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Nutrients, Volume 9, Issue 12 (December 2017)

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Cover Story Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle mass and function, is a syndrome with a dramatic impact [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Prevalence and Predictors of Subclinical Micronutrient Deficiency in German Older Adults: Results from the Population-Based KORA-Age Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1276; doi:10.3390/nu9121276
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 16 November 2017 / Accepted: 20 November 2017 / Published: 23 November 2017
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Abstract
Subclinical micronutrient deficiency in older adults is associated with chronic age-related diseases and adverse functional outcomes. In Germany, the older population is at risk of insufficient micronutrient intake, but representative studies on micronutrient status in old and very old adults are scarce. This
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Subclinical micronutrient deficiency in older adults is associated with chronic age-related diseases and adverse functional outcomes. In Germany, the older population is at risk of insufficient micronutrient intake, but representative studies on micronutrient status in old and very old adults are scarce. This study’s objectives were to estimate the prevalence of subclinical vitamin D, folate, vitamin B12 and iron deficiencies among older adults, aged 65 to 93, from the KORA-Age study in Augsburg, Germany (n = 1079), and to examine associated predictors, using multiple logistic regression. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), folate, vitamin B12, and iron were analyzed. The prevalence of subclinical vitamin D and vitamin B12 deficiencies were high, with 52.0% and 27.3% of individuals having low 25OHD (<50 nmol/L) and low vitamin B12 concentrations (<221 pmol/L), respectively. Furthermore, 11.0% had low iron (men <11.6 µmol/L, women <9.0 µmol/L) and 8.7% had low folate levels (<13.6 nmol/L). Common predictors associated with subclinical micronutrient deficiency included very old age, physical inactivity, frailty and no/irregular use of supplements. Subclinical micronutrient deficiency is a public health concern among KORA-Age participants, especially for vitamins D and B12. The predictors identified provide further rationale for screening high-risk subgroups and developing targeted public health interventions to tackle prevailing micronutrient inadequacies among older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
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Open AccessArticle Association between Vitamin Intake during Pregnancy and Risk of Small for Gestational Age
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1277; doi:10.3390/nu9121277
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 17 November 2017 / Accepted: 21 November 2017 / Published: 23 November 2017
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Abstract
Pregnancy increases the requirements of certain nutrients, such as vitamins, to provide nutrition for the newborn. The aim was to analyze the association between dietary intake of vitamins during pregnancy and risk of having a small for gestational age (SGA) newborn. A matched
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Pregnancy increases the requirements of certain nutrients, such as vitamins, to provide nutrition for the newborn. The aim was to analyze the association between dietary intake of vitamins during pregnancy and risk of having a small for gestational age (SGA) newborn. A matched case-control study was conducted (518 cases and 518 controls of pregnant women) in Spain. Dietary vitamin intake during pregnancy was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire, categorized into quintiles. Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated with conditional regression logistic models. A protective association was observed between maternal dietary intake of vitamins A and D and SGA. For vitamin B3 and B6, the observed protective effect was maintained after adjusting for potential confounding factors. For vitamin B9, we found only an effect in quintiles 3 and 4 (OR = 0.64; 95% CI, 0.41–1.00; OR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.37–0.91). Protective effect for vitamin B12 was observed in 4th and 5th quintiles (OR = 0.61; 95% CI, 0.39–0.95; OR = 0.68; 95% CI, 0.43–1.04). No associations were detected between dietary intake of vitamins B2, E and C intake and SGA. Our results suggest a positive association between dietary vitamin intake during pregnancy and the weight of the newborn, although more studies are necessary and there could be a ceiling effect for higher intakes of some vitamins cannot be discarded. Full article
