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Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1107; doi:10.3390/nu9101107

Mediterranean Diet Adherence and Genetic Background Roles within a Web-Based Nutritional Intervention: The Food4Me Study

1
Department of Nutrition, and Food Science Physiology, Centre for Nutrition Research, University of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
2
CIBER Fisiopatología Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERobn), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28023 Madrid, Spain
3
Human Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, UK
4
Hugh Sinclair Unit of Human Nutrition and Institute for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AA, UK
5
UCD Institute of Food and Health, UCD School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, 4 Dublin, Ireland
6
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University of Athens, 17671 Athens, Greece
7
Department of Human Biology, NUTRIM School for Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, 6200MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
8
Department of Nutrition and Dietetic, Clinic of Metabolic Diseases and Gastroenterology, Institute of Food and Nutrition (IZZ), 02-903 Warsaw, Poland
9
ZIEL Research Center of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Biochemistry Unit, Technische Universität München, 85354 Munich, Germany
10
Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, 0317 Oslo, Norway
11
Vitas Analytical Services, Oslo Science Park, Gaustadalléen 21, 0349 Oslo, Norway
12
Eurogenetica Ltd., Burnham-on-Sea TA8 1HX, UK
13
Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Jean Mayer-USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA
14
TNO, Microbiology and Systems Biology, 3704HE Zeist, The Netherlands
15
Instituto de Investigaciones Sanitarias de Navarra (IdiSNA), 31008 Pamplona, Spain
16
Instituto Madrileño de Estudios Avanzados (IMDEA) Alimentacion, 28049 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 August 2017 / Revised: 4 October 2017 / Accepted: 9 October 2017 / Published: 11 October 2017
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Abstract

Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) adherence has been proven to produce numerous health benefits. In addition, nutrigenetic studies have explained some individual variations in the response to specific dietary patterns. The present research aimed to explore associations and potential interactions between MedDiet adherence and genetic background throughout the Food4Me web-based nutritional intervention. Dietary, anthropometrical and biochemical data from volunteers of the Food4Me study were collected at baseline and after 6 months. Several genetic variants related to metabolic risk features were also analysed. A Genetic Risk Score (GRS) was derived from risk alleles and a Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), based on validated food intake data, was estimated. At baseline, there were no interactions between GRS and MDS categories for metabolic traits. Linear mixed model repeated measures analyses showed a significantly greater decrease in total cholesterol in participants with a low GRS after a 6-month period, compared to those with a high GRS. Meanwhile, a high baseline MDS was associated with greater decreases in Body Mass Index (BMI), waist circumference and glucose. There also was a significant interaction between GRS and the MedDiet after the follow-up period. Among subjects with a high GRS, those with a high MDS evidenced a highly significant reduction in total carotenoids, while among those with a low GRS, there was no difference associated with MDS levels. These results suggest that a higher MedDiet adherence induces beneficial effects on metabolic outcomes, which can be affected by the genetic background in some specific markers. View Full-Text
Keywords: Food4Me study; Mediterranean diet; genetic risk; obesity Food4Me study; Mediterranean diet; genetic risk; obesity
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San-Cristobal, R.; Navas-Carretero, S.; Livingstone, K.M.; Celis-Morales, C.; Macready, A.L.; Fallaize, R.; O’Donovan, C.B.; Lambrinou, C.P.; Moschonis, G.; Marsaux, C.F.M.; Manios, Y.; Jarosz, M.; Daniel, H.; Gibney, E.R.; Brennan, L.; Drevon, C.A.; Gundersen, T.E.; Gibney, M.; Saris, W.H.M.; Lovegrove, J.A.; Grimaldi, K.; Parnell, L.D.; Bouwman, J.; Van Ommen, B.; Mathers, J.C.; Martinez, J.A. Mediterranean Diet Adherence and Genetic Background Roles within a Web-Based Nutritional Intervention: The Food4Me Study. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1107.

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