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Nutrients, Volume 2, Issue 8 (August 2010), Pages 781-928

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle A Food Frequency Questionnaire for the Assessment of Calcium, Vitamin D and Vitamin K: A Pilot Validation Study
Nutrients 2010, 2(8), 805-819; doi:10.3390/nu2080805
Received: 9 June 2010 / Revised: 16 July 2010 / Accepted: 17 July 2010 / Published: 28 July 2010
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (243 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The study objective was to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess calcium, vitamin D and vitamin K intakes in overweight and obese postmenopausal community-dwelling women. The FFQ was validated against intakes derived from a 5-day diet record (5DDR) that also [...] Read more.
The study objective was to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess calcium, vitamin D and vitamin K intakes in overweight and obese postmenopausal community-dwelling women. The FFQ was validated against intakes derived from a 5-day diet record (5DDR) that also included assessment of supplement intake. Strong correlations between methods were observed for all nutrients (r = 0.63, 0.89, 0.54 for calcium, vitamin D and vitamin K, respectively) and cross-classification analyses demonstrated no major misclassification of participants into intake quartiles. Bland-Altman analysis showed that the FFQ overestimated intakes for calcium, by 576 mg/day (95% CI, −668 to 1,821 mg/day), for vitamin D by 75 IU/day (95% CI, −359 to 510 IU/day), and for vitamin K by 167 mcg/day (95% CI, −233 to 568 mcg/day). This pilot study showed promising validation evidence for the use of this FFQ, which focuses on calcium, vitamin D and vitamin K intakes in postmenopausal women, as a screening tool in clinical and research settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Calcium)
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Open AccessArticle Changes in Intakes of Total and Added Sugar and their Contribution to Energy Intake in the U.S.
Nutrients 2010, 2(8), 834-854; doi:10.3390/nu2080834
Received: 17 June 2010 / Revised: 28 July 2010 / Accepted: 30 July 2010 / Published: 3 August 2010
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (237 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study was designed to document changes in total sugar intake and intake of added sugars, in the context of total energy intake and intake of nutrient categories, between the 1970s and the 1990s, and to identify major food sources contributing to [...] Read more.
This study was designed to document changes in total sugar intake and intake of added sugars, in the context of total energy intake and intake of nutrient categories, between the 1970s and the 1990s, and to identify major food sources contributing to those changes in intake. Data from the NHANES I and III were analyzed to obtain nationally representative information on food consumption for the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the U.S. from 1971 to 1994. In the past three decades, in addition to the increase in mean intakes of total energy, total sugar, added sugars, significant increases in the total intake of carbohydrates and the proportion of carbohydrates to the total energy intake were observed. The contribution of sugars to total carbohydrate intake decreased in both 1–18 y and 19+ y age subgroups, and the contribution of added sugars to the total energy intake did not change. Soft drinks/fluid milk/sugars and cakes, pastries, and pies remained the major food sources for intake of total sugar, total carbohydrates, and total energy during the past three decades. Carbonated soft drinks were the most significant sugar source across the entire three decades. Changes in sugar consumption over the past three decades may be a useful specific area of investigation in examining the effect of dietary patterns on chronic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrates)

