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Nutrients, Volume 4, Issue 12 (December 2012), Pages 1794-2120

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Changes in Dairy Food and Nutrient Intakes in Australian Adolescents
Nutrients 2012, 4(12), 1794-1811; doi:10.3390/nu4121794
Received: 22 August 2012 / Revised: 16 October 2012 / Accepted: 5 November 2012 / Published: 22 November 2012
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (743 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dairy nutrients, such as calcium, are particularly important in adolescence, a critical time for growth and development. There are limited Australian data following individuals through adolescence, evaluating changes in dairy nutrient and dairy product consumption. We used a validated food frequency questionnaire to
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Dairy nutrients, such as calcium, are particularly important in adolescence, a critical time for growth and development. There are limited Australian data following individuals through adolescence, evaluating changes in dairy nutrient and dairy product consumption. We used a validated food frequency questionnaire to investigate consumption in adolescents participating in both the 14 and 17 year follow-ups of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Most adolescents did not reach age and gender specific recommended daily intakes for calcium or magnesium at 14 years, and this decreased as they aged to 17 years (from 33.0% to 29.2% meeting for calcium, P < 0.05, and from 33.6% to 20.5% meeting for magnesium, P < 0.01). Mean intakes of calcium, potassium, riboflavin and vitamin A also decreased with age (P < 0.01). Mean dairy intake decreased from 536 ± 343 g/day to 464 ± 339 g/day (P < 0.01), due mostly to a decrease in regular milk, although flavoured milk consumption increased in boys. Cheese and butter were the only products to show a significantly increased consumption over the period. Girls decreased from 2.2 to 1.9 serves/day of dairy, while boys remained relatively steady at 2.9 to 2.8 serves/day. Our findings suggest that dairy product consumption decreases over adolescence. This may have implications for bone mass, development and later health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Retinal Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Early Atrophic Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) and a New Metric for Objective Evaluation of the Efficacy of Ocular Nutrition
Nutrients 2012, 4(12), 1812-1827; doi:10.3390/nu4121812
Received: 11 October 2012 / Revised: 12 November 2012 / Accepted: 14 November 2012 / Published: 27 November 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2936 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Purpose: A challenge in ocular preventive medicine is identification of patients with early pathological retinal damage that might benefit from nutritional intervention. The purpose of this study is to evaluate retinal thinning (RT) in early atrophic age-related macular degeneration (AMD) against visual function
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Purpose: A challenge in ocular preventive medicine is identification of patients with early pathological retinal damage that might benefit from nutritional intervention. The purpose of this study is to evaluate retinal thinning (RT) in early atrophic age-related macular degeneration (AMD) against visual function data from the Zeaxanthin and Visual Function (ZVF) randomized double masked placebo controlled clinical trial (FDA IND #78973). Methods: Retrospective, observational case series of medical center veterans with minimal visible AMD retinopathy (AREDS Report #18 simplified grading 1.4/4.0 bilateral retinopathy). Foveal and extra-foveal four quadrant SDOCT RT measurements were evaluated in n = 54 clinical and ZVF AMD patients. RT by age was determined and compared to the OptoVue SD OCT normative database. RT by quadrant in a subset of n = 29 ZVF patients was correlated with contrast sensitivity and parafoveal blue cone increment thresholds. Results: Foveal RT in AMD patients and non-AMD patients was preserved with age. Extrafoveal regions, however, showed significant slope differences between AMD patients and non-AMD patients, with the superior and nasal quadrants most vulnerable to retinal thinning (sup quad: −5.5 μm/decade thinning vs. Non-AMD: −1.1 μm/decade, P < 0.02; nasal quad: −5.0 μm/decade thinning vs. Non-AMD: −1.0 μm/decade, P < 0.04). Two measures of extrafoveal visual deterioration were correlated: A significant inverse correlation between % RT and contrast sensitivity (r = −0.33, P = 0.01, 2 Tailed Paired T) and an elevated extrafoveal increment blue cone threshold (r = +0.34, P = 0.01, 2 Tailed T). Additional SD OCT RT data for the non-AMD oldest age group (ages 82–91) is needed to fully substantiate the model. Conclusion: A simple new SD OCT clinical metric called “% extra-foveal RT” correlates well with functional visual loss in early AMD patients having minimal visible retinopathy. This metric can be used to follow the effect of repleting ocular nutrients, such as zinc, antioxidants, carotenoids, n-3 essential fats, resveratrol and vitamin D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and the Eye) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Dose and Latency Effects of Leucine Supplementation in Modulating Glucose Homeostasis: Opposite Effects in Healthy and Glucocorticoid-Induced Insulin-Resistance States
