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Nutrients, Volume 6, Issue 7 (July 2014), Pages 2493-2986

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Open AccessArticle The Effects of a Ketogenic Diet on Exercise Metabolism and Physical Performance in Off-Road Cyclists
Nutrients 2014, 6(7), 2493-2508; doi:10.3390/nu6072493
Received: 14 April 2014 / Revised: 8 June 2014 / Accepted: 9 June 2014 / Published: 27 June 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (294 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The main objective of this research was to determine the effects of a long-term ketogenic diet, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, on aerobic performance and exercise metabolism in off-road cyclists. Additionally, the effects of this diet on body mass and body composition were
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The main objective of this research was to determine the effects of a long-term ketogenic diet, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, on aerobic performance and exercise metabolism in off-road cyclists. Additionally, the effects of this diet on body mass and body composition were evaluated, as well as those that occurred in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles due to the dietary intervention. The research material included eight male subjects, aged 28.3 ± 3.9 years, with at least five years of training experience that competed in off-road cycling. Each cyclist performed a continuous exercise protocol on a cycloergometer with varied intensity, after a mixed and ketogenic diet in a crossover design. The ketogenic diet stimulated favorable changes in body mass and body composition, as well as in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles. Important findings of the present study include a significant increase in the relative values of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and oxygen uptake at lactate threshold (VO2 LT) after the ketogenic diet, which can be explained by reductions in body mass and fat mass and/or the greater oxygen uptake necessary to obtain the same energy yield as on a mixed diet, due to increased fat oxidation or by enhanced sympathetic activation. The max work load and the work load at lactate threshold were significantly higher after the mixed diet. The values of the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the exercise protocol following the ketogenic diet. The heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake were significantly higher at rest and during the first three stages of exercise after the ketogenic diet, while the reverse was true during the last stage of the exercise protocol conducted with maximal intensity. Creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the 105-min exercise protocol following the low carbohydrate ketogenic diet. The alterations in insulin and cortisol concentrations due to the dietary intervention confirm the concept that the glucostatic mechanism controls the hormonal and metabolic responses to exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Performance Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Meal Pattern of Male Rats Maintained on Amino Acid Supplemented Diets: The Effect of Tryptophan, Lysine, Arginine, Proline and Threonine
Nutrients 2014, 6(7), 2509-2522; doi:10.3390/nu6072509
Received: 27 December 2013 / Revised: 24 April 2014 / Accepted: 3 June 2014 / Published: 1 July 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (249 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The macronutrient composition of the diet has been shown to affect food intake, with proteins having distinct effects. The present study investigated the effect of diet supplementation with individual amino acids (tryptophan, lysine, arginine, proline and threonine) on meal pattern among male rats.
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The macronutrient composition of the diet has been shown to affect food intake, with proteins having distinct effects. The present study investigated the effect of diet supplementation with individual amino acids (tryptophan, lysine, arginine, proline and threonine) on meal pattern among male rats. Meal pattern and body weight were monitored for two weeks. Proline and threonine had minimal effects on meal pattern, while the most pronounced changes were observed in the tryptophan group. Both tryptophan and lysine decreased overall food intake, which was translated into a reduction in body weight. The reduced food intake of the tryptophan group was associated with an increase in meal size, intermeal intervals (IMI) and meal time and a decrease in meal number. The decrease in the food intake of the lysine group was associated with a reduction in both IMI and meal number, and this was accompanied by an increase in meal time. Arginine increased meal number, while decreasing IMI. Proline and threonine had a minimal effect on meal pattern. Lysine seems to increase satiety, and arginine seems to decrease it, while tryptophan seems to increase satiety and decrease satiation. Accordingly, changes in meal patterns are associated with the type of amino acid added to the diet. Full article
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of a Validated Food Frequency Questionnaire for Self-Defined Vegans in the United States
Nutrients 2014, 6(7), 2523-2539; doi:10.3390/nu6072523
Received: 19 March 2014 / Revised: 20 June 2014 / Accepted: 27 June 2014 / Published: 8 July 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (236 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This study aimed to develop and validate a de novo food frequency questionnaire for self-defined vegans in the United States. Diet histories from pilot samples of vegans and a modified ‘Block Method’ using seven selected nutrients of concern in vegan diet patterns, were
