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Nutrients, Volume 3, Issue 3 (March 2011), Pages 274-384

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Activity of a Mediterranean Food Product: “Fig Syrup”
Nutrients 2011, 3(3), 317-329; doi:10.3390/nu3030317
Received: 11 January 2011 / Revised: 14 February 2011 / Accepted: 25 February 2011 / Published: 28 February 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, the efficacy of fig syrup, a Mediterranean fig derivative, as a nutraceutical supplement, was demonstrated. Fig syrup is a fruit concentrate used as a common ingredient in the preparation of typical foods, and particularly in cakes. In vitro assays were
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In this work, the efficacy of fig syrup, a Mediterranean fig derivative, as a nutraceutical supplement, was demonstrated. Fig syrup is a fruit concentrate used as a common ingredient in the preparation of typical foods, and particularly in cakes. In vitro assays were performed to determine the amount of nutraceutical ingredients, such as phenolic compounds (3.92 mg equivalent of gallic acid per g) and flavonoids (0.35 mg equivalent of catechin per g), while HPLC analyses provided specific information about the composition of antioxidants in the syrup. Furthermore, total antioxidant activity, scavenging properties against DPPH and peroxyl radicals, and the anticholinesterase activity, clearly showed the efficacy of the syrup in preventing damage induced by free radicals and, thus, the applicability of this food derivative as a nutraceutical supplement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants)

Review

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Open AccessReview Aging and Longevity: Why Knowing the Difference Is Important to Nutrition Research
Nutrients 2011, 3(3), 274-282; doi:10.3390/nu3030274
Received: 16 January 2011 / Revised: 7 February 2011 / Accepted: 25 February 2011 / Published: 28 February 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (238 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Life expectancies after the age of 70 and the number of individuals living with age-related chronic conditions that affect daily activities continue to increase. Age-specific nutritional recommendations may help to decrease the incidence or severity of age-related debilitating chronic disorders. However, research in
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Life expectancies after the age of 70 and the number of individuals living with age-related chronic conditions that affect daily activities continue to increase. Age-specific nutritional recommendations may help to decrease the incidence or severity of age-related debilitating chronic disorders. However, research in this area has seen limited success in identifying nutrition-related mechanisms that underlie the functional loss and chronic conditions that occur as a function of time. We believe that the limited success in establishing age-specific nutrition recommendations for the older population reflects, at least in part, research designs that fail to consider the evolutionary and biological bases of aging and longevity. Longevity has evolved as a by-product of genes selected for their contribution in helping the organism survive to the age of reproduction. As such, the principle of genetic determinism provides an appropriate underlying theory for research designs evaluating nutritional factors involved with life span. Aging is not a product of evolution and reflects stochastic and/or random events that most likely begin during the early, reproductively-active years. The genetic determinism model by which young (normal, control) are compared to old (abnormal, experimental) groups will not be effective in identifying underlying mechanisms and nutritional factors that impact aging. The purpose of this commentary is to briefly discuss the difference between aging and longevity and why knowing the difference is important to nutrition research and to establishing the most precise nutritional recommendations possible for the older population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Aging)
Open AccessReview Iron, Meat and Health
Nutrients 2011, 3(3), 283-316; doi:10.3390/nu3030283
Received: 12 January 2011 / Revised: 18 February 2011 / Accepted: 25 February 2011 / Published: 28 February 2011
Cited by 36 | PDF Full-text (442 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article is a summary of the publication “Iron and Health” by the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) to the U.K. Government (2010), which reviews the dietary intake of iron and the impact of different dietary patterns on the nutritional and health
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This article is a summary of the publication “Iron and Health” by the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) to the U.K. Government (2010), which reviews the dietary intake of iron and the impact of different dietary patterns on the nutritional and health status of the U.K. population. It concludes that several uncertainties make it difficult to determine dose-response relationships or to confidently characterize the risks associated with iron deficiency or excess. The publication makes several recommendations concerning iron intakes from food, including meat, and from supplements, as well as recommendations for further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Iron)
Open AccessReview Perceived Barriers to Application of Glycaemic Index: Valid Concerns or Lost in Translation?
Nutrients 2011, 3(3), 330-340; doi:10.3390/nu3030330
Received: 10 January 2011 / Revised: 17 February 2011 / Accepted: 23 February 2011 / Published: 28 February 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (177 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The term glycaemic-index (GI) originally appeared in the literature in the early 1980s. GI categorizes carbohydrate according to glycaemic effect postprandially. Since its inception, GI has obtained and maintained interest of academics and clinicians globally. Upon review of GI literature, it becomes clear
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The term glycaemic-index (GI) originally appeared in the literature in the early 1980s. GI categorizes carbohydrate according to glycaemic effect postprandially. Since its inception, GI has obtained and maintained interest of academics and clinicians globally. Upon review of GI literature, it becomes clear that the clinical utility of GI is a source of controversy. Can and should GI be applied clinically? There are academics and clinicians on both sides of the argument. Certainly, this controversy has been a stimulus for the evolution of GI methodology and application research, but may also negatively impact clinicians’ perception of GI if misunderstood. This article reviews two assessments of GI that are often listed as barriers to application; the GI concept is (1) too complex and (2) too difficult for clients to apply. The literature reviewed does not support the majority of purported barriers, but does indicate that there is a call from clinicians for more and improved GI education tools and clinician GI education. The literature indicates that the Registered Dietitian (RD) can play a key role in GI knowledge translation; from research to application. Research is warranted to assess GI education tool and knowledge needs of clinicians and the clients they serve. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrates)
Open AccessReview Starches, Sugars and Obesity
Nutrients 2011, 3(3), 341-369; doi:10.3390/nu3030341
Received: 24 January 2011 / Revised: 16 February 2011 / Accepted: 7 March 2011 / Published: 14 March 2011
Cited by 58 | PDF Full-text (297 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in
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The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrates)
Figures

Open AccessReview Folic Acid Food Fortification—Its History, Effect, Concerns, and Future Directions
Nutrients 2011, 3(3), 370-384; doi:10.3390/nu3030370
Received: 27 January 2011 / Revised: 21 February 2011 / Accepted: 11 March 2011 / Published: 15 March 2011
Cited by 95 | PDF Full-text (206 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Periconceptional intake of folic acid is known to reduce a woman’s risk of having an infant affected by a neural tube birth defect (NTD). National programs to mandate fortification of food with folic acid have reduced the prevalence of NTDs worldwide. Uncertainty surrounding
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Periconceptional intake of folic acid is known to reduce a woman’s risk of having an infant affected by a neural tube birth defect (NTD). National programs to mandate fortification of food with folic acid have reduced the prevalence of NTDs worldwide. Uncertainty surrounding possible unintended consequences has led to concerns about higher folic acid intake and food fortification programs. This uncertainty emphasizes the need to continually monitor fortification programs for accurate measures of their effect and the ability to address concerns as they arise. This review highlights the history, effect, concerns, and future directions of folic acid food fortification programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Folate Metabolism and Nutrition)

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