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Nutrients, Volume 6, Issue 2 (February 2014), Pages 466-921

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Open AccessArticle Protective Effect of Resveratrol on Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress Induced by Iron/Ascorbate in Mouse Spermatozoa
Nutrients 2014, 6(2), 489-503; doi:10.3390/nu6020489
Received: 25 November 2013 / Revised: 27 December 2013 / Accepted: 17 January 2014 / Published: 27 January 2014
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (411 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Resveratrol (RVT) is a polyphenolic compound found mainly in the grape and attributed with various pharmacological properties, among them their antioxidant activity. In the present study, we assess the antioxidant activity of resveratrol on oxidative damage induced by ferrous iron/ascorbate (100 µM/150 µM)
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Resveratrol (RVT) is a polyphenolic compound found mainly in the grape and attributed with various pharmacological properties, among them their antioxidant activity. In the present study, we assess the antioxidant activity of resveratrol on oxidative damage induced by ferrous iron/ascorbate (100 µM/150 µM) in sperm of CD1+ mice. We evaluated several parameters in spermatozoa treated with or without resveratrol: (i) sperm quality analysis; (ii) mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δѱm); (iii) ROS generation; (iv) superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity; (v) glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity; (vi) lipid peroxidation; (vii) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) capability. Spermatozoa treated with RVT (15 µg/mL) before ferrous iron/ascorbate treatment exhibited: a significant increase in motility (8-fold), a significant increase in viability (2-fold), a significant increase in Δѱm (1.15-fold), accompanied with a significant decrease in the generation of ROS (4.96-fold), a significant decrease in GPX activity (1.32-fold), and a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation concentration (10.29-fold) relative to spermatozoa treated with ferrous iron/ascorbate; however, no changes in SOD activity were observed. Finally, spermatozoa treated with RVT before ferrous iron/ascorbate treatment showed a significant increase in oocyte fertilization (1.2-fold), relative to spermatozoa treated with ferrous iron/ascorbate. These results suggest that RVT possesses antioxidant properties that may prevent the deleterious effects produced by oxidative damage on spermatozoa, resulting in the maintenance of fertility. Full article
Open AccessArticle Alcohol Consumption and Risk of Glioma: A Meta-Analysis of 19 Observational Studies
Nutrients 2014, 6(2), 504-516; doi:10.3390/nu6020504
Received: 25 October 2013 / Revised: 24 December 2013 / Accepted: 9 January 2014 / Published: 27 January 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (943 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The relationship between risk of glioma and alcohol consumption has been widely studied, but results have been conflicting. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies to systematically assess the relationship between alcohol drinking and risk of glioma. Two electronic databases (PubMed and
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The relationship between risk of glioma and alcohol consumption has been widely studied, but results have been conflicting. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies to systematically assess the relationship between alcohol drinking and risk of glioma. Two electronic databases (PubMed and EMBASE) were searched from inception to 8 August 2013 to identify pertinent studies that linked alcohol drinking with glioma risk. We used a random-effects model to calculate the overall relative risk (RR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Fifteen case-control and four cohort studies were identified for this analysis. The combined RR for total alcohol drinkers versus non-drinkers was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.89–1.04). In the subgroup analysis by geographic area, a significant association was observed in North American studies (RR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.65–0.93), but not in European or Asian/Australian studies. In the subgroup analysis by study design, a borderline significant association emerged in population-based case-control studies (RR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68–0.99), but not in hospital-based case-control studies (RR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.99–1.01) or cohort group (RR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.88–1.20). Our results show no material association between alcohol consumption and risk of glioma existed. Further prospective evidences are needed to confirm this association. Full article
Open AccessArticle Immunomodulatory Activity of Red Ginseng against Influenza A Virus Infection
Nutrients 2014, 6(2), 517-529; doi:10.3390/nu6020517
Received: 29 November 2013 / Revised: 13 January 2014 / Accepted: 17 January 2014 / Published: 27 January 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (2962 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ginseng herbal medicine has been known to have beneficial effects on improving human health. We investigated whether red ginseng extract (RGE) has preventive effects on influenza A virus infection in vivo and in vitro. RGE was found to improve survival of human
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Ginseng herbal medicine has been known to have beneficial effects on improving human health. We investigated whether red ginseng extract (RGE) has preventive effects on influenza A virus infection in vivo and in vitro. RGE was found to improve survival of human lung epithelial cells upon influenza virus infection. Also, RGE treatment reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory genes (IL-6, IL-8) probably in part through interference with the formation of reactive oxygen species by influenza A virus infection. Long-term oral administration of mice with RGE showed multiple immunomodulatory effects such as stimulating antiviral cytokine IFN-γ production after influenza A virus infection. In addition, RGE administration in mice inhibited the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the bronchial lumens. Therefore, RGE might have the potential beneficial effects on preventing influenza A virus infections via its multiple immunomodulatory functions. Full article
Open AccessArticle Low Blood Zinc, Iron, and Other Sociodemographic Factors Associated with Behavior Problems in Preschoolers
Nutrients 2014, 6(2), 530-545; doi:10.3390/nu6020530
Received: 25 November 2013 / Revised: 13 January 2014 / Accepted: 20 January 2014 / Published: 27 January 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (227 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Previous research supports the link among malnutrition, cognitive dysfunction, and behavioral outcomes; however, less research has focused on micronutrient deficiencies. This study investigates whether micronutrient deficiencies, specifically blood zinc and iron levels, will be associated with increased behavior problem scores, including internalizing and
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Previous research supports the link among malnutrition, cognitive dysfunction, and behavioral outcomes; however, less research has focused on micronutrient deficiencies. This study investigates whether micronutrient deficiencies, specifically blood zinc and iron levels, will be associated with increased behavior problem scores, including internalizing and externalizing behaviors. 1314 Children (55% boys and 45% girls) from the Jintan Preschool Cohort in China participated in this study. Venous blood samples were collected and analyzed for zinc and iron when the children were 3–5 years old. Behavior problems were measured with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), which was completed by the parents when children were in their last months of preschool (mean age 5.6 years). General linear multivariate modeling was used, with adjustment for important sociodemographic variables. The results indicate that low zinc levels alone (p = 0.024) and combined low zinc and iron levels (p = 0.022) are significantly associated with increased reports of total behavior problems. We did not find an association between low iron and behavior problems. With regards to sociodemographics, living in the suburbs is associated with increased internalizing problems, while higher mother’s education and being female were associated with decreased externalizing problems. This study suggests that micronutrient deficiencies and sociodemographic facts are associated with behavior problems in preschoolers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Nutrition) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Carotenoid Biosynthetic and Catabolic Pathways: Gene Expression and Carotenoid Content in Grains of Maize Landraces
Nutrients 2014, 6(2), 546-563; doi:10.3390/nu6020546
Received: 11 September 2013 / Revised: 19 November 2013 / Accepted: 10 December 2013 / Published: 28 January 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1877 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Plant carotenoids have been implicated in preventing several age-related diseases, and they also provide vitamin A precursors; therefore, increasing the content of carotenoids in maize grains is of great interest. It is not well understood, however, how the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway is regulated.
