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Nutrients, Volume 4, Issue 9 (September 2012), Pages 1151-1357

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle An Assessment of the Impact of Fortification of Staples and Condiments on Micronutrient Intake in Young Vietnamese Children
Nutrients 2012, 4(9), 1151-1170; doi:10.3390/nu4091151
Received: 7 June 2012 / Revised: 8 August 2012 / Accepted: 15 August 2012 / Published: 24 August 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (516 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Targeted fortification programs for infants and young children are an effective strategy to prevent micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries, but the role of large-scale fortification of staple foods and condiments is less clear. Dietary modeling in children aged 6–60 months was undertaken, based
[...] Read more.
Targeted fortification programs for infants and young children are an effective strategy to prevent micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries, but the role of large-scale fortification of staple foods and condiments is less clear. Dietary modeling in children aged 6–60 months was undertaken, based on food consumption patterns described in the 2009 national food consumption survey, using a 24-h recall method. Consumption data showed that the median intake of a child for iron, vitamin A and zinc, as a proportion of the Vietnamese Recommended Dietary Allowance (VRDA), is respectively 16%–48%, 14%–49% and 36%–46%, (depending on the age group). Potential fortification vehicles, such as rice, fish/soy sauces and vegetable oil are consumed daily in significant amounts (median: 170 g/capita/day, 4 g/capita/day and 6 g/capita/day, respectively) by over 40% of the children. Vegetable oil fortification could contribute to an additional vitamin A intake of 21%–24% of VRDA recommended nutrient intake, while fortified rice could support the intakes of all the other micronutrients (14%–61% for iron, 4%–11% for zinc and 33%–49% of folate requirements). Other food vehicles, such as wheat flour, which is consumed by 16% of children, could also contribute to efforts to increase micronutrient intakes, although little impact on the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies can be expected if used alone. The modeling suggests that fortification of vegetable oil, rice and sauces would be an effective strategy to address micronutrient gaps and deficiencies in young children. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effects of Glycerol and Creatine Hyperhydration on Doping-Relevant Blood Parameters
Nutrients 2012, 4(9), 1171-1186; doi:10.3390/nu4091171
Received: 12 June 2012 / Revised: 17 July 2012 / Accepted: 16 August 2012 / Published: 31 August 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (303 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Glycerol is prohibited as an ergogenic aid by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) due to the potential for its plasma expansion properties to have masking effects. However, the scientific basis of the inclusion of Gly as a “masking agent” remains inconclusive. The purpose
[...] Read more.
Glycerol is prohibited as an ergogenic aid by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) due to the potential for its plasma expansion properties to have masking effects. However, the scientific basis of the inclusion of Gly as a “masking agent” remains inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a hyperhydrating supplement containing Gly on doping-relevant blood parameters. Nine trained males ingested a hyperhydrating mixture twice per day for 7 days containing 1.0 g•kg−1 body mass (BM) of Gly, 10.0 g of creatine and 75.0 g of glucose. Blood samples were collected and total hemoglobin (Hb) mass determined using the optimized carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method pre- and post-supplementation. BM and total body water (TBW) increased significantly following supplementation by 1.1 ± 1.2 and 1.0 ± 1.2 L (BM, P < 0.01; TBW, P < 0.01), respectively. This hyperhydration did not significantly alter plasma volume or any of the doping-relevant blood parameters (e.g., hematocrit, Hb, reticulocytes and total Hb-mass) even when Gly was clearly detectable in urine samples. In conclusion, this study shows that supplementation with hyperhydrating solution containing Gly for 7 days does not significantly alter doping-relevant blood parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sports Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Assessing the Relationship between Vitamin D3 and Stratum Corneum Hydration for the Treatment of Xerotic Skin
Nutrients 2012, 4(9), 1213-1218; doi:10.3390/nu4091213
Received: 2 July 2012 / Revised: 31 July 2012 / Accepted: 27 August 2012 / Published: 4 September 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (309 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamin D3 has been called the “sunshine” vitamin since the formation of vitamin D is mediated by exposure to sunlight. Vitamin D3 is linked to many health benefits, however serum levels of vitamin D3 have been decreasing over the last
[...] Read more.
