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Nutrients, Volume 3, Issue 2 (February 2011), Pages 186-273

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Misreporting of Energy Intake in the 2007 Australian Children’s Survey: Identification, Characteristics and Impact of Misreporters
Nutrients 2011, 3(2), 186-199; doi:10.3390/nu3020186
Received: 21 December 2010 / Revised: 19 January 2011 / Accepted: 29 January 2011 / Published: 8 February 2011
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (258 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Misreporting of energy intake (EI) is a common problem in national surveys. The aim of this study was to identify misreporters using a variety of criteria, examine the impact of misreporting on the association between EI and weight status, and to define [...] Read more.
Misreporting of energy intake (EI) is a common problem in national surveys. The aim of this study was to identify misreporters using a variety of criteria, examine the impact of misreporting on the association between EI and weight status, and to define the characteristics of misreporters in the 2007 Australian Children’s Survey. Data from the 2007 Australian Children’s Survey which included 4800 children aged 2–16 years were used to examine the extent of misreporting based on EI, physical activity level (PAL), age, gender, height and weight status. Three options for identifying misreporters using the Goldberg cut-offs were explored as was direct comparison of EI to energy expenditure (TEE) in a subset of children. Linear regression was used to determine the impact of misreporting on the association between EI and weight status. The prevalence of under-reporting among all children varied from 5.0% to 6.7%, and over-reporting from 1.6% to 3.0% depending on the option used. Direct comparison of EI to TEE revealed similar results. Regression analysis showed that excluding misreporters provided the best model to examine cross-sectional associations between EI and BMI. Characteristics associated with under-reporting included older age, female, higher BMI, higher PAL, living in an urban location, lower parental education level and feeling unwell on the survey day. Over-reporting was more common among children with a lower BMI and lower PAL. In conclusion, misreporting of EI is present among various subgroups of the 2007 Australian Children’s Survey. The impact of misreporting on the association between EI and body weight should be recognised by users of this survey. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Epidemiology)
Open AccessArticle Dietary Acid-Base Balance in Adolescent Sprint Athletes: A Follow-up Study
Nutrients 2011, 3(2), 200-211; doi:10.3390/nu3020200
Received: 21 December 2010 / Revised: 13 January 2011 / Accepted: 8 February 2011 / Published: 9 February 2011
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Abstract
Sprinters are advised to include additional protein sources in their diet. Basal metabolism and vigorous physical activities generate hydrogen ions that need to be buffered. The present follow-up study estimates the dietary potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production [...] Read more.
Sprinters are advised to include additional protein sources in their diet. Basal metabolism and vigorous physical activities generate hydrogen ions that need to be buffered. The present follow-up study estimates the dietary potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAP) in adolescent sprint athletes. Seven-day food diaries and anthropometrics of 60 adolescent sprint athletes (mean age at start 14.7 ± 1.9 years) were collected every six months over a three year period. Comparisons were made between athletes with a negative (PRAL(−)) versus positive PRAL (PRAL(+)). For the entire sample, mean PRAL values of up to 6 mEq/day were slightly positive despite a relatively high protein intake of around 1.5 g/kg. The NEAP ranging between 42 and 46 mEq/day remained stable during the study period. Athletes with a PRAL(−) (−8 to −10 mEq/day) consumed significantly more fruit and fruit juice than athletes with a PRAL(+) (+9 to 14 mEq/day). Athletes with a PRAL(+) did not consume more meat, fish and poultry than athletes with a PRAL(−). Grains and dairy products were only discriminative between the two groups on one measurement occasion. Lowering the PRAL can be obtained by increasing the consumption of potatoes, fruits, vegetables and vegetable soup. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Metabolomics as a Powerful Tool for Molecular Quality Assessment of the Fish Sparus aurata
Nutrients 2011, 3(2), 212-227; doi:10.3390/nu3020212
Received: 23 December 2010 / Revised: 17 January 2011 / Accepted: 8 February 2011 / Published: 11 February 2011
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (403 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The molecular profiles of perchloric acid solutions extracted from the flesh of Sparus aurata fish specimens, produced according to different aquaculture systems, have been investigated. The 1H-NMR spectra of aqueous extracts are indicative of differences in the metabolite content of fish [...] Read more.
The molecular profiles of perchloric acid solutions extracted from the flesh of Sparus aurata fish specimens, produced according to different aquaculture systems, have been investigated. The 1H-NMR spectra of aqueous extracts are indicative of differences in the metabolite content of fish reared under different conditions that are already distinguishable at their capture, and substantially maintain the same differences in their molecular profiles after sixteen days of storage under ice. The fish metabolic profiles are studied by top-down chemometric analysis. The results of this exploratory investigation show that the fish metabolome accurately reflects the rearing conditions. The level of many metabolites co-vary with the rearing conditions and a few metabolites are quantified including glycogen (stress indicator), histidine, alanine and glycine which all display significant changes dependent on the aquaculture system and on the storage times. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodomics 2009)
Open AccessArticle Inhibition of Rotavirus Infectivity by a Neoglycolipid Receptor Mimetic
Nutrients 2011, 3(2), 228-244; doi:10.3390/nu3020228
Received: 10 January 2011 / Revised: 24 January 2011 / Accepted: 16 February 2011 / Published: 17 February 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (916 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Group A rotaviruses are a major cause of diarrhea in the young of many mammalian species. In rotavirus infected piglets mortality can be as high as 60%. Previous research in this laboratory has identified a porcine intestinal GM3 ganglioside receptor that [...] Read more.