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Plant carotenoids have been implicated in preventing several age-related diseases, and they also provide vitamin A precursors; therefore, increasing the content of carotenoids in maize grains is of great interest. It is not well understood, however, how the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway is regulated. Fortunately, the maize germplasm exhibits a high degree of genetic diversity that can be exploited for this purpose. Here, the accumulation of carotenoids and the expression of genes from carotenoid metabolic and catabolic pathways were investigated in several maize landraces. The carotenoid content in grains varied from 10.03, in the white variety MC5, to 61.50 μg·g−1, in the yellow-to-orange variety MC3, and the major carotenoids detected were lutein and zeaxanthin. PSY1 (phythoene synthase) expression showed a positive correlation with the total carotenoid content. Additionally, the PSY1 and HYD3 (ferredoxin-dependent di-iron monooxygenase) expression levels were positively correlated with β-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin, while CYP97C (cytochrome P450-type monooxygenase) expression did not correlate with any of the carotenoids. In contrast, ZmCCD1 (carotenoid dioxygenase) was more highly expressed at the beginning of grain development, as well as in the white variety, and its expression was inversely correlated with the accumulation of several carotenoids, suggesting that CCD1 is also an important enzyme to be considered when attempting to improve the carotenoid content in maize. The MC27 and MC1 varieties showed the highest HYD3/CYP97C ratios, suggesting that they are promising candidates for increasing the zeaxanthin content; in contrast, MC14 and MC7 showed low HYD3/CYP97C, suggesting that they may be useful in biofortification efforts aimed at promoting the accumulation of provitamin A. The results of this study demonstrate the use of maize germplasm to provide insight into the regulation of genes involved in the carotenoid pathway, which would thus better enable us to select promising varieties for biofortification efforts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin A and Carotenoids)
Open AccessArticle Protective Effect of Wheat Peptides against Indomethacin-Induced Oxidative Stress in IEC-6 Cells
Nutrients 2014, 6(2), 564-574; doi:10.3390/nu6020564
Received: 30 September 2013 / Revised: 23 December 2013 / Accepted: 10 January 2014 / Published: 29 January 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (264 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent studies have demonstrated that wheat peptides protected rats against non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-induced small intestinal epithelial cells damage, but the mechanism of action is unclear. In the present study, an indomethacin-induced oxidative stress model was used to investigate the effect of wheat peptides
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Recent studies have demonstrated that wheat peptides protected rats against non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-induced small intestinal epithelial cells damage, but the mechanism of action is unclear. In the present study, an indomethacin-induced oxidative stress model was used to investigate the effect of wheat peptides on the nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB)-inducible nitric oxide synthase-nitric oxide signal pathway in intestinal epithelial cells-6 cells. IEC-6 cells were treated with wheat peptides (0, 125, 500 and 2000 mg/L) for 24 h, followed by 90 mg/L indomethacin for 12 h. Wheat peptides significantly attenuated the indomethacin-induced decrease in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity. Wheat peptides at 2000 mg/L markedly decreased the expression of the NF-κB in response to indomethacin-induced oxidative stress. This study demonstrated that the addition of wheat peptides to a culture medium significantly inhibited the indomethacin-induced release of malondialdehyde and nitrogen monoxide, and increased antioxidant enzyme activity in IEC-6 cells, thereby providing a possible explanation for the protective effect proposed for wheat peptides in the prevention of indomethacin-induced oxidative stress in small intestinal epithelial cells. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effect of Fructooligosaccharides Fraction from Psacalium decompositum on Inflammation and Dyslipidemia in Rats with Fructose-Induced Obesity
Nutrients 2014, 6(2), 591-604; doi:10.3390/nu6020591
Received: 20 October 2013 / Revised: 18 December 2013 / Accepted: 27 December 2013 / Published: 29 January 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (743 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Psacalium decompositum, commonly known as “Matarique,” is a medicinal plant used in Mexico for diabetes mellitus empirical therapy. Previous studies have shown that the fructooligosaccharides (FOS) present in the roots of this plant exhibit a notable hypoglycemic effect in animal models; this
[...] Read more.