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This study aimed to develop and validate a de novo food frequency questionnaire for self-defined vegans in the United States. Diet histories from pilot samples of vegans and a modified ‘Block Method’ using seven selected nutrients of concern in vegan diet patterns, were employed to generate the questionnaire food list. Food frequency responses of 100 vegans from 19 different U.S. states were obtained via completed mailed questionnaires and compared to multiple telephone-conducted diet recall interviews. Computerized diet analyses were performed. Correlation coefficients, t-tests, rank, cross-tabulations, and probability tests were used to validate and compare intake estimates and dietary reference intake (DRI) assessment trends between the two methods. A 369-item vegan-specific questionnaire was developed with 252 listed food frequency items. Calorie-adjusted correlation coefficients ranged from r = 0.374 to 0.600 (p < 0.001) for all analyzed nutrients except calcium. Estimates, ranks, trends and higher-level participant percentile placements for Vitamin B12 were similar with both methods. Questionnaire intakes were higher than recalls for most other nutrients. Both methods demonstrated similar trends in DRI adequacy assessment (e.g., significantly inadequate vitamin D intake among vegans). This vegan-specific questionnaire can be a useful assessment tool for health screening initiatives in U.S. vegan communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vegan diets and Human health)
Open AccessArticle The Effects of Choline on Hepatic Lipid Metabolism, Mitochondrial Function and Antioxidative Status in Human Hepatic C3A Cells Exposed to Excessive Energy Substrates
Nutrients 2014, 6(7), 2552-2571; doi:10.3390/nu6072552
Received: 23 April 2014 / Revised: 12 June 2014 / Accepted: 18 June 2014 / Published: 9 July 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1157 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Choline plays a lipotropic role in lipid metabolism as an essential nutrient. In this study, we investigated the effects of choline (5, 35 and 70 μM) on DNA methylation modifications, mRNA expression of the critical genes and their enzyme activities involved in hepatic
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Choline plays a lipotropic role in lipid metabolism as an essential nutrient. In this study, we investigated the effects of choline (5, 35 and 70 μM) on DNA methylation modifications, mRNA expression of the critical genes and their enzyme activities involved in hepatic lipid metabolism, mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in C3A cells exposed to excessive energy substrates (lactate, 10 mM; octanoate, 2 mM and pyruvate, 1 mM; lactate, octanoate and pyruvate-supplemented medium (LOP)). Thirty five micromole or 70 μM choline alone, instead of a low dose (5 μM), reduced hepatocellular triglyceride (TG) accumulation, protected Δψm from decrement and increased GSH-Px activity in C3A cells. The increment of TG accumulation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and Δψm disruption were observed under LOP treatment in C3A cells after 72 h of culture, which were counteracted by concomitant treatment of choline (35 μM or 70 μM) partially via reversing the methylation status of the peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) gene promoter, upregulating PPARα, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-I (CPT-I) and downregulating fatty acid synthase (FAS) gene expression, as well as decreasing FAS activity and increasing CPT-I and GSH-Px activities. These findings provided a novel insight into the lipotropic role of choline as a vital methyl-donor in the intervention of chronic metabolic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Liver Disease)
Open AccessArticle Vitamin C Supplementation Slightly Improves Physical Activity Levels and Reduces Cold Incidence in Men with Marginal Vitamin C Status: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2014, 6(7), 2572-2583; doi:10.3390/nu6072572
Received: 15 April 2014 / Revised: 12 May 2014 / Accepted: 1 July 2014 / Published: 9 July 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (209 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The early indications of vitamin C deficiency are unremarkable (fatigue, malaise, depression) and may manifest as a reduced desire to be physically active; moreover, hypovitaminosis C may be associated with increased cold duration and severity. This study examined the impact of vitamin C
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The early indications of vitamin C deficiency are unremarkable (fatigue, malaise, depression) and may manifest as a reduced desire to be physically active; moreover, hypovitaminosis C may be associated with increased cold duration and severity. This study examined the impact of vitamin C on physical activity and respiratory tract infections during the peak of the cold season. Healthy non-smoking adult men (18–35 years; BMI < 34 kg/m2; plasma vitamin C < 45 µmol/L) received either 1000 mg of vitamin C daily (n = 15) or placebo (n = 13) in a randomized, double-blind, eight-week trial. All participants completed the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21 daily and the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire weekly. In the final two weeks of the trial, the physical activity score rose modestly for the vitamin C group vs. placebo after adjusting for baseline values: +39.6% (95% CI [−4.5,83.7]; p = 0.10). The number of participants reporting cold episodes was 7 and 11 for the vitamin C and placebo groups respectively during the eight-week trial (RR = 0.55; 95% CI [0.33,0.94]; p = 0.04) and cold duration was reduced 59% in the vitamin C versus placebo groups (−3.2 days; 95% CI [−7.0,0.6]; p = 0.06). These data suggest measurable health advantages associated with vitamin C supplementation in a population with adequate-to-low vitamin C status. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effects of ω3- and ω6-Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on RANKL-Induced Osteoclast Differentiation of RAW264.7 Cells: A Comparative in Vitro Study