Nutrients 2012, 4(12), 1851-1867; doi:10.3390/nu4121851
Received: 28 September 2012 / Revised: 1 November 2012 / Accepted: 14 November 2012 / Published: 27 November 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (442 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dexamethasone (DEXA) is a potent immunosupressant and anti-inflammatory agent whose main side effects are muscle atrophy and insulin resistance in skeletal muscles. In this context, leucine supplementation may represent a way to limit the DEXA side effects. In this study, we have investigated
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Dexamethasone (DEXA) is a potent immunosupressant and anti-inflammatory agent whose main side effects are muscle atrophy and insulin resistance in skeletal muscles. In this context, leucine supplementation may represent a way to limit the DEXA side effects. In this study, we have investigated the effects of a low and a high dose of leucine supplementation (via a bolus) on glucose homeostasis, muscle mass and muscle strength in energy-restricted and DEXA-treated rats. Since the leucine response may also be linked to the administration of this amino acid, we performed a second set of experiments with leucine given in bolus (via gavage) versus leucine given via drinking water. Leucine supplementation was found to produce positive effects (e.g., reduced insulin levels) only when administrated in low dosage, both via the bolus or via drinking water. However, under DEXA treatment, leucine administration was found to significantly influence this response, since leucine supplementation via drinking water clearly induced a diabetic state, whereas the same effect was not observed when supplied via the gavage. Full article
Open AccessArticle Immunomodulatory Effects of Liriope Platyphylla Water Extract on Lipopolysaccharide-Activated Mouse Macrophage
Nutrients 2012, 4(12), 1887-1897; doi:10.3390/nu4121887
Received: 25 September 2012 / Revised: 9 November 2012 / Accepted: 19 November 2012 / Published: 30 November 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (416 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The tuber of Liriope platyphylla Wang et Tang (Liliaceae), also known as Liriopis tuber, is famous in Oriental medicine owing to its tonic, antitussive, expectorant and anti-asthmatic properties. In the present study, the effects of Liriopis tuber water extract (LP) on proinflammatory mediators
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The tuber of Liriope platyphylla Wang et Tang (Liliaceae), also known as Liriopis tuber, is famous in Oriental medicine owing to its tonic, antitussive, expectorant and anti-asthmatic properties. In the present study, the effects of Liriopis tuber water extract (LP) on proinflammatory mediators secreted from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cultured RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages were investigated. Nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and intracellular calcium release were measured after 24 h incubation. Various cytokines and nuclear transcription factors (NF-κB and CREB) of LPS-induced RAW 264.7 were measured by a multiplex bead array assay based on xMAP technology. LP (up to 200 μg/mL) significantly decreased levels of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-12p40, interferon-inducible protein-10, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, vascular endothelial growth factor, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor, platelet derived growth factor, PGE2, intracellular calcium, NF-κB and CREB in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells (p < 0.05). The results suggest that LP has immunomodulatory activity to reduce excessive immune reactions during the activation of macrophages by LPS. Further studies are needed to verify the precise mechanism regulating immunomodulatory activities of LP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Immune Function)
Open AccessArticle Grape Consumption Increases Anti-Inflammatory Markers and Upregulates Peripheral Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Absence of Dyslipidemias in Men with Metabolic Syndrome
Nutrients 2012, 4(12), 1945-1957; doi:10.3390/nu4121945
Received: 23 October 2012 / Revised: 7 November 2012 / Accepted: 30 November 2012 / Published: 6 December 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (287 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We evaluated the effects of grape consumption on inflammation and oxidation in the presence or absence of dyslipidemias in metabolic syndrome (MetS). Men with MetS (n = 24), 11 with high triglycerides and low HDL and 13 with no dyslipidemia were recruited