Psacalium decompositum, commonly known as “Matarique,” is a medicinal plant used in Mexico for diabetes mellitus empirical therapy. Previous studies have shown that the fructooligosaccharides (FOS) present in the roots of this plant exhibit a notable hypoglycemic effect in animal models; this effect might be associated with the attenuation of the inflammatory process and other metabolic disorders. In this study, we examined the effects of FOS fraction administration in a fructose-fed rat model for obesity. Phytochemical chromatographic studies (high performance thin layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance) were performed to verify isolation of FOS. 24 male Wistar rats were maintained for 12 weeks on a diet of 20% HFCS in drinking water and chow. Glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and liver transaminases levels were measured monthly, after administering FOS fraction intragastrically (150 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks), while the levels of inflammatory cytokines were only quantified at the end of the treatments. Rats treated with FOS fraction decreased body weight, cholesterol, triglycerides, and significantly reduced IL-6, IFN-γ, MCP-1, IL-1β and VEGF levels (p < 0.05). These results suggest that P. decompositum has anti-inflammatory and hypolipidemic properties that might be used as an alternative treatment for the control of obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eating Disorder and Obesity)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Beetroot Juice Supplementation on Aerobic Response during Swimming
Nutrients 2014, 6(2), 605-615; doi:10.3390/nu6020605
Received: 29 November 2013 / Revised: 9 January 2014 / Accepted: 17 January 2014 / Published: 29 January 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (262 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The beneficial effects of beetroot juice supplementation (BJS) have been tested during cycling, walking, and running. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether BJS can also improve performance in swimmers. Fourteen moderately trained male master swimmers were recruited and underwent
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The beneficial effects of beetroot juice supplementation (BJS) have been tested during cycling, walking, and running. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether BJS can also improve performance in swimmers. Fourteen moderately trained male master swimmers were recruited and underwent two incremental swimming tests randomly assigned in a pool during which workload, oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), pulmonary ventilation (VE), and aerobic energy cost (AEC) of swimming were measured. One was a control swimming test (CSW) and the other a swimming test after six days of BJS (0.5l/day organic beetroot juice containing about 5.5 mmol of NO3). Results show that workload at anaerobic threshold was significantly increased by BJS as compared to the CSW test (6.3 ± 1 and 6.7 ± 1.1 kg during the CSW and the BJS test respectively). Moreover, AEC was significantly reduced during the BJS test (1.9 ± 0.5 during the SW test vs. 1.7 ± 0.3 kcal·kg−1·h−1 during the BJS test). The other variables lacked a statistically significant effect with BJS. The present investigation provides evidence that BJS positively affects performance of swimmers as it reduces the AEC and increases the workload at anaerobic threshold. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Performance Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle A High-Fat Diet Differentially Affects the Gut Metabolism and Blood Lipids of Rats Depending on the Type of Dietary Fat and Carbohydrate
Nutrients 2014, 6(2), 616-626; doi:10.3390/nu6020616
Received: 25 September 2013 / Revised: 27 December 2013 / Accepted: 17 January 2014 / Published: 3 February 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (236 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated) and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex). The experiment was conducted using 32
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The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated) and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex). The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet) as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet) as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats. Full article
Open AccessArticle Caffeine Reduces Reaction Time and Improves Performance in Simulated-Contest of Taekwondo
Nutrients 2014, 6(2), 637-649; doi:10.3390/nu6020637
Received: 27 December 2013 / Revised: 24 January 2014 / Accepted: 28 January 2014 / Published: 10 February 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (256 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of caffeine on reaction time during a specific taekwondo task and athletic performance during a simulated taekwondo contest. Ten taekwondo athletes ingested either 5 mg·kg−1 body mass caffeine or placebo and performed
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of caffeine on reaction time during a specific taekwondo task and athletic performance during a simulated taekwondo contest. Ten taekwondo athletes ingested either 5 mg·kg−1 body mass caffeine or placebo and performed two combats (spaced apart by 20 min). The reaction-time test (five kicks “Bandal Tchagui”) was performed immediately prior to the first combat and immediately after the first and second combats. Caffeine improved reaction time (from 0.42 ± 0.05 to 0.37 ± 0.07 s) only prior to the first combat (P = 0.004). During the first combat, break times during the first two rounds were shorter in caffeine ingestion, followed by higher plasma lactate concentrations compared with placebo (P = 0.029 and 0.014, respectively). During the second combat, skipping-time was reduced, and relative attack times and attack/skipping ratio was increased following ingestion of caffeine during the first two rounds (all P < 0.05). Caffeine resulted in no change in combat intensity parameters between the first and second combat (all P > 0.05), but combat intensity was decreased following placebo (all P < 0.05). In conclusion, caffeine reduced reaction time in non-fatigued conditions and delayed fatigue during successive taekwondo combats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Performance Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle A High-Dose Shiitake Mushroom Increases Hepatic Accumulation of Triacylglycerol in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet: Underlying Mechanism
Nutrients 2014, 6(2), 650-662; doi:10.3390/nu6020650
Received: 13 December 2013 / Revised: 7 January 2014 / Accepted: 22 January 2014 / Published: 12 February 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1422 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Shiitake mushroom have been shown to have health benefits including lowering plasma lipids and preventing body weight gain. However, their underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. The study aim was to assess the potential underlying mechanism of Shiitake mushrooms in lowering plasma triacylglycerol (TAG)