Nutrients 2014, 6(7), 2584-2601; doi:10.3390/nu6072584
Received: 30 April 2014 / Revised: 16 June 2014 / Accepted: 23 June 2014 / Published: 9 July 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1619 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been reported to have an anabolic effect on bone in vivo, but comparative studies to identify inhibitors of osteoclast formation amongst ω3- and ω6-PUFAs are still lacking. Here we assessed the effects of the ω3-PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid
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Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been reported to have an anabolic effect on bone in vivo, but comparative studies to identify inhibitors of osteoclast formation amongst ω3- and ω6-PUFAs are still lacking. Here we assessed the effects of the ω3-PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and the ω6-PUFAs, arachidonic acid (AA) and γ-linolenic acid (GLA) on a RAW264.7 osteoclast differentiation model. The effects of PUFAs on RANKL-induced osteoclast formation were evaluated by counting tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated cells. PUFAs significantly inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast formation in a dose-dependent manner with AA- and DHA-mediated inhibition being the strongest. Furthermore, RANKL-induced mRNA- and protein expression of the key osteoclastogenic genes cathepsin K and TRAP were inhibited by AA and more potently by DHA. Owing to the attenuated osteoclastogenesis by DHA and AA, actin ring formation and bone resorptive activity of these cells as evaluated on bone-mimetic plates were severely compromised. Hence, of the tested PUFAs, AA and DHA were found to be the most effective in inhibiting RANKL-induced osteoclast formation with the latter providing the strongest inhibitory effects. Collectively, the data indicates that these PUFAs may play an important role in regulating bone diseases characterized by excessive osteoclast activity. Full article
Open AccessArticle Determinants of Early Introduction of Solid, Semi-Solid or Soft Foods among Infants Aged 3–5 Months in Four Anglophone West African Countries
Nutrients 2014, 6(7), 2602-2618; doi:10.3390/nu6072602
Received: 19 May 2014 / Revised: 26 June 2014 / Accepted: 27 June 2014 / Published: 14 July 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (213 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study was conducted to explore and identify factors associated with the practice of early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 3–5 months in four Anglophone West African countries. Data sources for the analyses were the latest Demographic and
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This study was conducted to explore and identify factors associated with the practice of early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 3–5 months in four Anglophone West African countries. Data sources for the analyses were the latest Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the 4 countries, namely Ghana (GDHS, 2008), Liberia (LDHS, 2007), Nigeria (NDHS, 2013) and Sierra Leone (SLDHS, 2008). Multiple logistic regression methods were used to analyze the factors associated with early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 3–5 months, using individual-, household- and community-level determinants. The sample consisted of 2447 infants aged 3–5 months from four Anglophone West African countries: 166 in Ghana, 263 in Liberia, 1658 in Nigeria and 360 in Sierra Leone. Multivariable analyses revealed the individual factors associated with early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods in these countries. These included increased infant’s age, diarrhea, acute respiratory infection and newborns perceived to be small by their mothers. Other predictors of early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods were: mothers with no schooling, young mothers and fathers who worked in an agricultural industry. Public health interventions to improve exclusive breastfeeding practices by discouraging early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods are needed in all 4 countries, targeting especially mothers at risk of introducing solid foods to their infants early. Full article
Open AccessArticle Resveratrol Increases Nephrin and Podocin Expression and Alleviates Renal Damage in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet
Nutrients 2014, 6(7), 2619-2631; doi:10.3390/nu6072619
Received: 6 May 2014 / Revised: 9 June 2014 / Accepted: 27 June 2014 / Published: 14 July 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (694 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Resveratrol is well known for its anti-inflammation and anti-oxidant properties, and has been shown to be effective in alleviating the development of obesity. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the effect of resveratrol on renal damage in obese rats induced by
