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Nutrients, Volume 9, Issue 12 (December 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle mass and function, is a syndrome with a dramatic impact [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Peripheral Endocannabinoid Responses to Hedonic Eating in Binge-Eating Disorder
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1377; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121377
Received: 19 November 2017 / Revised: 13 December 2017 / Accepted: 19 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
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Abstract
Reward mechanisms are likely implicated in the pathophysiology of binge-eating behaviour, which is a key symptom of binge-eating disorder (BED). Since endocannabinoids modulate food-related reward, we aimed to investigate the responses of anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) to hedonic eating in patients with
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Reward mechanisms are likely implicated in the pathophysiology of binge-eating behaviour, which is a key symptom of binge-eating disorder (BED). Since endocannabinoids modulate food-related reward, we aimed to investigate the responses of anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) to hedonic eating in patients with BED. Peripheral levels of AEA and 2-AG were measured in 7 obese BED patients before and after eating favorite (hedonic eating) and non-favorite (non-hedonic eating) foods. We found that plasma levels of AEA progressively decreased after eating the non-favorite food and significantly increased after eating the favorite food, whereas plasma levels of 2-AG did not differ significantly between the two test conditions, although they showed a trend toward significantly different time patterns. The changes in peripheral AEA levels were positively correlated to the subjects’ sensations of the urge to eat and the pleasantness while eating the presented food, while changes in peripheral 2-AG levels were positively correlated to the subjects’ sensation of the pleasantness while eating the presented food and to the amount of food they would eat. These results suggest the occurrence of distinctive responses of endocannabinoids to food-related reward in BED. The relevance of such findings to the pathophysiology of BED remains to be elucidated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Binge Eating Disorder)
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Open AccessDiscussion Recent Development of Prebiotic Research—Statement from an Expert Workshop
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1376; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121376
Received: 6 November 2017 / Revised: 12 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
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Abstract
A dietary prebiotic is defined as ‘a substrate that is selectively utilized by host microorganisms conferring a health benefit’. Although this definition evolved concomitantly with the knowledge and technological developments that accrued in the last twenty years, what qualifies as prebiotic continues to
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A dietary prebiotic is defined as ‘a substrate that is selectively utilized by host microorganisms conferring a health benefit’. Although this definition evolved concomitantly with the knowledge and technological developments that accrued in the last twenty years, what qualifies as prebiotic continues to be a matter of debate. In this statement, we report the outcome of a workshop where academic experts working in the field of prebiotic research met with scientists from industry. The workshop covered three main topics: (i) evolution of the prebiotic concept/definition; (ii) the gut modeling in vitro technology PolyFermS to study prebiotic effects; and (iii) the potential novel microbiome-modulating effects associated with vitamins. The future of prebiotic research is very promising. Indeed, the technological developments observed in recent years provide scientists with powerful tools to investigate the complex ecosystem of gut microbiota. Combining multiple in vitro approaches with in vivo studies is key to understanding the mechanisms of action of prebiotics consumption and their potential beneficial effects on the host. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Quantity and Quality of Carbohydrate Intake during Pregnancy, Newborn Body Fatness and Cardiac Autonomic Control: Conferred Cardiovascular Risk?