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Shiitake mushroom have been shown to have health benefits including lowering plasma lipids and preventing body weight gain. However, their underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. The study aim was to assess the potential underlying mechanism of Shiitake mushrooms in lowering plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) in rats fed a high fat diet (HFD). Forty Wistar rats were divided into control group were given HFD and treatment group were fed HFD, enriched with Shiitake mushroom powder at a low dose (LD-M): 0.7%, medium dose (MD-M): 2%, or high dose (HD-M): 6% (wt:wt) for six weeks. Diets were isocaloric containing ~50% energy from fat. After six weeks’ dietary intervention, the rats were sacrificed, and blood and tissue samples were collected. The HD-M group showed a significantly higher ratio of liver weight to 100 g body weight (p < 0.05), a more severe hepatic steatosis marker, such as hepatocyte ballooning (p < 0.0001), and more liver triacylglycerol content than LD-M and MD-M (p < 0.05). HD-M also showed a significantly decreased ratio of phosphatidylcholine (PC) to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) compared to HFD (p < 0.05), however, there were no differences compared to HD-M and MD-M. Our results also showed a positive association between the dosage, liver TAG, and liver ballooning histology. A negative association was found between the mushroom dosage and the ratio of liver PC to PE. This study showed the mechanism of how high-dose Shiitake mushroom (HD-M) prevents obesity by increasing TAG accumulation in the liver, rather than adipose tissue. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Comparison of Regular Consumption of Fresh Lean Pork, Beef and Chicken on Body Composition: A Randomized Cross-Over Trial
Nutrients 2014, 6(2), 682-696; doi:10.3390/nu6020682
Received: 15 January 2014 / Revised: 7 February 2014 / Accepted: 7 February 2014 / Published: 14 February 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (338 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world and recent evidence shows that diets high in pork protein, with and without energy restriction, may have favourable effects on body composition. However, it is unclear whether these effects on body composition are
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Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world and recent evidence shows that diets high in pork protein, with and without energy restriction, may have favourable effects on body composition. However, it is unclear whether these effects on body composition are specific to pork or whether consumption of other high protein meat diets may have the same benefit. Therefore we aimed to compare regular consumption of pork, beef and chicken on indices of adiposity. In a nine month randomised open-labelled cross-over intervention trial, 49 overweight or obese adults were randomly assigned to consume up to 1 kg/week of pork, chicken or beef, in an otherwise unrestricted diet for three months, followed by two further three month periods consuming each of the alternative meat options. BMI and waist/hip circumference were measured and body composition was determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intake was assessed using three day weighed food diaries. Energy expenditure was estimated from activity diaries. There was no difference in BMI or any other marker of adiposity between consumption of pork, beef and chicken diets. Similarly there were no differences in energy or nutrient intakes between diets. After three months, regular consumption of lean pork meat as compared to that of beef and chicken results in similar changes in markers of adiposity of overweight and obese Australian middle-aged men and women. Full article
Open AccessArticle An Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. Inhibits Human Macrophage Cytokine Production Induced by Cigarette Smoke
Nutrients 2014, 6(2), 697-710; doi:10.3390/nu6020697
Received: 27 December 2013 / Revised: 26 January 2014 / Accepted: 29 January 2014 / Published: 18 February 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (365 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO) has been reported to harbor anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory activity and useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, despite these findings there has been little work done on the effects of MO on immune cellular function. Since macrophages, TNF
[...] Read more.
Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO) has been reported to harbor anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory activity and useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, despite these findings there has been little work done on the effects of MO on immune cellular function. Since macrophages, TNF and related cytokines play an important pathophysiologic role in lung damage induced by cigarette smoke, we examined the effects of MO on cigarette smoke extract (CSE)—induced cytokine production by human macrophages. An ethyl acetate fraction of MO (MOEF) was prepared from fresh leaves extract of Moringa and shown to consist of high levels of phenolic and antioxidant activities. Human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) pre-treated with varying concentrations of MOEF showed decreased production of TNF, IL-6 and IL-8 in response to both LPS and CSE. The decrease was evident at both cytokine protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, the extract inhibited the expression of RelA, a gene implicated in the NF-κB p65 signaling in inflammation. The findings highlight the ability of MOEF to inhibit cytokines (IL-8) which promote the infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs and others (TNF, IL-6) which mediate tissue disease and damage. Full article
Open AccessArticle Predictors of Breastfeeding Duration among Women in Kuwait: Results of a Prospective Cohort Study
Nutrients 2014, 6(2), 711-728; doi:10.3390/nu6020711
Received: 20 January 2014 / Revised: 28 January 2014 / Accepted: 8 February 2014 / Published: 20 February 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (232 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purposes of this paper are to report the prevalence of breastfeeding to six months among women in Kuwait and to determine the factors that are associated with the duration of breastfeeding. A cohort of 373 women recruited from maternity wards in four
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The purposes of this paper are to report the prevalence of breastfeeding to six months among women in Kuwait and to determine the factors that are associated with the duration of breastfeeding. A cohort of 373 women recruited from maternity wards in four hospitals in Kuwait city were followed from birth to 26 weeks postpartum. The association of any and full breastfeeding duration and predictor variables were explored using multivariate Cox’s proportional hazards models. At six months, 39% of all infants were receiving some breast milk and only 2% of infants had been fully breastfed to 26 weeks. Women born in other Arab countries were less likely to discontinue breastfeeding than women born in Kuwait. Other factors positively associated with breastfeeding duration were level of maternal education, higher parity, infant being demand fed in hospital and a preference for breastfeeding on the part of the infant’s father and maternal grandmother. The introduction of a pacifier before four weeks of age and the mother intending to return to work by six months were negatively associated with duration. These findings present a number of opportunities for prolonging breastfeeding duration in Kuwait. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Nutrition) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Characterization of Oilseed Lipids from “DHA-Producing Camelina sativa”: A New Transformed Land Plant Containing Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils
Nutrients 2014, 6(2), 776-789; doi:10.3390/nu6020776
Received: 23 December 2013 / Revised: 28 January 2014 / Accepted: 10 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (210 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
New and sustainable sources of long-chain (LC, ≥C20) omega-3 oils containing DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6ω3) are required to meet increasing demands. The lipid content of the oilseed of a novel transgenic, DHA-producing land plant, Camelina sativa, containing microalgal genes able
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New and sustainable sources of long-chain (LC, ≥C20) omega-3 oils containing DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6ω3) are required to meet increasing demands. The lipid content of the oilseed of a novel transgenic, DHA-producing land plant, Camelina sativa, containing microalgal genes able to produce LC omega-3 oils, contained 36% lipid by weight with triacylglycerols (TAG) as the major lipid class in hexane extracts (96% of total lipid). Subsequent chloroform-methanol (CM) extraction recovered further lipid (~50% polar lipid, comprising glycolipids and phospholipids) and residual TAG. The main phospholipid species were phosphatidyl choline and phosphatidyl ethanolamine. The % DHA was: 6.8% (of total fatty acids) in the TAG-rich hexane extract and 4.2% in the polar lipid-rich CM extract. The relative level of ALA (α-linolenic acid, 18:3ω3) in DHA-camelina seed was higher than the control. Major sterols in both DHA- and control camelina seeds were: sitosterol, campesterol, cholesterol, brassicasterol and isofucosterol. C16–C22 fatty alcohols, including iso-branched and odd-chain alcohols were present, including high levels of iso-17:0, 17:0 and 19:0. Other alcohols present were: 16:0, iso-18:0, 18:0 and 18:1 and the proportions varied between the hexane and CM extracts. These iso-branched odd-chain fatty alcohols, to our knowledge, have not been previously reported. These components may be derived from wax esters, or free fatty alcohols. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nutrients Utilization in Obese Individuals with and without Hypertriglyceridemia
Nutrients 2014, 6(2), 790-798; doi:10.3390/nu6020790
Received: 18 December 2013 / Revised: 23 January 2014 / Accepted: 12 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Low fat utilization is linked to weight gain and to the presence of certain atherosclerosis markers. It is not clear whether the presence of hyperlipidemia can further affect nutrients utilization. The main objective of this study was to investigate the fasting fuel
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Background: Low fat utilization is linked to weight gain and to the presence of certain atherosclerosis markers. It is not clear whether the presence of hyperlipidemia can further affect nutrients utilization. The main objective of this study was to investigate the fasting fuel utilization of obese subjects suffering from hypertriglyceridemia, and to compare it with that of individuals that are solely obese. Method: We recruited 20 obese individuals with hypertriglyceridemia and 20 matched individuals not affected by hypertriglyceridemia. The fuel utilization (respiratory quotient) was measured by respiratory gas exchange, by Indirect Calorimetry. Results: There was a significant difference in fuel utilization and HDL-cholesterol between cases and controls (respiratory quotient 0.89 ± 0.07 vs. 0.84 ± 0.06; p = 0.020 respectively). The univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis confirmed that hypertrygliceridemia was positively correlated to the respiratory quotient (p = 0.035). Conclusion: obese subjects with hypertriglyceridemia had a higher respiratory quotient in comparison to unaffected subjects. This could suggest a limitation in the beta-oxidation mechanisms; this could actually imply that fatty acids may be redirected from oxidation to reesterification into triglycerides. The study could suggest the presence of different mechanisms unrelated to obesity and also a potential new therapeutic target for hypertriglyceridemia management. Full article
Open AccessArticle Prevalence of Dietary Supplement Use in Healthy Pre-School Chinese Children in Australia and China
Nutrients 2014, 6(2), 815-828; doi:10.3390/nu6020815
Received: 13 December 2013 / Revised: 10 February 2014 / Accepted: 11 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (220 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is a growing use of dietary supplements in many countries including China. This study aimed to document the prevalence of dietary supplements use and characteristics of Chinese pre-school children using dietary supplements in Australia and China. A survey was carried out in
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There is a growing use of dietary supplements in many countries including China. This study aimed to document the prevalence of dietary supplements use and characteristics of Chinese pre-school children using dietary supplements in Australia and China. A survey was carried out in Perth, Western Australia of 237 mothers with children under five years old and 2079 in Chengdu and Wuhan, China. A total of 22.6% and 32.4% of the Chinese children were taking dietary supplements in Australia and China, respectively. In China, the most commonly used dietary supplements were calcium (58.5%) and zinc (40.4%), while in Australia, the most frequently used types were multi-vitamins/minerals (46.2%) and fish oil (42.3%). In Australia, “not working”, “never breastfeed”, “higher education level of the mother” and “older age of the child” were associated with dietary supplement use in children. In China, being unwell and “having higher household income” were significantly related to dietary supplement usage. Because of the unknown effects of many supplements on growth and development and the potential for adverse drug interactions, parents should exercise caution when giving their infants or young children dietary supplements. Wherever possible it is preferable to achieve nutrient intakes from a varied diet rather than from supplements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Nutrition) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Montmorency Cherries Reduce the Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Responses to Repeated Days High-Intensity Stochastic Cycling
Nutrients 2014, 6(2), 829-843; doi:10.3390/nu6020829
Received: 18 January 2014 / Revised: 9 February 2014 / Accepted: 11 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (326 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This investigation examined the impact of Montmorency tart cherry concentrate (MC) on physiological indices of oxidative stress, inflammation and muscle damage across 3 days simulated road cycle racing. Trained cyclists (n = 16) were divided into equal groups and consumed 30 mL