Open AccessArticle Dose-Dependent Effects of Oral Tyrosine Administration on Plasma Tyrosine Levels and Cognition in Aging
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1279; doi:10.3390/nu9121279
Received: 15 September 2017 / Revised: 25 October 2017 / Accepted: 20 November 2017 / Published: 23 November 2017
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Abstract
The effects of tyrosine on plasma response and cognition in aging are unknown. We assessed the dose-dependent response to tyrosine administration in older adults in both plasma tyrosine concentrations and working memory performance. In this double blind randomized cross-over trial 17 older adults
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The effects of tyrosine on plasma response and cognition in aging are unknown. We assessed the dose-dependent response to tyrosine administration in older adults in both plasma tyrosine concentrations and working memory performance. In this double blind randomized cross-over trial 17 older adults (aged 60–75 years) received a single administration of 100, 150, or 200 mg/kg body weight of tyrosine. For comparison, 17 young adults (aged 18–35 years) received a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight of tyrosine. Tyrosine plasma concentrations were determined before and 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, and 240 min after tyrosine intake. Working memory was assessed using the N-back task at 90 min after tyrosine administration. Older adults showed a dose-dependent increase in plasma tyrosine concentrations (p < 0.001), and the plasma response was higher than for young adults with the same dose (p < 0.001). Load-dependent working memory performance decreased with higher doses of tyrosine (p = 0.048), especially in older adults with greater dose-dependent plasma tyrosine responses (p = 0.035). Our results show an age-related increase in plasma tyrosine response, which was associated with a dose-dependent decline in cognitive functioning in older adults. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Two Different Doses of Vitamin D Supplementation on Metabolic Profiles of Insulin-Resistant Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1280; doi:10.3390/nu9121280
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 7 November 2017 / Published: 24 November 2017
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Abstract
This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on the metabolic profiles of insulin-resistant subjects with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 90 insulin-resistant women with PCOS. Participants were randomly assigned to
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This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on the metabolic profiles of insulin-resistant subjects with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 90 insulin-resistant women with PCOS. Participants were randomly assigned to three groups to intake either 4000 IU of vitamin D or 1000 IU of vitamin D or placebo (n = 30 each group) daily for 12 weeks. Vitamin D supplementation (4000 IU), compared with vitamin D (1000 IU) and placebo, led to significant reductions in total testosterone (−0.2 ± 0.2 vs. −0.1 ± 0.6 and +0.1 ± 0.2 ng/mL, respectively, p = 0.02), free androgen index (FAI) (−0.06 ± 0.12 vs. −0.02 ± 0.12 and +0.004 ± 0.04, respectively, p = 0.04), hirsutism (−1.1 ± 1.1 vs. −0.8 ± 1.2 and −0.1 ± 0.4, respectively, p = 0.001) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (−0.7 ± 1.4 vs. −0.5 ± 0.9 and +0.5 ± 2.4 mg/L, respectively, p = 0.01). In addition, we found significant elevations in mean change of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) (+19.1 ± 23.0 vs. +4.5 ± 11.0 and +0.7 ± 10.4 nmol/L, respectively, p < 0.001) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (+130 ± 144 vs. +33 ± 126 and −36 ± 104 mmol/L, respectively, p < 0.001) in the high-dose vitamin D group compared with low-dose vitamin D and placebo groups. Overall, high-dose vitamin D administration for 12 weeks to insulin-resistant women with PCOS had beneficial effects on total testosterone, SHBG, FAI, serum hs-CRP and plasma TAC levels compared with low-dose vitamin D and placebo groups. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Red Palm Oil on Vitamin A Deficiency: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1281; doi:10.3390/nu9121281
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 24 November 2017
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Abstract
Red palm oil (RPO) has been investigated for preventing or alleviating vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Previous data has offered inconclusive and inconsistent results about the effects of RPO in patients with VAD. Our objective was to undertake a meta-analysis to assess the effects
[...] Read more.