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1375; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121375
Received: 16 November 2017 / Revised: 12 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
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Abstract
The fetal environment has an important influence on health and disease over the life course. Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy is potentially a powerful contributor to the intrauterine environment, and may alter offspring physiology and later life cardio-metabolic risk. Putative early life markers
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The fetal environment has an important influence on health and disease over the life course. Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy is potentially a powerful contributor to the intrauterine environment, and may alter offspring physiology and later life cardio-metabolic risk. Putative early life markers of cardio-metabolic risk include newborn body fatness and cardiac autonomic control. We sought to determine whether maternal dietary carbohydrate quantity and/or quality during pregnancy are associated with newborn body composition and cardiac autonomic function. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed in 142 mother-infant pairs using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Infant adiposity and body composition were assessed at birth using air-displacement plethysmography. Cardiac autonomic function was assessed as heart rate variability. The quantity of carbohydrates consumed during pregnancy, as a percentage of total energy intake, was not associated with meaningful differences in offspring birth weight, adiposity or heart rate variability (p > 0.05). There was some evidence that maternal carbohydrate quality, specifically higher fibre and lower glycemic index, is associated with higher heart rate variability in the newborn offspring (p = 0.06). This suggests that poor maternal carbohydrate quality may be an important population-level inter-generational risk factor for later cardiac and hemodynamic risk of their offspring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Carbohydrate Diet and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of an Extract from Aronia melanocarpa L. Berries on the Body Status of Zinc and Copper under Chronic Exposure to Cadmium: An In Vivo Experimental Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1374; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121374
Received: 10 September 2017 / Revised: 14 November 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
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Abstract
In an experimental model of low-level and moderate environmental human exposure to cadmium (Cd), it was investigated whether the consumption of a polyphenol-rich Aronia melanocarpa L. berries (chokeberries) extract (AE) may influence the body status of zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu). The bioelements’
[...] Read more.
In an experimental model of low-level and moderate environmental human exposure to cadmium (Cd), it was investigated whether the consumption of a polyphenol-rich Aronia melanocarpa L. berries (chokeberries) extract (AE) may influence the body status of zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu). The bioelements’ apparent absorption, body retention, serum and tissue concentrations, total pool in internal organs, excretion, and the degree of binding to metallothionein were evaluated in female rats administered 0.1% aqueous AE or/and Cd in their diet (1 and 5 mg/kg) for 3–24 months. The consumption of AE alone had no influence on the body status of Zn and Cu. The extract administration at both levels of Cd treatment significantly (completely or partially) protected against most of the changes in the metabolism of Zn and Cu caused by this xenobiotic; however, it increased or decreased some of the Cd-unchanged indices of their body status. Based on the findings, it seems that rational amounts of chokeberry products may be included in the daily diet without the risk of destroying Zn and Cu metabolisms; however, their potential prophylactic use under exposure to Cd needs further study to exclude any unfavourable impact of these essential elements on the metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle How Nutrition Sensitive Are the Nutrition Policies of New Zealand Food Manufacturers? A Benchmarking Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1373; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121373
Received: 12 November 2017 / Revised: 13 December 2017 / Accepted: 13 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
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Abstract
Nutrition sensitive policy addresses the underlying determinants of nutrition-related disease and is a powerful tool in reducing the incidence of non-communicable disease. Some members of the food industry have long standing commitments to health-oriented nutrition policies. The aim of this study was to
[...] Read more.
Nutrition sensitive policy addresses the underlying determinants of nutrition-related disease and is a powerful tool in reducing the incidence of non-communicable disease. Some members of the food industry have long standing commitments to health-oriented nutrition policies. The aim of this study was to develop and apply a balanced scorecard of nutrition sensitive indicators to the policies of influential New Zealand food and beverage manufacturers and explore factors affecting policy processes. Results: The average nutrition sensitivity score of the twenty influential manufacturers policies was 42 against a benchmark of 75. Some manufacturers performed well whilst others had substantial scope for improvement, the largest variation was in policy development and implementation, whereas nutrition quality was relatively consistent. Manufacturers with written policy (n = 11) scored on average three times higher than their counterparts with verbal policy. The value a manufacturer placed on nutrition influenced whether formal nutrition policies were developed. The reputational risk of failing to deliver on publicly declared nutrition commitments acted as an informal accountability mechanism. We conclude the balanced scorecard offers a useful tool for assessing the nutrition sensitivity of influential food and beverage manufacturers’ policies. Our results provide a baseline for repeat assessments of the nutrition sensitivity of food manufacturers’ policies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Oligofructose Provides Laxation for Irregularity Associated with Low Fiber Intake