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Resveratrol is well known for its anti-inflammation and anti-oxidant properties, and has been shown to be effective in alleviating the development of obesity. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the effect of resveratrol on renal damage in obese rats induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) and its possible mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control, HFD, and HFD plus resveratrol (treated with 100 mg/kg/day resveratrol). Body weight, serum and urine metabolic parameters, and kidney histology were measured. Meanwhile, the activities of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), and the protein levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), nephrin and podocin in kidney were detected. Our work showed that resveratrol alleviated dyslipidemia and renal damage induced by HFD, decreased MDA level and increased SOD activity. Furthermore, the elevated NF-κB activity, increased TNF-α and MCP-1 levels, and reduced expressions of nephrin and podocin induced by HFD were significantly reversed by resveratrol. These results suggest resveratrol could ameliorate renal injury in rats fed a HFD, and the mechanisms are associated with suppressing oxidative stress and NF-κB signaling pathway that in turn up-regulate nephrin and podocin protein expression. Full article
Open AccessArticle Metabolic Fate of Fructose Ingested with and without Glucose in a Mixed Meal
Nutrients 2014, 6(7), 2632-2649; doi:10.3390/nu6072632
Received: 16 April 2014 / Revised: 23 May 2014 / Accepted: 9 June 2014 / Published: 15 July 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (456 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ingestion of pure fructose stimulates de novo lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis. This may however not be relevant to typical nutritional situations, where fructose is invariably ingested with glucose. We therefore assessed the metabolic fate of fructose incorporated in a mixed meal without or with
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Ingestion of pure fructose stimulates de novo lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis. This may however not be relevant to typical nutritional situations, where fructose is invariably ingested with glucose. We therefore assessed the metabolic fate of fructose incorporated in a mixed meal without or with glucose in eight healthy volunteers. Each participant was studied over six hours after the ingestion of liquid meals containing either 13C-labelled fructose, unlabeled glucose, lipids and protein (Fr + G) or 13C-labelled fructose, lipids and protein, but without glucose (Fr), or protein and lipids alone (ProLip). After Fr + G, plasma 13C-glucose production accounted for 19.0% ± 1.5% and 13CO2 production for 32.2% ± 1.3% of 13C-fructose carbons. After Fr, 13C-glucose production (26.5% ± 1.4%) and 13CO2 production (36.6% ± 1.9%) were higher (p < 0.05) than with Fr + G. 13C-lactate concentration and very low density lipoprotein VLDL 13C-palmitate concentrations increased to the same extent with Fr + G and Fr, while chylomicron 13C-palmitate tended to increase more with Fr + G. These data indicate that gluconeogenesis, lactic acid production and both intestinal and hepatic de novo lipogenesis contributed to the disposal of fructose carbons ingested together with a mixed meal. Co-ingestion of glucose decreased fructose oxidation and gluconeogenesis and tended to increase 13C-pamitate concentration in gut-derived chylomicrons, but not in hepatic-borne VLDL-triacylglycerol (TG). This trial was approved by clinicaltrial. gov. Identifier is NCT01792089. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sugar and Obesity)
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Open AccessArticle Egg Intake during Carbohydrate Restriction Alters Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Inflammation and Cholesterol Homeostasis in Metabolic Syndrome
Nutrients 2014, 6(7), 2650-2667; doi:10.3390/nu6072650
Received: 8 April 2014 / Revised: 2 July 2014 / Accepted: 8 July 2014 / Published: 18 July 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (581 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Egg yolk contains bioactive components that improve plasma inflammatory markers and HDL profiles in metabolic syndrome (MetS) under carbohydrate restriction. We further sought to determine whether egg yolk intake affects peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) inflammation and cholesterol homeostasis in MetS, as HDL
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Egg yolk contains bioactive components that improve plasma inflammatory markers and HDL profiles in metabolic syndrome (MetS) under carbohydrate restriction. We further sought to determine whether egg yolk intake affects peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) inflammation and cholesterol homeostasis in MetS, as HDL and its associated lipid transporter ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) reduce the inflammatory potential of leukocytes through modulation of cellular cholesterol content and distribution. Thirty-seven men and women classified with MetS consumed a moderate carbohydrate-restricted diet (25%–30% of energy) for 12 weeks, in addition to consuming either three whole eggs per day (EGG) or the equivalent amount of yolk-free egg substitute (SUB). Interestingly, lipopolysaccharide-induced PBMC IL-1β and TNFα secretion increased from baseline to week 12 in the SUB group only, despite increases in PBMC toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA expression in the EGG group. Compared to baseline, ABCA1 and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase mRNA expression increased by week 12 in the EGG group only, whereas changes in PBMC total cholesterol positively correlated with changes in lipid raft content. Together, these findings suggest that intake of whole eggs during carbohydrate restriction alters PBMC inflammation and cholesterol homeostasis in MetS. Full article
