations with cardio-metabolic biomarkers. The analyses were performed within the NANS (National Adult Nutrition Survey) a cross-sectional national food consumption survey of 1500 nationally representative Irish adults. A total number of seven dietary patterns were identified using latent class analysis. The typical meal pattern followed by the majority of the population was characterized by consumption of cereal or toast for breakfast, skipping or consuming a sandwich for light meal, and meat or fish with potatoes, pasta or vegetables for the main meal. Eating patterns differed on weekends, and those participants who consumed meat and eggs for breakfast instead of breakfast cereal and skipped light meal were more likely to have an unhealthier dietary pattern, a higher diastolic blood pressure, and increased serum ferritin. The application of data reduction techniques to simplify the multifaceted nature of dietary data is a useful approach to derive patterns, which might shed further light on the typical dietary patterns followed by populations. View Full-Text
Keywords: latent class analysis; dietary patterns; generic meals; breakfast; light meal; main meal latent class analysis; dietary patterns; generic meals; breakfast; light meal; main meal
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Uzhova, I.; Woolhead, C.; Timon, C.M.; O’Sullivan, A.; Brennan, L.; Peñalvo, J.L.; Gibney, E.R. Generic Meal Patterns Identified by Latent Class Analysis: Insights from NANS (National Adult Nutrition Survey). Nutrients 2018, 10, 310.

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