Vitamin D3 has been called the “sunshine” vitamin since the formation of vitamin D is mediated by exposure to sunlight. Vitamin D3 is linked to many health benefits, however serum levels of vitamin D3 have been decreasing over the last few decades and the lower levels of vitamin D3 may have consequences on normal physiology. We investigated the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and stratum corneum conductance as well as the effect of topical application of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) on dry skin. Eighty three subjects were recruited and blood serum levels and skin conductance measurements were taken after a one week washout. A correlation was observed between vitamin D levels and skin moisture content, individuals with lower levels of vitamin D had lower average skin moisture. Subsequently, a 3-week split leg, randomized, vehicle controlled clinical study was conducted on a subset of 61 of the above individuals who were identified with non-sufficient vitamin D serum levels. Topical supplementation with cholecalciferol significantly increased measurements of skin moisturization and resulted in improvements in subjective clinical grading of dry skin. Taken together our finding suggest a relationship between serum vitamin D3 (25(OH)D) levels and hydration of the stratum corneum and further demonstrate the skin moisture benefit from topical application of vitamin D3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Skin)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Intake of Dairy Products in Relation to Periodontitis in Older Danish Adults
Nutrients 2012, 4(9), 1219-1229; doi:10.3390/nu4091219
Received: 12 June 2012 / Revised: 23 July 2012 / Accepted: 14 August 2012 / Published: 4 September 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (396 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This cross-sectional study investigates whether calcium intakes from dairy and non-dairy sources, and absolute intakes of various dairy products, are associated with periodontitis. The calcium intake (mg/day) of 135 older Danish adults was estimated by a diet history interview and divided into dairy
[...] Read more.
This cross-sectional study investigates whether calcium intakes from dairy and non-dairy sources, and absolute intakes of various dairy products, are associated with periodontitis. The calcium intake (mg/day) of 135 older Danish adults was estimated by a diet history interview and divided into dairy and non-dairy calcium. Dairy food intake (g/day) was classified into four groups: milk, cheese, fermented foods and other foods. Periodontitis was defined as the number of teeth with attachment loss ≥3 mm. Intakes of total dairy calcium (Incidence-rate ratio (IRR) = 0.97; p = 0.021), calcium from milk (IRR = 0.97; p = 0.025) and fermented foods (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.03) were inversely and significantly associated with periodontitis after adjustment for age, gender, education, sucrose intake, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, vitamin D intake, heart disease, visits to the dentist, use of dental floss and bleeding on probing, but non-dairy calcium, calcium from cheese and other types of dairy food intakes were not. Total dairy foods (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.003), milk (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.028) and fermented foods intakes (IRR = 0.97; p = 0.029) were associated with reduced risk of periodontitis, but cheese and other dairy foods intakes were not. These results suggest that dairy calcium, particularly from milk and fermented products, may protect against periodontitis. Prospective studies are required to confirm these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Calcium)
Open AccessArticle Different Dietary Protein and PUFA Interventions Alter the Fatty Acid Concentrations, but Not the Meat Quality, of Porcine Muscle
Nutrients 2012, 4(9), 1237-1246; doi:10.3390/nu4091237
Received: 6 July 2012 / Revised: 8 August 2012 / Accepted: 28 August 2012 / Published: 5 September 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (569 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study investigated the effect of a reduced protein diet in combination with different vegetable oils (sunflower seed oil or linseed oil) on carcass traits, meat quality and fatty acid profile in porcine muscle. Forty male Landrace pigs were allocated into four
[...] Read more.
The present study investigated the effect of a reduced protein diet in combination with different vegetable oils (sunflower seed oil or linseed oil) on carcass traits, meat quality and fatty acid profile in porcine muscle. Forty male Landrace pigs were allocated into four experimental groups (each n = 8) and one control group (n = 8) at a live weight of approximately 60 kg. The pigs were fed ad libitum from 60 kg to 100 kg live weight and restricted to 2.8 kg/day until they reached 120 kg. In contrast to other studies, the intramuscular fat content (IMF) did not increase in animals of groups fed a reduced protein diet and vegetable oils. The IMF ranged between 1.2% and 1.4%. The growth performance and meat quality of the longissimus muscle was not affected by the diet, but the average daily gain (ADG) and drip loss were affected. The muscle fatty acid concentrations were significantly affected by the diet, resulting in higher n-3 FA concentrations up to 113 mg/100 g muscle and lower n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio for pigs fed linseed oil-containing high- and reduced protein diets, compared to sunflower seed oil-containing diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Lipids: Sources, Function and Metabolism)
Open AccessArticle Selenium, Selenoprotein Genes and Crohn’s Disease in a Case-Control Population from Auckland, New Zealand
Nutrients 2012, 4(9), 1247-1259; doi:10.3390/nu4091247
Received: 13 July 2012 / Revised: 23 August 2012 / Accepted: 27 August 2012 / Published: 7 September 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (411 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
New Zealand has one of the highest incidence rates of Crohn’s Disease (CD), whilst the serum selenium status of New Zealanders is amongst the lowest in the world. A prospective case-control study in Auckland, New Zealand considered serum selenium as a potential CD
[...] Read more.