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This investigation examined the impact of Montmorency tart cherry concentrate (MC) on physiological indices of oxidative stress, inflammation and muscle damage across 3 days simulated road cycle racing. Trained cyclists (n = 16) were divided into equal groups and consumed 30 mL of MC or placebo (PLA), twice per day for seven consecutive days. A simulated, high-intensity, stochastic road cycling trial, lasting 109 min, was completed on days 5, 6 and 7. Oxidative stress and inflammation were measured from blood samples collected at baseline and immediately pre- and post-trial on days 5, 6 and 7. Analyses for lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-1-beta (IL-1-β), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and creatine kinase (CK) were conducted. LOOH (p < 0.01), IL-6 (p < 0.05) and hsCRP (p < 0.05) responses to trials were lower in the MC group versus PLA. No group or interaction effects were found for the other markers. The attenuated oxidative and inflammatory responses suggest MC may be efficacious in combating post-exercise oxidative and inflammatory cascades that can contribute to cellular disruption. Additionally, we demonstrate direct application for MC in repeated days cycling and conceivably other sporting scenario’s where back-to-back performances are required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Performance Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Estimated Levels of Gluten Incidentally Present in a Canadian Gluten-Free Diet
Nutrients 2014, 6(2), 881-896; doi:10.3390/nu6020881
Received: 3 January 2014 / Revised: 30 January 2014 / Accepted: 7 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (217 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Avoiding exposure to gluten is currently the only effective treatment for celiac disease. However, the evidence suggests that for most affected individuals, exposure to less than 10 mg/day is unlikely to cause histological changes to the intestinal mucosa. The daily diet of people
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Avoiding exposure to gluten is currently the only effective treatment for celiac disease. However, the evidence suggests that for most affected individuals, exposure to less than 10 mg/day is unlikely to cause histological changes to the intestinal mucosa. The daily diet of people with celiac disease does not rely solely on gluten-free pre-packaged foods, but also on naturally gluten-free grains (e.g., rice, buckwheat, ...) and foods with grain-derived ingredients (i.e., flour and starches) used for cooking and baking at home. The objective of this study was to estimate the level of incidental gluten potentially present in gluten-free diets from a Canadian perspective. We have conducted gluten exposure estimations from grain-containing foods and foods with grain-derived ingredients, taking into consideration the various rates of food consumption by different sex and age groups. These estimates have concluded that if gluten was present at levels not exceeding 20 ppm, exposure to gluten would remain below 10 mg per day for all age groups studied. However, in reality the level of gluten found in naturally gluten-free ingredients is not static and there may be some concerns related to the flours made from naturally gluten-free cereal grains. It was found that those containing a higher level of fiber and that are frequently used to prepare daily foods by individuals with celiac disease could be a concern. For this category of products, only the flours and starches labelled “gluten-free” should be used for home-made preparations. Full article
Open AccessArticle Supplement Timing of Cranberry Extract Plays a Key Role in Promoting Caenorhabditis elegans Healthspan
Nutrients 2014, 6(2), 911-921; doi:10.3390/nu6020911
Received: 25 November 2013 / Revised: 20 December 2013 / Accepted: 11 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (415 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Consumption of nutraceuticals is a major and potent dietary intervention for delaying aging. As the timing of administration is critical for the efficacy of bioactive compounds in medicine, the effectiveness of nutraceuticals may also be dramatically affected by the timing of supplementation. Cranberry
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Consumption of nutraceuticals is a major and potent dietary intervention for delaying aging. As the timing of administration is critical for the efficacy of bioactive compounds in medicine, the effectiveness of nutraceuticals may also be dramatically affected by the timing of supplementation. Cranberry exact (CBE), rich in polyphenols, is consumed as a nutraceutical, and possesses anti-aging properties. Here, we examined the influence of timing on the beneficial effects of CBE supplementation in C. elegans. The prolongevity effect of CBE in different aged worms, young adults, middle-age adults, and aged adults, was determined. Early-start intervention with CBE prolonged the remaining lifespan of worms of different ages more robustly than late-start intervention. The effectiveness of CBE on stress responses and physiological behaviors in different aged worms was also investigated. The early-start intervention prominently promoted motility and resistance to heat shocks and V. cholera infection, especially in aged worms. Together, these findings suggest that the timing of CBE supplementation critically influences its beneficial effects on C. elegans lifespan and healthspan. It is of interest to further investigate whether the similar results would occur in humans. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Potential Role of Carotenoids as Antioxidants in Human Health and Disease
Nutrients 2014, 6(2), 466-488; doi:10.3390/nu6020466
Received: 2 December 2013 / Revised: 19 December 2013 / Accepted: 2 January 2014 / Published: 27 January 2014
Cited by 73 | PDF Full-text (292 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carotenoids constitute a ubiquitous group of isoprenoid pigments. They are very efficient physical quenchers of singlet oxygen and scavengers of other reactive oxygen species. Carotenoids can also act as chemical quenchers undergoing irreversible oxygenation. The molecular mechanisms underlying these reactions are still not
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Carotenoids constitute a ubiquitous group of isoprenoid pigments. They are very efficient physical quenchers of singlet oxygen and scavengers of other reactive oxygen species. Carotenoids can also act as chemical quenchers undergoing irreversible oxygenation. The molecular mechanisms underlying these reactions are still not fully understood, especially in the context of the anti- and pro-oxidant activity of carotenoids, which, although not synthesized by humans and animals, are also present in their blood and tissues, contributing to a number of biochemical processes. The antioxidant potential of carotenoids is of particular significance to human health, due to the fact that losing antioxidant-reactive oxygen species balance results in “oxidative stress”, a critical factor of the pathogenic processes of various chronic disorders. Data coming from epidemiological studies and clinical trials strongly support the observation that adequate carotenoid supplementation may significantly reduce the risk of several disorders mediated by reactive oxygen species. Here, we would like to highlight the beneficial (protective) effects of dietary carotenoid intake in exemplary widespread modern civilization diseases, i.e., cancer, cardiovascular or photosensitivity disorders, in the context of carotenoids’ unique antioxidative properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin A and Carotenoids)