Group A rotaviruses are a major cause of diarrhea in the young of many mammalian species. In rotavirus infected piglets mortality can be as high as 60%. Previous research in this laboratory has identified a porcine intestinal GM3 ganglioside receptor that is required for sialic acid-dependent rotavirus recognition of host cells. In addition, we previously demonstrated exogenously added GM3 can competitively inhibit porcine rotavirus binding and infectivity of host cells in vitro. Sialyllactose, the carbohydrate moiety of GM3, is approximately 3 orders of magnitude less effective than GM3 at inhibiting rotavirus binding to cells. Furthermore, production of therapeutic quantities of GM3 ganglioside for use as an oral carbomimetic in swine is cost prohibitive. In an effort to circumvent these problems, a sialyllactose-containing neoglycolipid was synthesized and evaluated for its ability to inhibit rotavirus binding and infectivity of host cells. Sialyllactose was coupled to dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (PE) by reductive amination and the product (SLPE) purified by HPLC. Characterization of the product showed a single primulin (lipid) and resorcinol (sialic acid) positive band by thin layer chromatography and quantification of phosphate and sialic acid yielded a 1:1 molar ratio. Mass spectroscopy confirmed a molecular weight coinciding with SLPE. Concentration-dependent binding of rotavirus to SLPE was demonstrated using a thin-layer overlay assay. Using concentrations comparable to GM3, SLPE was also shown to inhibit rotavirus binding to host cells by 80%. Furthermore, SLPE was shown to decrease rotavirus infection of host cells by over 90%. Finally, preliminary results of in vivo animal challenge studies using newborn piglets in their natural environment, demonstrated SLPE afforded complete protection from rotavirus disease. The efficacy of SLPE in inhibiting rotavirus binding and infection in vitro and in vivo, coupled with its relatively low-cost, large-scale production capabilities make SLPE a promising candidate for further exploration as a possible prophylactic or therapeutic nutriceutical for combating rotavirus disease in animals. Most importantly, the results presented here provide proof of concept that the nutriceutical approach of providing natural or synthetic dietary receptor mimetics for protection against gastrointestinal virus infectious disease in all species is plausible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutriceuticals)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Probiotics in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and Associated Conditions
Nutrients 2011, 3(2), 245-264; doi:10.3390/nu3020245
Received: 1 January 2011 / Revised: 17 January 2011 / Accepted: 15 February 2011 / Published: 17 February 2011
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (297 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A complex set of interactions between the human genes encoding innate protective functions and immune defenses and the environment of the intestinal mucosa with its microbiota is currently considered key to the pathogenesis of the chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Probiotics offer [...] Read more.
A complex set of interactions between the human genes encoding innate protective functions and immune defenses and the environment of the intestinal mucosa with its microbiota is currently considered key to the pathogenesis of the chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Probiotics offer a method to potentially alter the intestinal microbiome exogenously or may provide an option to deliver microbial metabolic products to alter the chronicity of intestinal mucosal inflammation characterizing IBD. At present, there is little evidence for the benefit of currently used probiotic microbes in Crohn’s disease or associated conditions affecting extra-intestinal organs. However, clinical practice guidelines are now including a probiotic as an option for recurrent and relapsing antibiotic sensitive pouchitis and the use of probiotics in mild ulcerative colitis is provocative and suggests potential for benefit in select patients but concerns remain about proof from trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics and Nutrition)
Open AccessReview Iodine Deficiency in Pregnancy: The Effect on Neurodevelopment in the Child
Nutrients 2011, 3(2), 265-273; doi:10.3390/nu3020265
Received: 13 December 2010 / Revised: 8 February 2011 / Accepted: 15 February 2011 / Published: 18 February 2011
Cited by 37 | PDF Full-text (243 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Iodine is an integral part of the thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3), necessary for normal growth and development. An adequate supply of cerebral T3, generated in the fetal brain from maternal free T4 [...] Read more.
Iodine is an integral part of the thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3), necessary for normal growth and development. An adequate supply of cerebral T3, generated in the fetal brain from maternal free T4 (fT4), is needed by the fetus for thyroid hormone dependent neurodevelopment, which begins in the second half of the first trimester of pregnancy. Around the beginning of the second trimester the fetal thyroid also begins to produce hormones but the reserves of the fetal gland are low, thus maternal thyroid hormones contribute to total fetal thyroid hormone concentrations until birth. In order for pregnant women to produce enough thyroid hormones to meet both her own and her baby’s requirements, a 50% increase in iodine intake is recommended. A lack of iodine in the diet may result in the mother becoming iodine deficient, and subsequently the fetus. In iodine deficiency, hypothyroxinemia (i.e., low maternal fT4) results in damage to the developing brain, which is further aggravated by hypothyroidism in the fetus. The most serious consequence of iodine deficiency is cretinism, characterised by profound mental retardation. There is unequivocal evidence that severe iodine deficiency in pregnancy impairs brain development in the child. However, only two intervention trials have assessed neurodevelopment in children of moderately iodine deficient mothers finding improved neurodevelopment in children of mothers supplemented earlier rather than later in pregnancy; both studies were not randomised and were uncontrolled. Thus, there is a need for well-designed trials to determine the effect of iodine supplementation in moderate to mildly iodine deficient pregnant women on neurodevelopment in the child. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Epidemiology)

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