New Zealand has one of the highest incidence rates of Crohn’s Disease (CD), whilst the serum selenium status of New Zealanders is amongst the lowest in the world. A prospective case-control study in Auckland, New Zealand considered serum selenium as a potential CD risk factor. Serum selenium levels were significantly lower in CD patients compared to controls (101.8 ± 1.02 vs. 111.1 ± 1.01 ng/mL) (p = 5.91 × 10−8). Recent detailed studies in the United Kingdom have suggested an optimal serum level around 122 ng/mL, making the average CD patient in New Zealand selenium deficient. Of the 29 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tested, 13 were found to significantly interact with serum selenium on CD. After adjustment for multiple testing, a significant interaction with serum selenium on CD was found for three SNPs, namely rs17529609 and rs7901303 in the gene SEPHS1, and rs1553153 in the gene SEPSECS. These three SNPs have not been reported elsewhere as being significantly associated with selenium or CD. It is unclear as to whether lower selenium levels are a cause or an effect of the disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics)
Open AccessArticle Body-Related Social Comparison and Disordered Eating among Adolescent Females with an Eating Disorder, Depressive Disorder, and Healthy Controls
Nutrients 2012, 4(9), 1260-1272; doi:10.3390/nu4091260
Received: 12 June 2012 / Revised: 28 August 2012 / Accepted: 29 August 2012 / Published: 11 September 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (385 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between body-related social comparison (BRSC) and eating disorders (EDs) by: (a) comparing the degree of BRSC in adolescents with an ED, depressive disorder (DD), and no psychiatric history; and (b) investigating whether BRSC
[...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between body-related social comparison (BRSC) and eating disorders (EDs) by: (a) comparing the degree of BRSC in adolescents with an ED, depressive disorder (DD), and no psychiatric history; and (b) investigating whether BRSC is associated with ED symptoms after controlling for symptoms of depression and self-esteem. Participants were 75 girls, aged 12–18 (25 per diagnostic group). To assess BRSC, participants reported on a 5-point Likert scale how often they compare their body to others’. Participants also completed a diagnostic interview, Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE). Compared to adolescents with a DD and healthy adolescents, adolescents with an ED engaged in significantly more BRSC (p ≤ 0.001). Collapsing across groups, BRSC was significantly positively correlated with ED symptoms (p ≤ 0.01), and these associations remained even after controlling for two robust predictors of both ED symptoms and social comparison, namely BDI-II and RSE. In conclusion, BRSC seems to be strongly related to EDs. Treatment for adolescents with an ED may focus on reducing BRSC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maladaptive Eating Attitudes in Youth)
Open AccessArticle Low Zinc Status and Absorption Exist in Infants with Jejunostomies or Ileostomies Which Persists after Intestinal Repair
Nutrients 2012, 4(9), 1273-1281; doi:10.3390/nu4091273
Received: 11 July 2012 / Revised: 7 August 2012 / Accepted: 5 September 2012 / Published: 12 September 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (321 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is very little data regarding trace mineral nutrition in infants with small intestinal ostomies. Here we evaluated 14 infants with jejunal or ileal ostomies to measure their zinc absorption and retention and biochemical zinc and copper status. Zinc absorption was measured using
[...] Read more.
There is very little data regarding trace mineral nutrition in infants with small intestinal ostomies. Here we evaluated 14 infants with jejunal or ileal ostomies to measure their zinc absorption and retention and biochemical zinc and copper status. Zinc absorption was measured using a dual-tracer stable isotope technique at two different time points when possible. The first study was conducted when the subject was receiving maximal tolerated feeds enterally while the ostomy remained in place. A second study was performed as soon as feasible after full feeds were achieved after intestinal repair. We found biochemical evidence of deficiencies of both zinc and copper in infants with small intestinal ostomies at both time points. Fractional zinc absorption with an ostomy in place was 10.9% ± 5.3%. After reanastamosis, fractional zinc absorption was 9.4% ± 5.7%. Net zinc balance was negative prior to reanastamosis. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that infants with a jejunostomy or ileostomy are at high risk for zinc and copper deficiency before and after intestinal reanastamosis. Additional supplementation, especially of zinc, should be considered during this time period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parenteral Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Comparison of Glucose Monitoring Methods during Steady-State Exercise in Women
Nutrients 2012, 4(9), 1282-1292; doi:10.3390/nu4091282
Received: 23 July 2012 / Revised: 31 August 2012 / Accepted: 31 August 2012 / Published: 14 September 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (405 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Data from Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) systems may help improve overall daily glycemia; however, the accuracy of CGM during exercise remains questionable. The objective of this single group experimental study was to compare CGM-estimated values to venous plasma glucose (VPG) and capillary plasma
[...] Read more.