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1372; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121372
Received: 13 November 2017 / Revised: 30 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 December 2017 / Published: 18 December 2017
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Abstract
Inadequate dietary fiber intake contributes to the prevalent irregularity and constipation in Western countries. Although eating adequate amounts of fibers from fiber-rich foods, foods with added fibers and dietary fiber supplements is considered the first option for improving laxation, the efficacy can vary
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Inadequate dietary fiber intake contributes to the prevalent irregularity and constipation in Western countries. Although eating adequate amounts of fibers from fiber-rich foods, foods with added fibers and dietary fiber supplements is considered the first option for improving laxation, the efficacy can vary among types of fibers. The present study is a randomized control trial that included healthy adult participants with ≤3 bowel movements/week and a habitual low dietary fiber intake in a parallel design to evaluate the benefits for laxation by supplementing the daily diet with oligofructose (Orafti® P95; OF), a fermentable source of fiber and established prebiotic (n = 49); maltodextrin was the placebo (n = 48). After a run-in phase, OF was initially provided at 5 g/day, then increased to 10 and 15 g/day with four weeks for each phase. Stool frequency (bowel movements per week) for the OF and maltodextrin (MD) groups were initially similar (3.98 ± 1.49 vs. 4.06 ± 1.48), did not change for the placebo group, but increased for the OF group with the difference significant at 15 g/day (p = 0.023). Stool consistency was similar and remained unchanged at all doses for both groups. Gastrointestinal sensations were low for both groups. Laxation benefits were especially pronounced for participants with >13 g/day habitual dietary fiber intake, with significant laxation at 10 g and 15 g OF/day (p = 0.04 and p = 0.004, respectively) A daily supplement with a short-chain inulin-type fructan derived from chicory roots, i.e., oligofructose (Orafti® P95) provided a laxation effect without causing gastrointestinal (GI) distress for healthy participants with irregularity associated with low dietary fiber intake. Full article
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Open AccessReview Targeting NRF2 for Improved Skin Barrier Function and Photoprotection: Focus on the Achiote-Derived Apocarotenoid Bixin
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1371; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121371
Received: 15 November 2017 / Revised: 10 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 December 2017 / Published: 18 December 2017
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Abstract
The transcription factor NRF2 (nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2) orchestrates major cellular defense mechanisms including phase-II detoxification, inflammatory signaling, DNA repair, and antioxidant response. Recent studies strongly suggest a protective role of NRF2-mediated gene expression in the suppression of cutaneous photodamage induced by solar
[...] Read more.
The transcription factor NRF2 (nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2) orchestrates major cellular defense mechanisms including phase-II detoxification, inflammatory signaling, DNA repair, and antioxidant response. Recent studies strongly suggest a protective role of NRF2-mediated gene expression in the suppression of cutaneous photodamage induced by solar UV (ultraviolet) radiation. The apocarotenoid bixin, a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved natural food colorant (referred to as ‘annatto’) originates from the seeds of the achiote tree native to tropical America, consumed by humans since ancient times. Use of achiote preparations for skin protection against environmental insult and for enhanced wound healing has long been documented. We have recently reported that (i) bixin is a potent canonical activator of the NRF2-dependent cytoprotective response in human skin keratinocytes; that (ii) systemic administration of bixin activates NRF2 with protective effects against solar UV-induced skin damage; and that (iii) bixin-induced suppression of photodamage is observable in Nrf2+/+ but not in Nrf2−/− SKH-1 mice confirming the NRF2-dependence of bixin-induced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, bixin displays molecular activities as sacrificial antioxidant, excited state quencher, PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor) α/γ agonist, and TLR (Toll-like receptor) 4/NFκB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) antagonist, all of which might be relevant to the enhancement of skin barrier function and environmental stress protection. Potential skin photoprotection and photochemoprevention benefits provided by topical application or dietary consumption of this ethno-pharmacologically validated phytochemical originating from the Americas deserves further preclinical and clinical examination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals and the Skin: Roles in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle MicroRNA-132 Negatively Regulates Palmitate-Induced NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation through FOXO3 Down-Regulation in THP-1 Cells
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1370; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121370
Received: 13 November 2017 / Revised: 10 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 18 December 2017
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Abstract
Saturated fatty acids were proposed to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome, a molecular platform that mediates the processing of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. However, the mechanisms underlying the miRNA-mediated regulation of palmitate (PA)-induced inflammasome activation are unclear. We examined the role of miR-132 in
[...] Read more.