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We evaluated the effects of grape consumption on inflammation and oxidation in the presence or absence of dyslipidemias in metabolic syndrome (MetS). Men with MetS (n = 24), 11 with high triglycerides and low HDL and 13 with no dyslipidemia were recruited and randomly allocated to consume daily either 46 g of lyophilized grape powder (GRAPE), equivalent to 252 g fresh grapes, or placebo with an identical macronutrient composition and caloric value as GRAPE for four weeks. After a three-week washout, participants followed the alternate treatment. We measured changes between placebo and GRAPE periods in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers both in circulation and in gene expression. Changes in plasma adiponectin (p < 0.05), interleukin (IL)-10 (p < 0.005) and in mRNA expression of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) (p < 0.25) were increased in the GRAPE compared to the placebo period only in those individuals without dyslipidemia. Additionally, plasma IL-10 was negatively correlated with NOX2 expression, a marker of oxidative stress (r = −0.55, p < 0.01), while iNOS expression was positively correlated with the expression of superoxide dismutase 2 (r = 0.642, p < 0.01), a key anti-oxidative enzyme. Grape consumption displayed anti-oxidative and increased anti-inflammatory markers in the absence of the inflammatory milieu associated with dyslipidemias. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Cardiovascular Diseases)
Figures

Open AccessArticle The Association between the Macronutrient Content of Maternal Diet and the Adequacy of Micronutrients during Pregnancy in the Women and Their Children’s Health (WATCH) Study
Nutrients 2012, 4(12), 1958-1976; doi:10.3390/nu4121958
Received: 29 September 2012 / Revised: 23 November 2012 / Accepted: 29 November 2012 / Published: 6 December 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (786 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nutrition during pregnancy can induce alterations in offspring phenotype. Maternal ratio of protein to non-protein (P:NP) energy has been linked to variations in offspring body composition and adult risk of metabolic disease. This study describes the dietary patterns of pregnant women by tertiles
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Nutrition during pregnancy can induce alterations in offspring phenotype. Maternal ratio of protein to non-protein (P:NP) energy has been linked to variations in offspring body composition and adult risk of metabolic disease. This study describes the dietary patterns of pregnant women by tertiles of the P:NP ratio and compares diet to Australian recommendations. Data are from 179 Australian women enrolled in the Women and Their Children’s Health Study. Diet was assessed using a validated 74-item food frequency questionnaire. Food group servings and nutrient intakes were compared to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating and Australian Nutrient Reference Values. Higher maternal P:NP tertile was positively associated with calcium (P = 0.003), zinc (P = 0.001) and servings of dairy (P = 0.001) and meat (P = 0.001) food groups, and inversely associated with the energy dense, nutrient poor non-core (P = 0.003) food group. Micronutrient intakes were optimized with intermediate protein (18%E–20%E), intermediate fat (28%E–30%E) and intermediate carbohydrate (50%E–54%E) intakes, as indicated in tertile two. Results suggest a moderate protein intake may support pregnant women to consume the largest variety of nutrients across all food groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infant Nutrition)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Breastfeeding Duration and Residential Isolation amid Aboriginal Children in Western Australia
Nutrients 2012, 4(12), 2020-2034; doi:10.3390/nu4122020
Received: 1 September 2012 / Revised: 4 December 2012 / Accepted: 5 December 2012 / Published: 13 December 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (220 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Objectives: To examine factors that impact on breastfeeding duration among Western Australian Aboriginal children. We hypothesised that Aboriginal children living in remote locations in Western Australia were breastfed for longer than those living in metropolitan locations. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted
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Objectives: To examine factors that impact on breastfeeding duration among Western Australian Aboriginal children. We hypothesised that Aboriginal children living in remote locations in Western Australia were breastfed for longer than those living in metropolitan locations. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted from 2000 to 2002 in urban, rural and remote settings across Western Australia. Cross-tabulations and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed, using survey weights to produce unbiased estimates for the population of Aboriginal children. Data on demographic, maternal and infant characteristics were collected from 3932 Aboriginal birth mothers about their children aged 0–17 years (representing 22,100 Aboriginal children in Western Australia). Results: 71% of Aboriginal children were breastfed for three months or more. Accounting for other factors, there was a strong gradient for breastfeeding duration by remoteness, with Aboriginal children living in areas of moderate isolation being 3.2 times more likely to be breastfed for three months or more (p < 0.001) compared to children in metropolitan Perth. Those in areas of extreme isolation were 8.6 times more likely to be breastfed for three months or longer (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Greater residential isolation a protective factor linked to longer breastfeeding duration for Aboriginal children in our West Australian cohort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infant Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Differential Effects of Military Training on Fat-Free Mass and Plasma Amino Acid Adaptations in Men and Women