Open AccessArticle Chemopreventive Effects of Oplopantriol A, a Novel Compound Isolated from Oplopanax horridus, on Colorectal Cancer
Nutrients 2014, 6(7), 2668-2680; doi:10.3390/nu6072668
Received: 15 April 2014 / Revised: 12 June 2014 / Accepted: 1 July 2014 / Published: 18 July 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1434 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Oplopanax horridus is a North American botanical that has received limited investigations. We previously isolated over a dozen of the constituents from O. horridus, and among them oplopantriol A (OPT A) is a novel compound. In this study, we firstly evaluated the
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Oplopanax horridus is a North American botanical that has received limited investigations. We previously isolated over a dozen of the constituents from O. horridus, and among them oplopantriol A (OPT A) is a novel compound. In this study, we firstly evaluated the in vivo chemoprevention activities of OPT A using the xenograft colon cancer mouse model. Our data showed that this compound significantly suppressed tumor growth with dose-related effects (p < 0.01). Next, we characterized the compound’s growth inhibitory effects in human colorectal cancer cell lines HCT-116 and SW-480. With OPT A treatment, these malignant cells were significantly inhibited in both a concentration- and time-dependent manner (both p < 0.01). The IC50 was approximately 5 µM for HCT-116 and 7 µM for SW-480 cells. OPT A significantly induced apoptosis and arrested the cell cycle at the G2/M phase. From further mechanism explorations, our data showed that OPT A significantly upregulated the expression of a cluster of genes, especially the tumor necrosis factor receptor family and caspase family, suggesting that the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptotic pathway plays a key role in OPT A induced apoptosis. Full article
Open AccessArticle Chicken Essence Improves Exercise Performance and Ameliorates Physical Fatigue
Nutrients 2014, 6(7), 2681-2696; doi:10.3390/nu6072681
Received: 4 May 2014 / Revised: 8 July 2014 / Accepted: 10 July 2014 / Published: 18 July 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (937 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chicken essence (CE) is a liquid nutritional supplement made from cooking whole chickens. In traditional Chinese medicine, CE is used to support health, promote healing, increase metabolism, and relieve fatigue. However, few studies have examined the effect of CE on exercise performance and
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Chicken essence (CE) is a liquid nutritional supplement made from cooking whole chickens. In traditional Chinese medicine, CE is used to support health, promote healing, increase metabolism, and relieve fatigue. However, few studies have examined the effect of CE on exercise performance and physical fatigue. We aimed to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of CE on fatigue and ergogenic functions following physical challenge in mice. Male ICR mice were divided into four groups to receive vehicle or CE by oral gavage at 0, 845, 1690, or 4225 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of physical fatigue-related biomarkers serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK) after physical challenge. CE supplementation dose-dependently elevated endurance and grip strength. CE supplementation significantly decreased lactate, ammonia, and CK levels after physical challenge. Tissue glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise, was significantly increased with CE supplementation. In addition, CE supplementation had few subchronic toxic effects. The supplementation with CE can have a wide spectrum of bioactivities on health promotion, performance improvement and anti-fatigue. Full article
Open AccessArticle Breastfeeding Trends in Cambodia, and the Increased Use of Breast-Milk Substitute—Why Is It a Danger?
Nutrients 2014, 6(7), 2920-2930; doi:10.3390/nu6072920
Received: 16 May 2014 / Revised: 2 July 2014 / Accepted: 7 July 2014 / Published: 22 July 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (233 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A cross-sectional analysis of the Cambodia Demographic Health Surveys from 2000, 2005 and 2010 was conducted to observe the national trends in infant and young child feeding practices. The results showed that rates of exclusive breastfeeding among infants aged 0–5.9 months have increased
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A cross-sectional analysis of the Cambodia Demographic Health Surveys from 2000, 2005 and 2010 was conducted to observe the national trends in infant and young child feeding practices. The results showed that rates of exclusive breastfeeding among infants aged 0–5.9 months have increased substantially since 2000, concurrent with an increase in the rates of early initiation of breastfeeding and a reduction in the giving of pre-lacteal feeds. However, the proportion of infants being fed with breast-milk substitutes (BMS) during 0–5.9 months doubled in 5 years (3.4% to 7.0%) from 2000 to 2005, but then did not increase from 2005, likely due to extensive public health campaigns on exclusive breastfeeding. BMS use increased among children aged 6–23.9 months from 2000 to 2010 (4.8% to 9.3%). 26.1% of women delivering in a private clinic provided their child with breast-milk substitute at 0–5.9 months, which is five times more than women delivering in the public sector (5.1%), and the greatest increase in bottle use happened among the urban poor (5.8% to 21.7%). These findings are discussed with reference to the increased supply and marketing of BMS that is occurring in Cambodia. Full article