Data from Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) systems may help improve overall daily glycemia; however, the accuracy of CGM during exercise remains questionable. The objective of this single group experimental study was to compare CGM-estimated values to venous plasma glucose (VPG) and capillary plasma glucose (CPG) during steady-state exercise. Twelve recreationally active females without diabetes (aged 21.8 ± 2.4 years), from Central Washington University completed the study. CGM is used by individuals with diabetes, however the purpose of this study was to first validate the use of this device during exercise for anyone. Data were collected between November 2009 and April 2010. Participants performed two identical 45-min steady-state cycling trials (~60% Pmax) on non-consecutive days. Glucose concentrations (CGM-estimated, VPG, and CPG values) were measured every 5 min. Two carbohydrate gel supplements along with 360 mL of water were consumed 15 min into exercise. A product-moment correlation was used to assess the relationship and a Bland-Altman analysis determined error between the three glucose measurement methods. It was found that the CGM system overestimated mean VPG (mean absolute difference 17.4 mg/dL (0.97 mmol/L)) and mean CPG (mean absolute difference 15.5 mg/dL (0.86 mmol/L)). Bland-Altman analysis displayed wide limits of agreement (95% confidence interval) of 44.3 mg/dL (2.46 mmol/L) (VPG compared with CGM) and 41.2 mg/dL (2.29 mmol/L) (CPG compared with CGM). Results from the current study support that data from CGM did not meet accuracy standards from the 15197 International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sports Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Enteral Nutrition for Feeding Severely Underfed Patients with Anorexia Nervosa
Nutrients 2012, 4(9), 1293-1303; doi:10.3390/nu4091293
Received: 3 July 2012 / Revised: 31 August 2012 / Accepted: 4 September 2012 / Published: 14 September 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (367 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Severe undernutrition nearly always leads to marked changes in body spaces (e.g., alterations of intra-extracellular water) and in body masses and composition (e.g., overall and compartmental stores of phosphate, potassium, and magnesium). In patients with severe undernutrition it is almost always necessary to
[...] Read more.
Severe undernutrition nearly always leads to marked changes in body spaces (e.g., alterations of intra-extracellular water) and in body masses and composition (e.g., overall and compartmental stores of phosphate, potassium, and magnesium). In patients with severe undernutrition it is almost always necessary to use oral nutrition support and/or artificial nutrition, besides ordinary food; enteral nutrition should be a preferred route of feeding if there is a functional accessible gastrointestinal tract. Refeeding of severely malnourished patients represents two very complex and conflicting tasks: (1) to avoid “refeeding syndrome” caused by a too fast correction of malnutrition; (2) to avoid “underfeeding” caused by a too cautious rate of refeeding. The aim of this paper is to discuss the modality of refeeding severely underfed patients and to present our experience with the use of enteral tube feeding for gradual correction of very severe undernutrition whilst avoiding refeeding syndrome, in 10 patients aged 22 ± 11.4 years and with mean initial body mass index (BMI) of 11.2 ± 0.7 kg/m2. The mean BMI increased from 11.2 ± 0.7 kg/m2 to 17.3 ± 1.6 kg/m2 and the mean body weight from 27.9 ± 3.3 to 43.0 ± 5.7 kg after 90 days of intensive in-patient treatment (p < 0.0001). Caloric intake levels were established after measuring resting energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry, and nutritional support was performed with enteral feeding. Vitamins, phosphate, and potassium supplements were administered during refeeding. All patients achieved a significant modification of BMI; none developed refeeding syndrome. In conclusion, our findings show that, even in cases of extreme undernutrition, enteral feeding may be a well-tolerated way of feeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enteral Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Hypocholesterolemic Effects of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soymilk on Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet
Nutrients 2012, 4(9), 1304-1316; doi:10.3390/nu4091304
Received: 16 July 2012 / Revised: 31 August 2012 / Accepted: 5 September 2012 / Published: 18 September 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (408 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effect of fermented soymilk on rats fed a high cholesterol diet was investigated to clarify the cholesterol-lowering function. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 7 weeks were fed a control diet (1% cholesterol, high cholesterol diet), high cholesterol diet containing 11.7% fermented soymilk diet
[...] Read more.