Nutrients 2012, 4(12), 2035-2046; doi:10.3390/nu4122035
Received: 2 October 2012 / Revised: 30 November 2012 / Accepted: 13 December 2012 / Published: 18 December 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (405 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fat-free mass (FFM) adaptations to physical training may differ between sexes based on disparities in fitness level, dietary intake, and levels of plasma amino acids (AA). This investigation aimed to determine FFM and plasma AA responses to military training, examine whether adaptations differ
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Fat-free mass (FFM) adaptations to physical training may differ between sexes based on disparities in fitness level, dietary intake, and levels of plasma amino acids (AA). This investigation aimed to determine FFM and plasma AA responses to military training, examine whether adaptations differ between male and female recruits, and explore potential associations between FFM and AA responses to training. Body composition and plasma AA levels were assessed in US Army recruits (n = 209, 118 males, 91 females) before (baseline) and every three weeks during basic combat training (BCT), a 10-week military training course. Body weight decreased in men but remained stable in women during BCT (sex-by-time interaction, P < 0.05). Fifty-eight percent of recruits gained FFM during BCT, with more (P < 0.05) females (88%) gaining FFM than males (36%). Total plasma AA increased (P < 0.05) during BCT, with greater (P < 0.05) increases observed in females (17%) then in males (4%). Essential amino acids (EAA) and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) were increased (P < 0.05) in females but did not change in males (sex-by-time interaction, P < 0.05). Independent of sex, changes in EAA (r = 0.34) and BCAA (r = 0.27) from baseline were associated with changes in FFM (P < 0.05); greater (P < 0.05) increases in AA concentrations were observed for those who gained FFM. Increases in FFM and plasma AA suggest that BCT elicits a more pronounced anabolic response in women compared to men, which may reflect sex-specific differences in the relative intensity of the combined training and physiological stimulus associated with BCT. Full article
Open AccessArticle Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients among Adults in the US: NHANES 2003–2006
Nutrients 2012, 4(12), 2097-2120; doi:10.3390/nu4122097
Received: 22 October 2012 / Revised: 28 November 2012 / Accepted: 6 December 2012 / Published: 19 December 2012
Cited by 43 | PDF Full-text (838 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Identification of current food sources of energy and nutrients among US adults is needed to help with public health efforts to implement feasible and appropriate dietary recommendations. To determine the food sources of energy and 26 nutrients consumed by US adults the 2003–2006
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Identification of current food sources of energy and nutrients among US adults is needed to help with public health efforts to implement feasible and appropriate dietary recommendations. To determine the food sources of energy and 26 nutrients consumed by US adults the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 24-h recall (Day 1) dietary intake data from a nationally representative sample of adults 19+ years of age (y) (n = 9490) were analyzed. An updated USDA Dietary Source Nutrient Database was developed for NHANES 2003–2006 using current food composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from food sources were sample-weighted. Percentages of total dietary intake contributed from food sources were ranked. The highest ranked sources of energy and nutrients among adults more than 19 years old were: energy — yeast bread/rolls (7.2%) and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7.2%); protein—poultry (14.4%) and beef (14.0%); total fat — other fats and oils (9.8%); saturated fatty acids — cheese (16.5%) and beef (9.1%); carbohydrate — soft drinks/soda (11.4%) and yeast breads/rolls (10.9%); dietary fiber — yeast breads/rolls (10.9%) and fruit (10.2%); calcium — milk (22.5%) and cheese (21.6%); vitamin D — milk (45.1%) and fish/shellfish (14.4%); and potassium — milk (9.6%) and coffee/tea/other non-alcoholic beverages (8.4%). Knowledge of primary food sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce excess energy consumed by US adults and increase the nutrient adequacy of their diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Nutrition)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview The Use of Fish Oil Lipid Emulsion in the Treatment of Intestinal Failure Associated Liver Disease (IFALD)
Nutrients 2012, 4(12), 1828-1850; doi:10.3390/nu4121828
Received: 30 October 2012 / Revised: 11 November 2012 / Accepted: 19 November 2012 / Published: 27 November 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (953 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since 2004, fish oil based lipid emulsions have been used in the treatment of intestinal failure associated liver disease, with a noticeable impact on decreasing the incidence of morbidity and mortality of this often fatal condition. With this new therapy, however, different approaches