Saturated fatty acids were proposed to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome, a molecular platform that mediates the processing of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. However, the mechanisms underlying the miRNA-mediated regulation of palmitate (PA)-induced inflammasome activation are unclear. We examined the role of miR-132 in PA-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation in THP-1 cells. To understand the regulatory role of miR-132 in inflammasome activation, we either overexpressed or suppressed miR-132 in THP-1 cells that expressed the NLRP3 inflammasome in response to stimulation by PA. We analyzed the mRNA and protein levels of NLRP3, caspase-1 p10, IL-18, and IL-1β; caspase-1 activity; and IL-1β secretion. The presence of PA activated the NLRP3 inflammasome and increased miR-132 expression. Overexpression of miR-132 reduced caspase-1 p10, IL-18, and IL-1β, while the suppression of miR-132 enhanced inflammasome activation. In addition, miR-132 regulated the mRNA and protein expression of FOXO3, which is a potential target of miR-132 in these cells. FOXO3 suppression by small interfering RNA decreased NLRP3 inflammasome activity stimulated by PA. Knockdown of FOXO3 attenuated NLRP3 inflammasome activation by the miR-132 inhibitor. Based on these findings, we conclude that miR-132 negatively regulates PA-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation through FOXO3 down-regulation in THP-1 cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Atherogenic Activity of Polyphenol-Rich Extract from Bee Pollen
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1369; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121369
Received: 2 November 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 18 December 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of polyphenol-rich ethanol extract of bee pollen (EEP) on atherosclerosis induced by a high-fat diet in ApoE-knockout mice. EEP was given with feed in two doses of 0.1 and 1 g/kg body mass
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The aim of this study was to determine the effect of polyphenol-rich ethanol extract of bee pollen (EEP) on atherosclerosis induced by a high-fat diet in ApoE-knockout mice. EEP was given with feed in two doses of 0.1 and 1 g/kg body mass (BM). The studies have been conducted in a period of 16 weeks. The following factors were estimated: total cholesterol (TC), oxidized low density lipoproteins (ox-LDL), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin II (ANG II) in the 5th, 10th, 12th, 14th, and 16th week of the experiment. In the last, i.e., 16th week of the studies the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) was also estimated histopathologically. Supplementing diet with EEP resulted in decreasing TC level. EEP reduced oxidative stress by lowering the levels of ox-LDL, ADMA, ANG II and ACE. EEP protected coronary arteries by significantly limiting the development of atherosclerosis (the dose of 0.1 g/kg BM) or completely preventing its occurrence (the dose of 1 g/kg BM). The obtained results demonstrate that EEP may be useful as a potential anti-atherogenic agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Chemopreventive Potential of Raw and Roasted Pistachios Regarding Colon Carcinogenesis
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1368; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121368
Received: 14 November 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 18 December 2017
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Abstract
Pistachios are rich in health-promoting bioactive compounds such as B vitamins, γ-tocopherol, polyphenols and dietary fiber, which could contribute to the reduction of colon cancer risk in terms of chemoprevention (Fischer, S.; Glei, M. Health-Potential of Nuts. Ernaehrungs Umsch. Int. 2013, 60, 206–215.).
[...] Read more.