Red palm oil (RPO) has been investigated for preventing or alleviating vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Previous data has offered inconclusive and inconsistent results about the effects of RPO in patients with VAD. Our objective was to undertake a meta-analysis to assess the effects of RPO in preventing VAD in the population. After conducting a comprehensive literature search, nine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Overall, when trial results were pooled, the results indicated that RPO reduced the risk of VAD (relative risk (RR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) = 0.55 (0.37, 0.82), p = 0.003), increasedserum retinol levels in both children (p < 0.00001) and adults (p = 0.002), and increased β-carotene levels (p = 0.01). However, RPO supplementation did not have a significant overall effect on serum α-carotene levels (p = 0.06), body weight (p = 0.45), and haemoglobin levels (p = 0.72). The results also showed that low level of PRO intake (≤8 g RPO) could increase serum retinol concentrations whereas PRO intake above 8 g did not lead to further increase of serum retinol concentrations. This meta-analysis demonstrated that RPO might be effective for preventing or alleviating VAD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Neonatal Nutrition Predicts Energy Balance in Young Adults Born Preterm at Very Low Birth Weight
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1282; doi:10.3390/nu9121282
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 21 November 2017 / Published: 24 November 2017
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Abstract
Epidemiological studies and animal models suggest that early postnatal nutrition and growth can influence adult health. However, few human studies have objective recordings of early nutrient intake. We studied whether nutrient intake and growth during the first 9 weeks after preterm birth with
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Epidemiological studies and animal models suggest that early postnatal nutrition and growth can influence adult health. However, few human studies have objective recordings of early nutrient intake. We studied whether nutrient intake and growth during the first 9 weeks after preterm birth with very low birth weight (VLBW, <1500 g) predict total energy intake, resting energy expenditure (REE), physical activity and food preferences in young adulthood. We collected daily nutritional intakes and weights during the initial hospital stay from hospital records for 127 unimpaired VLBW participants. At an average age 22.5 years, they completed a three-day food record and a physical activity questionnaire and underwent measurements of body composition (dual X-ray absorptiometry; n = 115 with adequate data) and REE (n = 92 with adequate data). We used linear regression and path analysis to investigate associations between neonatal nutrient intake and adult outcomes. Higher energy, protein and fat intakes during the first three weeks of life predicted lower relative (=per unit lean body mass) energy intake and relative REE in adulthood, independent of other pre- and neonatal factors. In path analysis, total effects of early nutrition and growth on relative energy intake were mostly explained by direct effects of early life nutrition. A path mediated by early growth reached statistical significance only for protein intake. There were no associations of neonatal intakes with physical activity or food preferences in adulthood. As a conclusion, higher intake of energy and nutrients during first three weeks of life of VLBW infants predicts energy balance after 20 years. This association is partly mediated through postnatal growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Intake, Trends, and Determinants)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Different Types of Front-of-Pack Labelling Information on the Healthiness of Food Purchases—A Randomised Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1284; doi:10.3390/nu9121284
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 19 November 2017 / Published: 24 November 2017
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Abstract
Background: Front-of-pack nutrition labelling may support healthier packaged food purchases. Australia has adopted a novel Health Star Rating (HSR) system, but the legitimacy of this choice is unknown. Objective: To define the effects of different formats of front-of-pack labelling on the healthiness of
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Background: Front-of-pack nutrition labelling may support healthier packaged food purchases. Australia has adopted a novel Health Star Rating (HSR) system, but the legitimacy of this choice is unknown. Objective: To define the effects of different formats of front-of-pack labelling on the healthiness of food purchases and consumer perceptions. Design: Individuals were assigned at random to access one of four different formats of nutrition labelling—HSR, multiple traffic light labels (MTL), daily intake guides (DIG), recommendations/warnings (WARN)—or control (the nutrition information panel, NIP). Participants accessed nutrition information by using a smartphone application to scan the bar-codes of packaged foods, while shopping. The primary outcome was healthiness defined by the mean transformed nutrient profile score of packaged foods that were purchased over four weeks. Results: The 1578 participants, mean age 38 years, 84% female recorded purchases of 148,727 evaluable food items. The