Open AccessArticle Caffeine Ingestion after Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Reduces Perceived Effort and Increases Plasma Lactate Concentration without Improving Performance
Nutrients 2014, 6(7), 2931-2945; doi:10.3390/nu6072931
Received: 29 April 2014 / Revised: 5 July 2014 / Accepted: 15 July 2014 / Published: 22 July 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (661 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure
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The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this “loading period”, subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg−1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (−3.9% ± 1.6% and −4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p < 0.05). At three hours after weigh-in, body weight had increased with both treatments but remained below the control (−3.0% ± 1.3% and −2.7% ± 2.2%). There were no significant differences in the number of throws between the control, caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p < 0.05). In conclusion, caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Performance Nutrition)
Open AccessCommunication Maternal Diet and Weight at 3 Months Postpartum Following a Pregnancy Intervention with a Low Glycaemic Index Diet: Results from the ROLO Randomised Control Trial
Nutrients 2014, 6(7), 2946-2955; doi:10.3390/nu6072946
Received: 27 March 2014 / Revised: 26 May 2014 / Accepted: 11 July 2014 / Published: 23 July 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (189 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pregnancy increases the risk of being overweight at a later time period, particularly when there is excessive gestational weight gain. There remains a paucity of data into the effect of low glycaemic index (GI) pregnancy interventions postpartum. Aim: To examine the impact of
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Pregnancy increases the risk of being overweight at a later time period, particularly when there is excessive gestational weight gain. There remains a paucity of data into the effect of low glycaemic index (GI) pregnancy interventions postpartum. Aim: To examine the impact of a low glycaemic index diet during pregnancy on maternal diet 3 months postpartum. Methodology: This analysis examined the diet, weight and lifestyle of 460 participants of the ROLO study 3 months postpartum. Questionnaires on weight, physical activity, breastfeeding, supplement use, food label reading and dietary habits were completed. Results: The intervention group had significantly greater weight loss from pre-pregnancy to 3 months postpartum than the control group (1.3 vs. 0.1 kg, p = 0.022). The intervention group reported greater numbers following a low glycaemic index diet (p < 0.001) and reading food labels (p = 0.032) and had a lower glycaemic load (GL) (128 vs. 145, p = 0.014) but not GI (55 vs. 55, p = 0.809) than controls. Conclusions: Low GI dietary interventions in pregnancy result in improved health-behaviours and continued reported compliance at 3 months postpartum possibly through lower dietary GL as a result of portion control. Greater levels of weight loss from pre-pregnancy to 3 months postpartum in the intervention group may have important positive implications for overweight and obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sugar and Obesity)
Open AccessArticle Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. Alleviates Lipogenesis and Oxidative Stress during Oleic Acid-Induced Steatosis in HepG2 Cells
Nutrients 2014, 6(7), 2956-2972; doi:10.3390/nu6072956
Received: 5 June 2014 / Revised: 10 July 2014 / Accepted: 18 July 2014 / Published: 23 July 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (616 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Excess accumulation of lipids and oxidative stress in the liver contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We hypothesized that Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. (PSZ) can protect against NAFLD by regulating lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in the liver. To investigate the
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Excess accumulation of lipids and oxidative stress in the liver contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We hypothesized that Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. (PSZ) can protect against NAFLD by regulating lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in the liver. To investigate the effect of PSZ upon NAFLD, we used an established cellular model: HepG2 cells treated with oleic acid. Then, the extent of hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress was assessed and levels of inflammatory markers measured. Oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells, compared with controls, had greater lipid accumulation. PSZ decreased lipid accumulation by 63% in oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells. Additionally, PSZ decreased the target gene expression of lipogenesis such as sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, fatty acid synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase-1, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 by 1.75, 6.0, 2.32, 1.93 and 1.81 fold, respectively. In addition, Oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells elicited extensive accumulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) by 4.53 fold, whereas PSZ-treated cells decreased the expression of TNFα mRNA by 1.76 fold. PSZ significantly inhibited oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species. These results suggest that PSZ has effects on steatosis in vitro and further studies are needed in vivo to verify the current observations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Arthrospira platensis Capsules on CD4 T-Cells and Antioxidative Capacity in a Randomized Pilot Study of Adult Women Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Not under HAART in Yaoundé, Cameroon