Pistachios are rich in health-promoting bioactive compounds such as B vitamins, γ-tocopherol, polyphenols and dietary fiber, which could contribute to the reduction of colon cancer risk in terms of chemoprevention (Fischer, S.; Glei, M. Health-Potential of Nuts. Ernaehrungs Umsch. Int. 2013, 60, 206–215.). Since pistachios are often consumed roasted, the present study aims at investigating the influence of different roasting conditions (RC) on potential chemopreventive effects of pistachios in colon adenoma cells such as growth and apoptosis, genotoxic- and anti-genotoxic effects and modulation of gene expression of detoxifying enzymes (CAT, SOD2, GPx1, and GSTP1). Fermentation supernatants (FS) were obtained from raw and roasted (RC1 = 141 °C/25 min, RC2 = 160 °C/15 min and RC3 = 185 °C/21 min) pistachios after in vitro fermentation. FS of pistachios significantly reduced LT97 cell growth in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Compared to the blank control, pistachio FS (2.5%) led to a significant average reduction of H2O2-induced DNA damage (1.5-fold). Levels of CAT mRNA were significantly increased (1.3-fold, on average for 5% FS). Pistachio FS (5%) significantly increased the number of early apoptotic cells (up to 2.1-fold) and levels of caspase-3 activities (up to 6.9-fold). The present results confirm a chemopreventive potential of pistachios, which is mediated by growth inhibition, induction of apoptosis and anti-genotoxic effects, as well as induction of CAT. These effects remain mostly unaffected by roasting. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Dual Antioxidant/Prooxidant Effect of Eugenol and Its Action in Cancer Development and Treatment
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1367; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121367
Received: 8 November 2017 / Revised: 7 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 17 December 2017
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Abstract
The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during metabolism is a normal process usually compensated for by the antioxidant defense system of an organism. However, ROS can cause oxidative damage and have been proposed to be the main cause of age-related clinical complications
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The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during metabolism is a normal process usually compensated for by the antioxidant defense system of an organism. However, ROS can cause oxidative damage and have been proposed to be the main cause of age-related clinical complications and diseases such as cancer. In recent decades, the relationship between diet and cancer has been more studied, especially with foods containing antioxidant compounds. Eugenol is a natural compound widely found in many aromatic plant species, spices and foods and is used in cosmetics and pharmaceutical products. Eugenol has a dual effect on oxidative stress, which can action as an antioxidant or prooxidant agent. In addition, it has anti-carcinogenic, cytotoxic and antitumor properties. Considering the importance of eugenol in the area of food and human health, in this review, we discuss the role of eugenol on redox status and its potential use in the treatment and prevention of cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for Cancer Prevention and Therapy)
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Patterns in Relation to Metabolic Syndrome among Adults in Poland: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1366; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121366
Received: 16 October 2017 / Revised: 9 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 17 December 2017
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Abstract
In several populations the associations between diet and the risk of metabolic syndrome have not been fully examined yet. The aim of the study is to identify the main dietary patterns among Polish adults and the evaluation of the relationships of these patterns
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In several populations the associations between diet and the risk of metabolic syndrome have not been fully examined yet. The aim of the study is to identify the main dietary patterns among Polish adults and the evaluation of the relationships of these patterns with metabolic syndrome and its components. The study was conducted on a group of 7997 participants, aged between 37 and 66 years old. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation. Three dietary patterns were identified and designated as: “Healthy”, “Westernized” and “Traditional-carbohydrate”. In the adjusted model, a higher score in the “Westernized” pattern aligns with a higher risk of abnormal glucose concentration (ptrend = 0.000), but with a lower risk of abnormal High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol HDL-cholesterol concentration (ptrend = 0.024). Higher scores in the “Traditional-carbohydrate” pattern were connected with the risk of abdominal obesity (ptrend = 0.001) and increased triglycerides concentration (ptrend = 0.050). Our results suggest that adherence to the “Traditional-carbohydrate” dietary pattern, characterized by higher intakes of refined grains, potatoes, sugar and sweets is associated with a higher risk of abdominal obesity and triglyceridemia. A “Westernized” dietary pattern on the other hand, is related to hyperglycemia. The study results can be used for community-based health promotion and intervention programs to prevent or better manage chronic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
Open AccessReview Capsaicin: Friend or Foe in Skin Cancer and Other Related Malignancies?