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Since 2004, fish oil based lipid emulsions have been used in the treatment of intestinal failure associated liver disease, with a noticeable impact on decreasing the incidence of morbidity and mortality of this often fatal condition. With this new therapy, however, different approaches have emerged as well as concerns about potential risks with using fish oil as a monotherapy. This review will discuss the experience to date with this lipid emulsion along with the rational for its use, controversies and concerns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parenteral Nutrition)
Open AccessReview Dietary Regulation of Histone Acetylases and Deacetylases for the Prevention of Metabolic Diseases
Nutrients 2012, 4(12), 1868-1886; doi:10.3390/nu4121868
Received: 1 October 2012 / Revised: 12 November 2012 / Accepted: 22 November 2012 / Published: 28 November 2012
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (429 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Age-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer involve epigenetic modifications, where accumulation of minute changes in the epigenome over time leads to disease manifestation. Epigenetic changes are influenced by life style and diets. This represents an avenue whereby dietary
[...] Read more.
Age-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer involve epigenetic modifications, where accumulation of minute changes in the epigenome over time leads to disease manifestation. Epigenetic changes are influenced by life style and diets. This represents an avenue whereby dietary components could accelerate or prevent age-related diseases through their effects on epigenetic modifications. Histone acetylation is an epigenetic modification that is regulated through the opposing action of histone acetylases (HATs) and deacetylases (HDACs). These two families of enzymes play critical roles in metabolic processes and their dysregulation is associated with pathogenesis of several diseases. Dietary components, such as butyrate, sulforaphane, and curcumin, have been shown to affect HAT and HDAC activity, and their health benefits are attributed, at least in part, to epigenetic modifications. Given the decades that it takes to accumulate epigenetic changes, it is unlikely that pharmaceuticals could undo epigenetic changes without side effects. Therefore, long term consumption of dietary components that can alter the epigenome could be an attractive means of disease prevention. The goal of this review is to highlight the roles of diets and food components in epigenetic modifications through the regulation of HATs and HDACs for disease prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics)
Open AccessReview Molecular Nutrition Research—The Modern Way Of Performing Nutritional Science
Nutrients 2012, 4(12), 1898-1944; doi:10.3390/nu4121898
Received: 6 September 2012 / Revised: 25 October 2012 / Accepted: 12 November 2012 / Published: 3 December 2012
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (1154 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In spite of amazing progress in food supply and nutritional science, and a striking increase in life expectancy of approximately 2.5 months per year in many countries during the previous 150 years, modern nutritional research has a great potential of still contributing to
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In spite of amazing progress in food supply and nutritional science, and a striking increase in life expectancy of approximately 2.5 months per year in many countries during the previous 150 years, modern nutritional research has a great potential of still contributing to improved health for future generations, granted that the revolutions in molecular and systems technologies are applied to nutritional questions. Descriptive and mechanistic studies using state of the art epidemiology, food intake registration, genomics with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, advanced biostatistics, imaging, calorimetry, cell biology, challenge tests (meals, exercise, etc.), and integration of all data by systems biology, will provide insight on a much higher level than today in a field we may name molecular nutrition research. To take advantage of all the new technologies scientists should develop international collaboration and gather data in large open access databases like the suggested Nutritional Phenotype database (dbNP). This collaboration will promote standardization of procedures (SOP), and provide a possibility to use collected data in future research projects. The ultimate goals of future nutritional research are to understand the detailed mechanisms of action for how nutrients/foods interact with the body and thereby enhance health and treat diet-related diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics)
Open AccessReview Parenteral Nutrition Additive Shortages: The Short-Term, Long-Term and Potential Epigenetic Implications in Premature and Hospitalized Infants
Nutrients 2012, 4(12), 1977-1988; doi:10.3390/nu4121977
Received: 12 October 2012 / Revised: 29 November 2012 / Accepted: 30 November 2012 / Published: 7 December 2012
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (349 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nutrition support practitioners are currently dealing with shortages of parenteral nutrition micronutrients, including multivitamins (MVI), selenium and zinc. A recent survey from the American Society of Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition (ASPEN) indicates that this shortage is having a profound effect on clinical practice.