Nutrients 2014, 6(7), 2973-2986; doi:10.3390/nu6072973
Received: 10 February 2014 / Revised: 24 May 2014 / Accepted: 7 July 2014 / Published: 23 July 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (317 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dietary supplements are often used to improve the nutritional status of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Arthrospira platensis (Asp), also known as Spirulina, is a cyanobacterium rich in proteins and micronutrients. Cell and animal trials described immune-modulating, antiretroviral and antioxidant
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Dietary supplements are often used to improve the nutritional status of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Arthrospira platensis (Asp), also known as Spirulina, is a cyanobacterium rich in proteins and micronutrients. Cell and animal trials described immune-modulating, antiretroviral and antioxidant activities. This pilot study describes the effects of the supplementation of 5 g/day of Asp on a pre-highly-active antiretroviral therapy (pre-HAART), HIV-infected, adult female population. It was conducted as a three-month randomized controlled trial (RCT) that compared a cup supplementation of five grams/day of Asp with a placebo of equal protein content and energy. The study included 73 HIV-infected women. The immediate outcome variables were CD4 T-cells, viral load and immune activation by CD8 T-cells expressing CD38. The antioxidant status was assessed by way of the total antioxidant capacity of the serum (TAOS). The renal function was documented by way of creatinine, urea and the calculated glomerular filtration rate. Statistical analyses were carried out with non-parametric tests, and the effect size of each interaction was calculated. No differences in the immunological and virological markers between the Asp and the placebo group could be observed. In the placebo group, 21 of 30 patients (70%) developed concomitant events, while in the Asp group, only 12 of 28 patients (43%) did. Both groups registered a significant weight increase; 0.5 kg (p < 0.05) in the Asp group and 0.65 kg (p < 0.05) in the placebo group. The antioxidant capacity increase of 56 (1–98) µM for Asp was significantly different from the decrease observed in the placebo group (p < 0.001). A slight increase in the creatinine level of 0.1 g/dL (p < 0.001) was observed in the Asp group, and no effect was observed in the urea levels. The improvement of the antioxidant capacity under Asp, shown for the first time on PLHIV, could become a focus for future research on the nutritional and health effects of Spirulina. The observed slight, but significant increase of serum creatinine needs further evaluation, especially with varying doses of Asp. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Fortification and Human Health)

Review

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Open AccessReview Nutrient Intake and Food Habits of Soccer Players: Analyzing the Correlates of Eating Practice
Nutrients 2014, 6(7), 2697-2717; doi:10.3390/nu6072697
Received: 10 March 2014 / Revised: 3 June 2014 / Accepted: 1 July 2014 / Published: 18 July 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (225 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional
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Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player’s career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Performance Nutrition)
Open AccessReview Long Term Follow Up of Celiac Disease—Is Atherosclerosis a Problem?
Nutrients 2014, 6(7), 2718-2729; doi:10.3390/nu6072718
Received: 12 March 2014 / Revised: 13 May 2014 / Accepted: 7 July 2014 / Published: 21 July 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (210 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Celiac disease (CD) is a lifelong condition and it often involves impaired nutrition, wide spectrum of symptoms and it requires constant dietetic treatment. The impact of the gluten-free diet on patients’ nutritional status and on the other biochemical parameters is being widely investigated.
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Celiac disease (CD) is a lifelong condition and it often involves impaired nutrition, wide spectrum of symptoms and it requires constant dietetic treatment. The impact of the gluten-free diet on patients’ nutritional status and on the other biochemical parameters is being widely investigated. In this article we looked into particular risk factors that might lead to increased prevalence of atherosclerosis in CD patients, including nutritional status, gluten-free diet, lipids profile and concomitant disease—type 1 diabetes mellitus. Here, we present the current data and research on these risk factors of atherosclerosis with respect to celiac disease. Full article
Open AccessReview Does Consumption of LC Omega-3 PUFA Enhance Cognitive Performance in Healthy School-Aged Children and throughout Adulthood? Evidence from Clinical Trials
Nutrients 2014, 6(7), 2730-2758; doi:10.3390/nu6072730
Received: 3 April 2014 / Revised: 4 July 2014 / Accepted: 8 July 2014 / Published: 22 July 2014
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (262 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Long-chain (LC) omega-3 PUFA derived from marine sources may play an important role in cognitive performance throughout all life stages. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the dominant omega-3 in the brain, is a major component of neuronal cell membranes and affects various neurological pathways and
[...] Read more.