The effect of fermented soymilk on rats fed a high cholesterol diet was investigated to clarify the cholesterol-lowering function. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 7 weeks were fed a control diet (1% cholesterol, high cholesterol diet), high cholesterol diet containing 11.7% fermented soymilk diet (5% soy protein as final concentration, F-5), or high cholesterol diet containing 23.4% fermented soymilk diet (10% soy protein as final concentration, F-10) for 5 weeks. The liver weight and fat mass were decreased by the ingestion of fermented soymilk. The hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels in the F-5 and F-10 groups were significantly lowered compared to those in the control group. The plasma total cholesterol level of the F-10 group was significantly decreased. The expression of SREBP-2, a cholesterol synthesis-related gene, was significantly decreased in liver of the F-5 group, but the expression of CYP7a1, a cholesterol catabolism-related gene, was significantly increased. These results suggest that fermented soymilk can modulate the cholesterol metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Lipids: Sources, Function and Metabolism)
Open AccessArticle Poor Knowledge and Practices Related to Iodine Nutrition during Pregnancy and Lactation in Australian Women: Pre- and Post-Iodine Fortification
Nutrients 2012, 4(9), 1317-1327; doi:10.3390/nu4091317
Received: 28 June 2012 / Revised: 31 July 2012 / Accepted: 12 September 2012 / Published: 20 September 2012
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (564 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A before-after review was undertaken to assess whether knowledge and practices related to iodine nutrition, supplementation and fortification has improved in Australian women since the introduction of mandatory iodine fortification in 2009. Surveys of pregnant (n = 139) and non-pregnant (n
[...] Read more.
A before-after review was undertaken to assess whether knowledge and practices related to iodine nutrition, supplementation and fortification has improved in Australian women since the introduction of mandatory iodine fortification in 2009. Surveys of pregnant (n = 139) and non-pregnant (n = 75) women in 2007–2008 are compared with surveys of pregnant (n = 147) and lactating women (n = 60) one to two years post-fortification in a regional area of New South Wales, Australia. A self-administered questionnaire was completed and dietary intake of iodine was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. A generally poor knowledge about the role and sources of iodine in the diet remained after fortification. Post-fortification, iodine-containing supplements were being taken by 60% (up from 20% pre-fortification) and 45% of pregnant and lactating women, respectively. Dairy foods were the highest contributors to dietary iodine intake (57%–62%). A low intake of fish and seafood resulted in this food group contributing only 3%–8% of total intake. A low level of public awareness regarding the role of iodine in health supports the need for public health strategies in addition to fortification, such as an accompanying consumer education campaign, increased uptake of supplementation, and on-going monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iodine Supplementation)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Two Different Levels of Dietary Protein on Body Composition and Protein Nutritional Status of Growing Rats
Nutrients 2012, 4(9), 1328-1337; doi:10.3390/nu4091328
Received: 9 August 2012 / Revised: 28 August 2012 / Accepted: 11 September 2012 / Published: 20 September 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (319 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the effect of a high-protein diet on growth, body composition, and protein nutritional status of young rats. Newly-weaned Wistar rats, weighing 45–50 g, were distributed in two experimental groups, according to their diets, which contained 12% (G12) or
[...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the effect of a high-protein diet on growth, body composition, and protein nutritional status of young rats. Newly-weaned Wistar rats, weighing 45–50 g, were distributed in two experimental groups, according to their diets, which contained 12% (G12) or 26% protein (G26), over a period of 3 weeks. The animals were euthanized at the end of this period and the following analyses were performed: chemical composition of the carcass, proteoglycan synthesis, IGF-I concentration (serum, muscle and cartilage), total tissue RNA, protein concentration (muscle and cartilage) and protein synthesis (muscle and cartilage). The high-protein diet was found to result in a higher fat-free mass and lower fat mass in the carcass, with no difference in growth or protein nutritional status. Full article

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Exercise-Induced Immunodepression in Endurance Athletes and Nutritional Intervention with Carbohydrate, Protein and Fat — What Is Possible, What Is Not?