[...] Read more.
Nutrition support practitioners are currently dealing with shortages of parenteral nutrition micronutrients, including multivitamins (MVI), selenium and zinc. A recent survey from the American Society of Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition (ASPEN) indicates that this shortage is having a profound effect on clinical practice. A majority of respondents reported taking some aggressive measures to ration existing supplies. Most premature infants and many infants with congenital anomalies are dependent on parenteral nutrition for the first weeks of life to meet nutritional needs. Because of fragile health and poor reserves, they are uniquely susceptible to this problem. It should be understood that shortages and rationing have been associated with adverse outcomes, such as lactic acidosis and Wernicke encephalopathy from thiamine deficiency or pulmonary and skeletal development concerns related to inadequate stores of Vitamin A and D. In this review, we will discuss the current parenteral shortages and the possible impact on a population of very low birth weight infants. This review will also present a case study of a neonate who was impacted by these current shortages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parenteral Nutrition)
Open AccessReview Monounsaturated Fatty Acids and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: Synopsis of the Evidence Available from Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses
Nutrients 2012, 4(12), 1989-2007; doi:10.3390/nu4121989
Received: 11 September 2012 / Revised: 14 November 2012 / Accepted: 4 December 2012 / Published: 11 December 2012
Cited by 54 | PDF Full-text (508 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
No dietary recommendations for monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) are given by the National Institute of Medicine, the United States Department of Agriculture, European Food and Safety Authority and the American Diabetes Association. In contrast, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, and the Canadian
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No dietary recommendations for monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) are given by the National Institute of Medicine, the United States Department of Agriculture, European Food and Safety Authority and the American Diabetes Association. In contrast, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, and the Canadian Dietetic Association both promote <25% MUFA of daily total energy consumption, while the American Heart Association sets a limit of 20% MUFA in their respective guidelines. The present review summarizes systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials and cohort studies investigating the effects of MUFA on cardiovascular and diabetic risk factors, cardiovascular events and cardiovascular death. Electronic database Medline was searched for systematic reviews and meta-analyses using “monounsaturated fatty acids”, “monounsaturated fat”, and “dietary fat” as search terms with no restriction to calendar date or language. Reference lists and clinical guidelines were searched as well. Sixteen relevant papers were identified. Several studies indicated an increase of HDL-cholesterol and a corresponding decrease in triacylglycerols following a MUFA-rich diet. The effects on total and LDL-cholesterol appeared not consistent, but no detrimental effects on blood lipids were observed. Values for systolic and diastolic blood pressure were found to be reduced both during short- and long-term protocols using high amounts of MUFA as compared to low-MUFA diets. In type 2 diabetic subjects, MUFA exerted a hypoglycemic effect and reduced glycosylated hemoglobin in the long term. Data from meta-analyses exploring evidence from long-term prospective cohort studies provide ambiguous results with respect to the effects of MUFA on risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). One meta-analysis reported an increase in CHD events, however, most meta-analyses observed a lesser number of cases in participants subjected to a high-MUFA protocol. Although no detrimental side effects of MUFA-rich diets were reported in the literature, there still is no unanimous rationale for MUFA recommendations in a therapeutic regimen. Additional long-term intervention studies are required to characterized efficacy and effectiveness of recommending MUFA-rich diet among general and clinical populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Cardiovascular Diseases)
Open AccessReview Targeting Cell Signaling and Apoptotic Pathways by Luteolin: Cardioprotective Role in Rat Cardiomyocytes Following Ischemia/Reperfusion
Nutrients 2012, 4(12), 2008-2019; doi:10.3390/nu4122008
Received: 31 October 2012 / Revised: 28 November 2012 / Accepted: 5 December 2012 / Published: 12 December 2012
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (433 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Myocardial ischemia often results in damaged heart structure and function, which can be restored through ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in most cases. However, I/R can exacerbate myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). Luteolin, a widely distributed flavonoid, a member of a group of naturally occurring polyphenolic
[...] Read more.