Open AccessReview Cereal-Based Gluten-Free Food: How to Reconcile Nutritional and Technological Properties of Wheat Proteins with Safety for Celiac Disease Patients
Nutrients 2014, 6(2), 575-590; doi:10.3390/nu6020575
Received: 11 November 2013 / Revised: 17 January 2014 / Accepted: 17 January 2014 / Published: 29 January 2014
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (511 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The gluten-free diet is, to date, the only efficacious treatment for patients with Celiac Disease. In recent years, the impressive rise of Celiac Disease incidence, dramatically prompted changes in the dietary habit of an increasingly large population, with a rise in demand of
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The gluten-free diet is, to date, the only efficacious treatment for patients with Celiac Disease. In recent years, the impressive rise of Celiac Disease incidence, dramatically prompted changes in the dietary habit of an increasingly large population, with a rise in demand of gluten-free products. The formulation of gluten-free bakery products presents a formidable challenge to cereal technologists. As wheat gluten contributes to the formation of a strong protein network, that confers visco-elasticity to the dough and allows the wheat flour to be processed into a wide range of products, the preparation of cereal-based gluten-free products is a somehow difficult process. This review focuses on nutritional and technological quality of products made with gluten-free cereals available on the market. The possibility of using flour from naturally low toxic ancient wheat species or detoxified wheat for the diet of celiacs is also discussed. Full article
Open AccessReview Nutritional Strategies for the Preservation of Fat Free Mass at High Altitude
Nutrients 2014, 6(2), 665-681; doi:10.3390/nu6020665
Received: 14 January 2014 / Revised: 22 January 2014 / Accepted: 23 January 2014 / Published: 13 February 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (272 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Exposure to extreme altitude presents many physiological challenges. In addition to impaired physical and cognitive function, energy imbalance invariably occurs resulting in weight loss and body composition changes. Weight loss, and in particular, loss of fat free mass, combined with the inherent risks
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Exposure to extreme altitude presents many physiological challenges. In addition to impaired physical and cognitive function, energy imbalance invariably occurs resulting in weight loss and body composition changes. Weight loss, and in particular, loss of fat free mass, combined with the inherent risks associated with extreme environments presents potential performance, safety, and health risks for those working, recreating, or conducting military operations at extreme altitude. In this review, contributors to muscle wasting at altitude are highlighted with special emphasis on protein turnover. The article will conclude with nutritional strategies that may potentially attenuate loss of fat free mass during high altitude exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Performance Nutrition)
Figures

Open AccessReview Omega-3 Index and Cardiovascular Health
Nutrients 2014, 6(2), 799-814; doi:10.3390/nu6020799
Received: 20 January 2014 / Revised: 12 February 2014 / Accepted: 13 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (216 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent large trials with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the cardiovascular field did not demonstrate a beneficial effect in terms of reductions of clinical endpoints like total mortality, sudden cardiac arrest or other major adverse cardiac events. Pertinent guidelines do
[...] Read more.
Recent large trials with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the cardiovascular field did not demonstrate a beneficial effect in terms of reductions of clinical endpoints like total mortality, sudden cardiac arrest or other major adverse cardiac events. Pertinent guidelines do not uniformly recommend EPA + DHA for cardiac patients. In contrast, in epidemiologic findings, higher blood levels of EPA + DHA were consistently associated with a lower risk for the endpoints mentioned. Because of low biological and analytical variability, a standardized analytical procedure, a large database and for other reasons, blood levels of EPA + DHA are frequently assessed in erythrocytes, using the HS-Omega-3 Index® methodology. A low Omega-3 Index fulfills the current criteria for a novel cardiovascular risk factor. Neutral results of intervention trials can be explained by issues of bioavailability and trial design that surfaced after the trials were initiated. In the future, incorporating the Omega-3 Index into trial designs by recruiting participants with a low Omega-3 Index and treating them within a pre-specified target range (e.g., 8%–11%), will make more efficient trials possible and provide clearer answers to the questions asked than previously possible. Full article
Open AccessReview Cocoa Polyphenols and Inflammatory Markers of Cardiovascular Disease
Nutrients 2014, 6(2), 844-880; doi:10.3390/nu6020844
Received: 29 November 2013 / Revised: 30 December 2013 / Accepted: 6 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (515 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of plant-derived food intake in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The potential bioactivity of cocoa and its polyphenolic components in modulating cardiovascular health is now being studied worldwide and continues to grow at a
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Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of plant-derived food intake in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The potential bioactivity of cocoa and its polyphenolic components in modulating cardiovascular health is now being studied worldwide and continues to grow at a rapid pace. In fact, the high polyphenol content of cocoa is of particular interest from the nutritional and pharmacological viewpoints. Cocoa polyphenols are shown to possess a range of cardiovascular-protective properties, and can play a meaningful role through modulating different inflammatory markers involved in atherosclerosis. Accumulated evidence on related anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa polyphenols is summarized in the present review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chocolate and Cocoa in Human Health)

Other

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Open AccessShort Communication trans-11 18:1 Vaccenic Acid (TVA) Has a Direct Anti-Carcinogenic Effect on MCF-7 Human Mammary Adenocarcinoma Cells
Nutrients 2014, 6(2), 627-636; doi:10.3390/nu6020627