Nutrients 2012, 4(9), 1187-1212; doi:10.3390/nu4091187
Received: 8 August 2012 / Revised: 23 August 2012 / Accepted: 24 August 2012 / Published: 4 September 2012
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (901 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Heavily exercising endurance athletes experience extreme physiologic stress, which is associated with temporary immunodepression and higher risk of infection, particularly upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). The aim of this review is to provide a critical up-to-date review of existing evidence on the immunomodulatory
[...] Read more.
Heavily exercising endurance athletes experience extreme physiologic stress, which is associated with temporary immunodepression and higher risk of infection, particularly upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). The aim of this review is to provide a critical up-to-date review of existing evidence on the immunomodulatory potential of selected macronutrients and to evaluate their efficacy. The results of 66 placebo-controlled and/or crossover trials were compared and analysed. Among macronutrients, the most effective approach to maintain immune function in athletes is to consume ≥6% carbohydrate during prolonged exercise. Because inadequate nutrition affects almost all aspects of the immune system, a well-balanced diet is also important. Evidence of beneficial effects from other macronutrients is scarce and results are often inconsistent. Using a single nutrient may not be as effective as a mixture of several nutritional supplements. Due to limited research evidence, with the exception of carbohydrate, no explicit recommendations to reduce post-exercise URTI symptoms with single macronutrients can be derived. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sports Nutrition)
Open AccessReview The Role of the Enteral Route and the Composition of Feeds in the Nutritional Support of Malnourished Surgical Patients
Nutrients 2012, 4(9), 1230-1236; doi:10.3390/nu4091230
Received: 24 July 2012 / Revised: 21 August 2012 / Accepted: 27 August 2012 / Published: 5 September 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (281 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In surgical patients, malnutrition is an important risk factor for post-operative complications. In undernourished patients undergoing major gastrointestinal procedures, preoperative enteral nutrition (EN) should be preferred whenever feasible. It may be given either orally or by feeding tubes, depending on patient compliance. Early
[...] Read more.
In surgical patients, malnutrition is an important risk factor for post-operative complications. In undernourished patients undergoing major gastrointestinal procedures, preoperative enteral nutrition (EN) should be preferred whenever feasible. It may be given either orally or by feeding tubes, depending on patient compliance. Early oral intake after surgery should be encouraged, but if an insufficient postoperative oral intake is anticipated, tube feeding should be initiated as soon as possible. The use of immunomodulating formulas offers significant advantages when compared to standard feeds and the positive results on postoperative complications seem independent from the baseline nutritional status. In malnourished patients, the optimal timing and dose of immunonutrition is unclear, but consistent data suggest that they should be treated peri-operatively for at least two weeks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enteral Nutrition)
Open AccessReview Consequences of Essential Fatty Acids
Nutrients 2012, 4(9), 1338-1357; doi:10.3390/nu4091338
Received: 20 June 2012 / Revised: 18 August 2012 / Accepted: 13 September 2012 / Published: 24 September 2012
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (517 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Essential fatty acids (EFA) are nutrients that form an amazingly large array of bioactive mediators that act on a large family of selective receptors. Nearly every cell and tissue in the human body expresses at least one of these receptors, allowing EFA-based signaling
[...] Read more.
Essential fatty acids (EFA) are nutrients that form an amazingly large array of bioactive mediators that act on a large family of selective receptors. Nearly every cell and tissue in the human body expresses at least one of these receptors, allowing EFA-based signaling to influence nearly every aspect of human physiology. In this way, the health consequences of specific gene-environment interactions with these nutrients are more extensive than often recognized. The metabolic transformations have similar competitive dynamics for the n-3 and n-6 homologs when converting dietary EFA from the external environment of foods into the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) esters that accumulate in the internal environment of cells and tissues. In contrast, the formation and action of bioactive mediators during tissue responses to stimuli tend to selectively create more intense consequences for n-6 than n-3 homologs. Both n-3 and n-6 nutrients have beneficial actions, but many common health disorders are undesired consequences of excessive actions of tissue n-6 HUFA which are preventable. This review considers the possibility of preventing imbalances in dietary n-3 and n-6 nutrients with informed voluntary food choices. That action may prevent the unintended consequences that come from eating imbalanced diets which support excessive chronic actions of n-6 mediators that harm human health. The consequences from preventing n-3 and n-6 nutrient imbalances on a nationwide scale may be very large, and they need careful evaluation and implementation to avoid further harmful consequences for the national economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Lipids: Sources, Function and Metabolism)

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