mean healthiness of the purchases in the HSR group was non-inferior to MTL, DIG, or WARN (all p < 0.001 at 2% non-inferiority margin). When compared to the NIP control, there was no difference in the mean healthiness of purchases for HSR, MTL, or DIG (all p > 0.07), but WARN resulted in healthier packaged food purchases (mean difference 0.87; 95% confidence interval 0.03 to 1.72; p = 0.04). HSR was perceived by participants as more useful than DIG, and easier to understand than MTL or DIG (all p < 0.05). Participants also reported the HSR to be easier to understand, and the HSR and MTL to be more useful, than NIP (all p < 0.03). Conclusions: These real-world data align with experimental findings and provide support for the policy choice of HSR. Recommendation/warning labels warrant further exploration, as they may be a stronger driver of healthy food purchases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Placing Salt/Soy Sauce at Dining Tables and Out-Of-Home Behavior Are Related to Urinary Sodium Excretion in Japanese Secondary School Students
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1290; doi:10.3390/nu9121290
Received: 27 October 2017 / Revised: 23 November 2017 / Accepted: 23 November 2017 / Published: 28 November 2017
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Abstract
We investigated whether home environment, salt knowledge, and salt-use behavior were associated with urinary sodium (Na) excretion in Japanese secondary school students. Students (267; mean age, 14.2 years) from Suo-Oshima, Japan, collected three overnight urine samples and completed a salt environment/knowledge/behavior questionnaire. A
[...] Read more.
We investigated whether home environment, salt knowledge, and salt-use behavior were associated with urinary sodium (Na) excretion in Japanese secondary school students. Students (267; mean age, 14.2 years) from Suo-Oshima, Japan, collected three overnight urine samples and completed a salt environment/knowledge/behavior questionnaire. A subset of students (n = 66) collected, on non-consecutive days, two 24 h urine samples, and this subset was used to derive a formula for estimating 24 h Na excretion. Generalized linear models were used to examine the association between salt environment/knowledge/behavior and Na excretions. Students that had salt or soy sauce placed on the dining table during meals excreted more Na than those that did not (pfor trend < 0.05). A number of foods to which the students added seasonings were positively associated with Na excretion (pfor trend = 0.005). The students who frequently bought foods at convenience stores or visited restaurants excreted more Na in urine than those who seldom bought foods (pfor trend < 0.05). Knowledge about salt or discretionary seasoning use was not significantly associated with Na excretion. The associations found in this study indicate that home environment and salt-use behavior may be a target for a public health intervention to reduce salt intake of secondary school students. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Effect of a Diet Moderately High in Protein and Fiber on Insulin Sensitivity Measured Using the Dynamic Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion Test (DISST)
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1291; doi:10.3390/nu9121291
Received: 8 November 2017 / Revised: 24 November 2017 / Accepted: 24 November 2017 / Published: 27 November 2017
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Abstract
Evidence shows that weight loss improves insulin sensitivity but few studies have examined the effect of macronutrient composition independently of weight loss on direct measures of insulin sensitivity. We randomised 89 overweight or obese women to either a standard diet (StdD), that was
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Evidence shows that weight loss improves insulin sensitivity but few studies have examined the effect of macronutrient composition independently of weight loss on direct measures of insulin sensitivity. We randomised 89 overweight or obese women to either a standard diet (StdD), that was intended to be low in fat and relatively high in carbohydrate (n = 42) or to a relatively high protein (up to 30% of energy), relatively high fibre (>30 g/day) diet (HPHFib) (n = 47) for 10 weeks. Advice regarding strict adherence to energy intake goals was not given. Insulin sensitivity and secretion was assessed by a novel method—the Dynamic Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion Test (DISST). Although there were significant improvements in body composition and most cardiometabolic risk factors on HPHFib, insulin sensitivity was reduced by 19.3% (95% CI: 31.8%, 4.5%; p = 0.013) in comparison with StdD. We conclude that the reduction in insulin sensitivity after a diet relatively high in both protein and fibre, despite cardiometabolic improvements, suggests insulin sensitivity may reflect metabolic adaptations to dietary composition for maintenance of glucose homeostasis, rather than impaired metabolism. Full article
Open AccessArticle Estimating Free and Added Sugar Intakes in New Zealand
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1292; doi:10.3390/nu9121292
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 7 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 27 November 2017
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Abstract
The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener) is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than
[...] Read more.