Received: 2 December 2013 / Revised: 18 December 2013 / Accepted: 23 January 2014 / Published: 10 February 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (450 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Trans vaccenic acid (TVA; trans-11 18:1) is a positional and geometric isomer of oleic acid and it is the predominant trans isomer found in ruminant fats. TVA can be converted into cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (c9, t11-CLA), a CLA
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Trans vaccenic acid (TVA; trans-11 18:1) is a positional and geometric isomer of oleic acid and it is the predominant trans isomer found in ruminant fats. TVA can be converted into cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (c9, t11-CLA), a CLA isomer that has many beneficial effects, by stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) in the mammary gland. The health benefits associated with CLA are well documented, but it is unclear whether trans fatty acids (TFAs) from ruminant products have healthy effects. Therefore, the effects of TVA on the proliferation of MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells and MCF-10A human breast epithelial cells were investigated in the present study. Results showed that TVA inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells but not MCF-10A cells by down-regulating the expression of Bcl-2 as well as procaspase-9. In addition, the suppressive effect of TVA was confirmed in SCD1-depleted MCF-7 cells. Our results suggested that TVA exerts a direct anti-carcinogenic effect on MCF-7 cells. These findings provided a better understanding of the research on the anti-carcinogenic effects of TVA and this may facilitate the manufacture of TVA/c9, t11-CLA fortified ruminant products. Full article
Open AccessCorrection Barclay, A.W. and Brand-Miller, J. The Australian Paradox: A Substantial Decline in Sugars Intake over the Same Timeframe that Overweight and Obesity Have Increased. Nutrients 2011, 3, 491-504
Nutrients 2014, 6(2), 663-664; doi:10.3390/nu6020663
Received: 10 February 2014 / Accepted: 11 February 2014 / Published: 12 February 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (131 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have found three inadvertent errors in our paper published in Nutrients [1]. Ÿ   On page 498, text line 8, the words in brackets “~600 g per person per year, Figure 6” should be amended to “~600 g per person, Figure 6”.
[...] Read more.
We have found three inadvertent errors in our paper published in Nutrients [1]. Ÿ   On page 498, text line 8, the words in brackets “~600 g per person per year, Figure 6” should be amended to “~600 g per person, Figure 6”. Ÿ   On page 500, text line 17, some words were missing. The amended sentence reads “Food industry data indicate that per capita sales of low calorie (non-nutritively sweetened) beverages doubled from 1994 to 2006 while market share of nutritively sweetened beverages decreased by 10% points.” Ÿ   On page 502, line 2, the words “increasing by 300%” should be amended to “increasing 3-fold”. These changes have no material impact on the conclusions of our paper. We apologize to our readers. [...] Full article
Open AccessSpecial Report Vitamin D Deficiency in India: Prevalence, Causalities and Interventions
Nutrients 2014, 6(2), 729-775; doi:10.3390/nu6020729
Received: 16 November 2013 / Revised: 28 January 2014 / Accepted: 28 January 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 37 | PDF Full-text (348 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamin D deficiency prevails in epidemic proportions all over the Indian subcontinent, with a prevalence of 70%–100% in the general population. In India, widely consumed food items such as dairy products are rarely fortified with vitamin D. Indian socioreligious and cultural practices do
[...] Read more.
Vitamin D deficiency prevails in epidemic proportions all over the Indian subcontinent, with a prevalence of 70%–100% in the general population. In India, widely consumed food items such as dairy products are rarely fortified with vitamin D. Indian socioreligious and cultural practices do not facilitate adequate sun exposure, thereby negating potential benefits of plentiful sunshine. Consequently, subclinical vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in both urban and rural settings, and across all socioeconomic and geographic strata. Vitamin D deficiency is likely to play an important role in the very high prevalence of rickets, osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer and infections such as tuberculosis in India. Fortification of staple foods with vitamin D is the most viable population based strategy to achieve vitamin D sufficiency. Unfortunately, even in advanced countries like USA and Canada, food fortification strategies with vitamin D have been only partially effective and have largely failed to attain vitamin D sufficiency. This article reviews the status of vitamin D nutrition in the Indian subcontinent and also the underlying causes for this epidemic. Implementation of population based educational and interventional strategies to combat this scourge require recognition of vitamin D deficiency as a public health problem by the governing bodies so that healthcare funds can be allocated appropriately. Full article
Open AccessCommentary Meat Consumption as a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes
Nutrients 2014, 6(2), 897-910; doi:10.3390/nu6020897
Received: 30 December 2013 / Revised: 4 February 2014 / Accepted: 11 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (207 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Disease risk factors identified in epidemiological studies serve as important public health tools, helping clinicians identify individuals who may benefit from more aggressive screening or risk-modification procedures, allowing policymakers to prioritize intervention programs, and encouraging at-risk individuals to modify behavior and improve their
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Disease risk factors identified in epidemiological studies serve as important public health tools, helping clinicians identify individuals who may benefit from more aggressive screening or risk-modification procedures, allowing policymakers to prioritize intervention programs, and encouraging at-risk individuals to modify behavior and improve their health. These factors have been based primarily on evidence from cross-sectional and prospective studies, as most do not lend themselves to randomized trials. While some risk factors are not modifiable, eating habits are subject to change through both individual action and broader policy initiatives. Meat consumption has been frequently investigated as a variable associated with diabetes risk, but it has not yet been described as a diabetes risk factor. In this article, we evaluate the evidence supporting the use of meat consumption as a clinically useful risk factor for type 2 diabetes, based on studies evaluating the risks associated with meat consumption as a categorical dietary characteristic (i.e., meat consumption versus no meat consumption), as a scalar variable (i.e., gradations of meat consumption), or as part of a broader dietary pattern. Full article

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