Myocardial ischemia often results in damaged heart structure and function, which can be restored through ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in most cases. However, I/R can exacerbate myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). Luteolin, a widely distributed flavonoid, a member of a group of naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds found in many fruits, vegetables and medicinal herbs, has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic activities. In recent years, luteolin has been shown to play an important role in the cardioprotection of IRI. However, its role and mechanism in cardioprotection against IRI has not been clearly elucidated with respect to the apoptosis pathway. The purpose of this paper is to review luteolin’s anti-apoptotic role and mechanism following I/R in rats, and indicate luteolin as a potential candidate for preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols and Human Health)
Open AccessReview Space Flight Calcium: Implications for Astronaut Health, Spacecraft Operations, and Earth
Nutrients 2012, 4(12), 2047-2068; doi:10.3390/nu4122047
Received: 11 October 2012 / Revised: 13 November 2012 / Accepted: 10 December 2012 / Published: 18 December 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (806 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The space flight environment is known to induce bone loss and, subsequently, calcium loss. The longer the mission, generally the more bone and calcium are lost. This review provides a history of bone and calcium studies related to space flight and highlights issues
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The space flight environment is known to induce bone loss and, subsequently, calcium loss. The longer the mission, generally the more bone and calcium are lost. This review provides a history of bone and calcium studies related to space flight and highlights issues related to calcium excretion that the space program must consider so that urine can be recycled. It also discusses a novel technique using natural stable isotopes of calcium that will be helpful in the future to determine calcium and bone balance during space flight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Calcium)
Open AccessReview Retina, Retinol, Retinal and the Natural History of Vitamin A as a Light Sensor
Nutrients 2012, 4(12), 2069-2096; doi:10.3390/nu4122069
Received: 1 November 2012 / Revised: 27 November 2012 / Accepted: 28 November 2012 / Published: 19 December 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1053 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Light is both the ultimate energy source for most organisms and a rich information source. Vitamin A-based chromophore was initially used in harvesting light energy, but has become the most widely used light sensor throughout evolution from unicellular to multicellular organisms. Vitamin A-based
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Light is both the ultimate energy source for most organisms and a rich information source. Vitamin A-based chromophore was initially used in harvesting light energy, but has become the most widely used light sensor throughout evolution from unicellular to multicellular organisms. Vitamin A-based photoreceptor proteins are called opsins and have been used for billions of years for sensing light for vision or the equivalent of vision. All vitamin A-based light sensors for vision in the animal kingdom are G-protein coupled receptors, while those in unicellular organisms are light-gated channels. This first major switch in evolution was followed by two other major changes: the switch from bistable to monostable pigments for vision and the expansion of vitamin A’s biological functions. Vitamin A’s new functions such as regulating cell growth and differentiation from embryogenesis to adult are associated with increased toxicity with its random diffusion. In contrast to bistable pigments which can be regenerated by light, monostable pigments depend on complex enzymatic cycles for regeneration after every photoisomerization event. Here we discuss vitamin A functions and transport in the context of the natural history of vitamin A-based light sensors and propose that the expanding functions of vitamin A and the choice of monostable pigments are the likely evolutionary driving forces for precise, efficient, and sustained vitamin A transport. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and the Eye) Print Edition available

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