Long-chain (LC) omega-3 PUFA derived from marine sources may play an important role in cognitive performance throughout all life stages. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the dominant omega-3 in the brain, is a major component of neuronal cell membranes and affects various neurological pathways and processess. Despite its critical role in brain function, human’s capacity to synthesize DHA de novo is limited and its consumption through the diet is important. However, many individuals do not or rarely consume seafood. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the current evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCT) in healthy school-aged children, younger and older adults to determine whether consumption of LC omega-3 PUFA improves cognitive performance and to make recommendations for future research. Current evidence suggests that consumption of LC omega-3 PUFA, particularly DHA, may enhance cognitive performance relating to learning, cognitive development, memory and speed of performing cognitive tasks. Those who habitually consume diets low in DHA, children with low literacy ability and malnourished and older adults with age-related cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment seem to benefit most. However, study design limitations in many RCTs hamper firm conclusions. The measurement of a uniform biomarker, e.g., % DHA in red blood cells, is essential to establish baseline DHA-status, to determine targets for cognitive performance and to facilitate dosage recommendations. It is recommended that future studies be at least 16 weeks in duration, account for potential interaction effects of gender, age and apolipoprotein E genotype, include vegan/vegetarian populations, include measures of speed of cognitive performance and include brain imaging technologies as supportive information on working mechanisms of LC omega-3 PUFA. Full article

Other

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Open AccessMeeting Report Identifying Practical Solutions to Meet America’s Fiber Needs: Proceedings from the Food & Fiber Summit
Nutrients 2014, 6(7), 2540-2551; doi:10.3390/nu6072540
Received: 29 April 2014 / Revised: 23 June 2014 / Accepted: 30 June 2014 / Published: 8 July 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (184 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fiber continues to be singled out as a nutrient of public health concern. Adequate intakes of fiber are associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, certain gastrointestinal disorders and obesity. Despite ongoing efforts to promote adequate fiber through increased vegetable, fruit
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Fiber continues to be singled out as a nutrient of public health concern. Adequate intakes of fiber are associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, certain gastrointestinal disorders and obesity. Despite ongoing efforts to promote adequate fiber through increased vegetable, fruit and whole-grain intakes, average fiber consumption has remained flat at approximately half of the recommended daily amounts. Research indicates that consumers report increasingly attempting to add fiber-containing foods, but there is confusion around fiber in whole grains. The persistent and alarmingly low intakes of fiber prompted the “Food & Fiber Summit,” which assembled nutrition researchers, educators and communicators to explore fiber’s role in public health, current fiber consumption trends and consumer awareness data with the objective of generating opportunities and solutions to help close the fiber gap. The summit outcomes highlight the need to address consumer confusion and improve the understanding of sources of fiber, to recognize the benefits of various types of fibers and to influence future dietary guidance to provide prominence and clarity around meeting daily fiber recommendations through a variety of foods and fiber types. Potential opportunities to increase fiber intake were identified, with emphasis on meal occasions and food categories that offer practical solutions for closing the fiber gap. Full article
Open AccessMeeting Report “Vitamin D and Human Health: from the Gamete to the Grave”: Report on a meeting held at Queen Mary University of London, 23rd–25th April 2014
Nutrients 2014, 6(7), 2759-2919; doi:10.3390/nu6072759
Received: 13 June 2014 / Revised: 18 July 2014 / Accepted: 18 July 2014 / Published: 22 July 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (739 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The inaugural Vitamin D and Human Health conference was held on the London Whitechapel campus of Queen Mary University’s Barts and The London Medical School, from the 23rd to 25th of April, 2014. This three-day meeting set out to achieve two main aims:
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The inaugural Vitamin D and Human Health conference was held on the London Whitechapel campus of Queen Mary University’s Barts and The London Medical School, from the 23rd to 25th of April, 2014. This three-day meeting set out to achieve two main aims: to create a forum for researchers to meet and forge new collaborations, and to provide a state-of-the-art overview of the latest findings from clinical research in the field of vitamin D. Over 300 clinical researchers, students and commercial representatives attended. Thirty international experts in the field of clinical vitamin D research presented talks organised into a programme spanning the human life course. Commencing with a session of talks providing overviews of randomised trials of supplementation and global vitamin D status, the meeting proceeded with a session on pre-birth related vitamin D research—evolution, genetics & fertility—which led into several talks in the area of child health. Sessions on respiratory health, immune function, cancer biology, and neurodegenerative diseases preceded an overview of research in the area of ageing-related health outcomes, including musculoskeletal health and metabolic diseases. Finally sessions on the economy of vitamin D and public health, along with future directions for research were held. Several themes emerged during the course of the meeting. The anticipation of results from very large (n > 5000) randomised controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation (“mega-trials”) and Individual Patient Data (IPD) meta-analyses were hot topics of discussion. Mega-trials have the potential to detect small effect sizes of vitamin D supplementation on end-points such as incidence and mortality from cardiovascular disease and cancer. IPD meta-analyses have the potential to investigate the causes of heterogeneity often seen in the results of individual primary trials by allowing clinically important subgroup effects of vitamin D supplementation to be elucidated. The existence of a U-shaped relationship between vitamin D status and risk of certain health outcomes was another area of discussion. A third emerging theme, also relating to vitamin D dose–response relationships, was the potential differential effect of daily vs. intermittent bolus dosing on biological outcomes. Finally, the meeting also addressed strategies to tackle vitamin D deficiency at the population level, by alteration of sun-seeking behaviour, use of nutritional supplements and food fortification. The following 156 abstracts featured in the meeting as either a poster or an oral presentation. [...] Full article
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