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Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1242; doi:10.3390/nu9111242

Effect of a Lactobacillus Salivarius Probiotic on a Double-Species Streptococcus Mutans and Candida Albicans Caries Biofilm

1
Department of Medical Diagnostics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Medyczna 9, 30-688 Krakow, Poland
2
Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Institute of Dentistry, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Montelupich 4, 31-155 Krakow, Poland
3
Department of Cytobiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Medyczna 9, 30-688 Krakow, Poland
4
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Śniadeckich 2, 31-501 Krakow, Poland
5
Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Medyczna 9, 30-688 Krakow, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate the anti-cariogenic effects of Lactobacillus salivarius by reducing pathogenic species and biofilm mass in a double-species biofilm model. Coexistence of S. mutans with C. albicans can cause dental caries progression or recurrence of the disease in the future. Fifty-nine children with diagnosed early childhood caries (ECC) were recruited onto the study. The condition of the children’s dentition was defined according to the World Health Organization guidelines. The participants were divided into children with initial enamel demineralization and children showing dentin damage. The study was performed on the S. mutans and C. albicans clinical strains, isolated from dental plaque of patients with ECC. The effect of a probiotic containing Lactobacillus salivarius on the ability of S. mutans and C. albicans to produce a double-species biofilm was investigated in an in vitro model. The biomass of the formed/non-degraded biofilm was analyzed on the basis of its crystal violet staining. The number of colonies of S. mutans and C. albicans (CFU/mL, colony forming units/mL) forming the biofilm was determined. Microorganism morphology in the biofilm was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). In vitro analysis demonstrated that the presence of S. mutans increased the number of C. albicans colonies (CFU/mL); the double-species biofilm mass and hyphal forms produced in it by the yeast. L. salivarius inhibited the cariogenic biofilm formation of C. albicans and S. mutans. Under the influence of the probiotic; the biofilm mass and the number of S. mutans; C. albicans and S. mutans with C. albicans colonies in the biofilm was decreased. Moreover; it can be noted that after the addition of the probiotic; fungi did not form hyphae or germ tubes of pathogenic potential. These results suggest that L. salivarius can secrete intermediates capable of inhibiting the formation of cariogenic S. mutans and C. albicans biofilm; and may inhibit fungal morphological transformation and thereby reduce the pathogenicity of C. albicans; weakening its pathogenic potential. Further research is required to prove or disprove the long-term effects of the preparation and to achieve preventive methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: Lactobacillus salivarius; probiotic; Candida albicans; cariogenic biofilm; Streptococcus mutans Lactobacillus salivarius; probiotic; Candida albicans; cariogenic biofilm; Streptococcus mutans
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Krzyściak, W.; Kościelniak, D.; Papież, M.; Vyhouskaya, P.; Zagórska-Świeży, K.; Kołodziej, I.; Bystrowska, B.; Jurczak, A. Effect of a Lactobacillus Salivarius Probiotic on a Double-Species Streptococcus Mutans and Candida Albicans Caries Biofilm. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1242.

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