The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener) is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition databases do not include data on free or added sugars. We developed free and added sugar estimates for the New Zealand (NZ) food composition database (FOODfiles 2010) by adapting a method developed for Australia. We reanalyzed the 24 h recall dietary data collected for 4721 adults aged 15 years and over participating in the nationally representative 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey to estimate free and added sugar intakes. The median estimated intake of free and added sugars was 57 and 49 g/day respectively and 42% of adults consumed less than 10% of their energy intake from free sugars. This approach provides more direct estimates of the free and added sugar contents of New Zealand foods than previously available and will enable monitoring of adherence to free sugar intake guidelines in future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Bacteriological and Immunological Profiling of Meconium and Fecal Samples from Preterm Infants: A Two-Year Follow-Up Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1293; doi:10.3390/nu9121293
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 13 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 27 November 2017
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Abstract
An abnormal colonization pattern of the preterm gut may affect immune maturation and exert a long-term influence on the intestinal bacterial composition and host health. However, follow-up studies assessing the evolution of the fecal microbiota of infants that were born preterm are very
[...] Read more.
An abnormal colonization pattern of the preterm gut may affect immune maturation and exert a long-term influence on the intestinal bacterial composition and host health. However, follow-up studies assessing the evolution of the fecal microbiota of infants that were born preterm are very scarce. In this work, the bacterial compositions of fecal samples, obtained from sixteen 2-year-old infants were evaluated using a phylogenetic microarray; subsequently, the results were compared with those obtained in a previous study from samples of meconium and feces collected from the same infants while they stayed in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). In parallel, the concentration of a wide range of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and immunoglobulins were determined in meconium and fecal samples. Globally, a higher bacterial diversity and a lower interindividual variability were observed in 2-year-olds’ feces, when compared to the samples obtained during their first days of life. Hospital-associated fecal bacteria, that were dominant during the NICU stay, seemed to be replaced, two years later, by genera, which are usually predominant in the healthy adult microbiome. The immune profile of the meconium and fecal samples differed, depending on the sampling time, showing different immune maturation statuses of the gut. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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Open AccessArticle Contribution of Dietary Supplements to Nutritional Adequacy in Race/Ethnic Population Subgroups in the United States
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1295; doi:10.3390/nu9121295
Received: 6 October 2017 / Revised: 8 November 2017 / Accepted: 20 November 2017 / Published: 28 November 2017
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Abstract
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has reported that nutritional deficiencies in the U.S. population vary by age, gender, and race/ethnicity, and could be as high as nearly one third of certain population groups. Based on nationally representative data in 10,698
[...] Read more.
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has reported that nutritional deficiencies in the U.S. population vary by age, gender, and race/ethnicity, and could be as high as nearly one third of certain population groups. Based on nationally representative data in 10,698 adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) primarily from 2009–2012, assessments were made of race/ethnic differences in the impact of dietary supplements on nutrient intake and prevalence of inadequacies. Compared to food alone, use of any dietary supplement plus food was associated with significantly higher intakes of 14 to 16 of 19 nutrients examined in all race/ethnic groups; and significantly (p < 0.01) reduced rates of inadequacy for 8/17 nutrients examined in non-Hispanic whites, but only 3–4/17 nutrients (calcium, and vitamins A, D, and E) for other race/ethnic groups. Across race/ethnic groups an increased prevalence of intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) was seen for 1–9/13 nutrients, but all were less than 5% of the population. In conclusion, use of dietary supplements is associated with increased micronutrient intake, decreased nutrient inadequacies, and slight increases in prevalence above the UL in all race/ethnicities examined, with greater benefits among non-Hispanic whites. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nut Consumption and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Mediterranean Population
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1296; doi:10.3390/nu9121296