Review

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Open AccessReview Alcohol, Athletic Performance and Recovery
Nutrients 2010, 2(8), 781-789; doi:10.3390/nu2080781
Received: 7 June 2010 / Revised: 13 July 2010 / Accepted: 14 July 2010 / Published: 27 July 2010
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (187 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Alcohol consumption within elite sport has been continually reported both anecdotally within the media and quantitatively in the literature. The detrimental effects of alcohol on human physiology have been well documented, adversely influencing neural function, metabolism, cardiovascular physiology, thermoregulation and skeletal muscle [...] Read more.
Alcohol consumption within elite sport has been continually reported both anecdotally within the media and quantitatively in the literature. The detrimental effects of alcohol on human physiology have been well documented, adversely influencing neural function, metabolism, cardiovascular physiology, thermoregulation and skeletal muscle myopathy. Remarkably, the downstream effects of alcohol consumption on exercise performance and recovery, has received less attention and as such is not well understood. The focus of this review is to identify the acute effects of alcohol on exercise performance and give a brief insight into explanatory factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Nutrition)
Open AccessReview Effect of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Full-Term Infants
Nutrients 2010, 2(8), 790-804; doi:10.3390/nu2080790
Received: 17 June 2010 / Revised: 6 July 2010 / Accepted: 15 July 2010 / Published: 27 July 2010
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (222 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It takes more than 20 years before the human brain obtains its complex, adult configuration. Most dramatic developmental changes occur prenatally and early postnatally. During development, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) such as doxosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) are accreted [...] Read more.
It takes more than 20 years before the human brain obtains its complex, adult configuration. Most dramatic developmental changes occur prenatally and early postnatally. During development, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) such as doxosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) are accreted in the brain. Since breastfeeding is associated with a better developmental outcome than formula feeding, and human milk in contrast to traditional standard formula contains LCPUFA, the question arose whether LCPUFA supplementation of infant formula may promote the neurodevelopmental outcome. The current paper reviews the evidence available in full-term infants. It concludes that postnatal supplementation of formula with LCPUFA is associated with a beneficial effect on short-term neurodevelopmental outcome. However, no evidence is available that LCPUFA supplementation enhances neurodevelopmental outcome in full-term infants beyond the age of four months. Nevertheless, it should be realized that very limited information is available on the effect of LCPUFA supplementation on neurodevelopmental outcome at school age or later. It is conceivable that effects of LCPUFA supplementation first emerge or re-emerge at school age when more complex neural functions are expressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Nutrition and Metabolism)
Open AccessReview Bioavailability of Coffee Chlorogenic Acids and Green Tea Flavan-3-ols
Nutrients 2010, 2(8), 820-833; doi:10.3390/nu2080820
Received: 5 July 2010 / Revised: 27 July 2010 / Accepted: 28 July 2010 / Published: 29 July 2010
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (365 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reviews recent human studies on the bioavailability of chlorogenic acids in coffee and green tea flavan-3-ols in which the identification of metabolites, catabolites and parent compounds in plasma, urine and ileal fluid was based on mass spectrometric methodology. Both the [...] Read more.
This paper reviews recent human studies on the bioavailability of chlorogenic acids in coffee and green tea flavan-3-ols in which the identification of metabolites, catabolites and parent compounds in plasma, urine and ileal fluid was based on mass spectrometric methodology. Both the chlorogenic acids and the flavan-3-ols are absorbed in the small intestine and appear in the circulatory system predominantly as glucuronide, sulfate and methylated metabolites. Even when absorption occurs in the small intestine, feeding studies with ileostomists reveal that substantial amounts of the parent compounds and some of their metabolites appear in ileal fluid indicating that in volunteers with a functioning colon these compounds will pass to the large intestine where they are subjected to the action of the colonic microflora. A diversity of colonic-derived catabolites are absorbed into the bloodstream and pass through the body prior to excretion in urine. There is growing evidence that these compounds, which were little investigated until recently, are produced in quantity in the colon and form a key part of the bioavailability equation of flavonoids and related compounds that occur in fruits, vegetables and beverages. Recent evidence indicates that some colon-derived phenolic acids have in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants)
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Open AccessReview The Role of Soy in Vegetarian Diets
Nutrients 2010, 2(8), 855-888; doi:10.3390/nu2080855
Received: 2 July 2010 / Revised: 31 July 2010 / Accepted: 3 August 2010 / Published: 6 August 2010
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (199 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Soyfoods have long been prized among vegetarians for both their high protein content and versatility. Soybeans differ markedly in macronutrient content from other legumes, being much higher in fat and protein, and lower in carbohydrate. In recent years however, soyfoods and specific [...] Read more.
Soyfoods have long been prized among vegetarians for both their high protein content and versatility. Soybeans differ markedly in macronutrient content from other legumes, being much higher in fat and protein, and lower in carbohydrate. In recent years however, soyfoods and specific soybean constituents, especially isoflavones, have been the subject of an impressive amount of research. Nearly 2,000 soy-related papers are published annually. This research has focused primarily on the benefits that soyfoods may provide independent of their nutrient content. There is particular interest in the role that soyfoods have in reducing risk of heart disease, osteoporosis and certain forms of cancer. However, the estrogen-like effects of isoflavones observed in animal studies have also raised concerns about potential harmful effects of soyfood consumption. This review addresses questions related to soy and chronic disease risk, provides recommendations for optimal intakes, and discusses potential contraindications. As reviewed, the evidence indicates that, with the exception of those individuals allergic to soy protein, soyfoods can play a beneficial role in the diets of vegetarians. Concerns about adverse effects are not supported by the clinical or epidemiologic literature. Based on the soy intake associated with health benefits in the epidemiologic studies and the benefits noted in clinical trials, optimal adult soy intake would appear to be between two and four servings per day. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vegetarian Nutrition)
Open AccessReview Flavonoids: Antioxidants Against Atherosclerosis
Nutrients 2010, 2(8), 889-902; doi:10.3390/nu2080889
Received: 12 July 2010 / Revised: 2 August 2010 / Accepted: 6 August 2010 / Published: 12 August 2010
Cited by 45 | PDF Full-text (654 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Oxidative stress results from an imbalance between excessive formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or reactive nitrogen species and limited antioxidant defences. Endothelium and nitric oxide (NO) are key regulators of vascular health. NO bioavailability is modulated by ROS that degrade NO, [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress results from an imbalance between excessive formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or reactive nitrogen species and limited antioxidant defences. Endothelium and nitric oxide (NO) are key regulators of vascular health. NO bioavailability is modulated by ROS that degrade NO, uncouple NO synthase, and inhibit synthesis. Cardiovascular risk conditions contribute to oxidative stress, causing an imbalance between NO and ROS, with a relative decrease in NO bioavailability. Dietary flavonoids represent a range of polyphenolic compounds naturally occurring in plant foods. Flavonoids are potentially involved in cardiovascular prevention mainly by decreasing oxidative stress and increasing NO bioavailability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants)
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Open AccessReview The Role of Phytonutrients in Skin Health
Nutrients 2010, 2(8), 903-928; doi:10.3390/nu2080903
Received: 13 July 2010 / Revised: 5 August 2010 / Accepted: 6 August 2010 / Published: 24 August 2010
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (209 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Photodamage is known to occur in skin with exposure to sunlight, specifically ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Such damage includes inflammation, oxidative stress, breakdown of the extracellular matrix, and development of cancer in the skin. Sun exposure is considered to be one of the [...] Read more.
Photodamage is known to occur in skin with exposure to sunlight, specifically ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Such damage includes inflammation, oxidative stress, breakdown of the extracellular matrix, and development of cancer in the skin. Sun exposure is considered to be one of the most important risk factors for both nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Many phytonutrients have shown promise as photoprotectants in clinical, animal and cell culture studies. In part, the actions of these phytonutrients are thought to be through their actions as antioxidants. In regard to skin health, phytonutrients of interest include vitamin E, certain flavonoids, and the carotenoids, b-carotene, lycopene and lutein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants)

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