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1365; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121365
Received: 15 November 2017 / Revised: 11 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 16 December 2017
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Abstract
Capsaicin is the main pungent in chili peppers, one of the most commonly used spices in the world; its analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties have been proven in various cultures for centuries. It is a lipophilic substance belonging to the class of vanilloids and
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Capsaicin is the main pungent in chili peppers, one of the most commonly used spices in the world; its analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties have been proven in various cultures for centuries. It is a lipophilic substance belonging to the class of vanilloids and an agonist of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor. Taking into consideration the complex neuro-immune impact of capsaicin and the potential link between inflammation and carcinogenesis, the effect of capsaicin on muco-cutaneous cancer has aroused a growing interest. The aim of this review is to look over the most recent data regarding the connection between capsaicin and muco-cutaneous cancers, with emphasis on melanoma and muco-cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals and the Skin: Roles in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessReview Omega-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Preeclampsia: Trials Say “No,” but Is It the Final Word?
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1364; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121364
Received: 14 September 2017 / Revised: 30 November 2017 / Accepted: 1 December 2017 / Published: 15 December 2017
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Abstract
Preeclampsia is a dangerous disorder of pregnancy, defined as hypertension with proteinuria. Its nature remains elusive, and measures of prevention and treatment are limited. Observational studies have suggested that preeclampsia is associated with low intake of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA). In
[...] Read more.
Preeclampsia is a dangerous disorder of pregnancy, defined as hypertension with proteinuria. Its nature remains elusive, and measures of prevention and treatment are limited. Observational studies have suggested that preeclampsia is associated with low intake of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA). In recent decades, researchers studied LCPUFA supplementation as a measure to prevent preeclampsia. Most of these trials and later systematic reviews yielded negative results. However, these trials had several important limitations associated with heterogeneity and other issues. Recent research suggests that preeclampsia trials should take into consideration the gender of the fetus (and thus sexual dimorphism of placenta), the positive effect of smoking on preeclampsia prevalence, and the possibility that high doses of LCPUFA mid-term or later may promote the disorder instead of keeping it at bay. In this review, we discuss these issues and future prospects for LCPUFA in preeclampsia research. Full article
Open AccessArticle Spirulina Extract Enhanced a Protective Effect in Type 1 Diabetes by Anti-Apoptosis and Anti-ROS Production
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1363; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121363
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 6 December 2017 / Accepted: 11 December 2017 / Published: 15 December 2017
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Abstract
Interest in the nutritional value and pharmacological activities of blue-green algae has gradually increased. Spirulina extracts show protective effects against apoptosis and inflammatory damage in various cell types. Here, we investigated the protective effects of extracts from Spirulina maxima in a cytokine-mediated type
[...] Read more.
Interest in the nutritional value and pharmacological activities of blue-green algae has gradually increased. Spirulina extracts show protective effects against apoptosis and inflammatory damage in various cell types. Here, we investigated the protective effects of extracts from Spirulina maxima in a cytokine-mediated type 1 diabetes model in vitro and in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats in vivo. Interleukin-1β and interferon-gamma induced substantial cytotoxicity to RINm5F rat insulinoma cells, increasing nitric oxide (NO) production, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity, the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress genes, and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and key genes related apoptosis. However, the cytotoxicity of cytokines was significantly attenuated by Spirulina extract, which effectively prevented NO production by inhibiting the synthesis of cytokine-activated NO synthase (iNOS), and apoptosis was suppressed. These results suggest that Spirulina extract might be effective to preserve the viability and function of pancreatic β-cells against cytotoxic conditions. Moreover, diabetic mice orally administered Spirulina extract showed decreased glucose levels, increased insulin, and improvement in liver enzyme markers. The antioxidant effect of Spirulina extract may be helpful in treating type 1 diabetes by enhancing the survival, and reducing or delaying cytokine-mediated β-cells destruction. Full article
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