Received: 15 September 2017 / Revised: 11 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 28 November 2017
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Abstract
Nuts are often considered beneficial for health, yet few studies have examined determinants of their intake and the associations between nut consumption and various cardiovascular disease risk factors. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with nut intake in a
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Nuts are often considered beneficial for health, yet few studies have examined determinants of their intake and the associations between nut consumption and various cardiovascular disease risk factors. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with nut intake in a Mediterranean population, in Croatia, and to investigate the association of nut intake and various cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: Subjects from the Island of Vis, Island of Korčula and the City of Split were included in this cross-sectional study (n = 4416 in total; 4011 without known cardiovascular disease). Survey responses, medical records and clinically relevant measurements were utilized. Multivariate ordinal and logistic regression models were used in the analysis, adjusting for known confounding factors. Results: As low as 5% of all subjects reported daily, and 11% reported weekly, nut consumption. The characteristics associated with more frequent nut intake were female gender (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.39; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19–1.62), highest level of education (1.42; 1.15–1.76) and material status (1.58; 1.29–1.93), smoking abstinence (1.21; 1.04–1.42 in never-smokers and 1.22; 1.02–1.46 in ex-smokers), Mediterranean diet adherence (1.87; 1.62–2.15), and absence of central obesity (1.29; 1.09–1.53), absence of diabetes (1.30; 1.02–1.66) and metabolic syndrome (1.17; 1.01–1.36). Subjects who consumed nuts had more favorable waist-to-height (overall p = 0.036) and waist-to-hip ratios (0.033), lesser odds of elevated fibrinogen (p < 0.001 in both weekly and monthly nut consumers) and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (p = 0.026), compared to non-consumers. Conclusions: It appears that frequent nut consumption is an integral part of a healthy lifestyle and better socioeconomic status. A beneficial association of nut intake with cardiovascular risk factors was confirmed in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nut Consumption for Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Dietary Sialyllactose Influences Sialic Acid Concentrations in the Prefrontal Cortex and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measures in Corpus Callosum of Young Pigs
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1297; doi:10.3390/nu9121297
Received: 1 November 2017 / Revised: 22 November 2017 / Accepted: 23 November 2017 / Published: 28 November 2017
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Abstract
Sialic acid (SA) is a key component of gangliosides and neural cell adhesion molecules important during neurodevelopment. Human milk contains SA in the form of sialyllactose (SL) an abundant oligosaccharide. To better understand the potential role of dietary SL on neurodevelopment, the effects
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Sialic acid (SA) is a key component of gangliosides and neural cell adhesion molecules important during neurodevelopment. Human milk contains SA in the form of sialyllactose (SL) an abundant oligosaccharide. To better understand the potential role of dietary SL on neurodevelopment, the effects of varying doses of dietary SL on brain SA content and neuroimaging markers of development were assessed in a newborn piglet model. Thirty-eight male pigs were provided one of four experimental diets from 2 to 32 days of age. Diets were formulated to contain: 0 mg SL/L (CON), 130 mg SL/L (LOW), 380 mg SL/L (MOD) or 760 mg SL/L (HIGH). At 32 or 33 days of age, all pigs were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess brain development. After MRI, pig serum and brains were collected and total, free and bound SA was analyzed. Results from this study indicate dietary SL influenced (p = 0.05) bound SA in the prefrontal cortex and the ratio of free SA to bound SA in the hippocampus (p = 0.04). Diffusion tensor imaging indicated treatment effects in mean (p < 0.01), axial (p < 0.01) and radial (p = 0.01) diffusivity in the corpus callosum. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) indicated differences (p < 0.05) in white matter tracts and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) indicated differences (p < 0.05) in grey matter between LOW and MOD pigs. CONT and HIGH pigs were not included in the TBSS and VBM assessments. These findings suggest the corpus callosum, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus may be differentially sensitive to dietary SL supplementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and the Function of the Central Nervous System)
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Open AccessArticle Study on the Prevalence of Severe Anemia among Non-Pregnant Women of Reproductive Age in Rural China: A Large Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1298; doi:10.3390/nu9121298
Received: 1 November 2017 / Revised: 24 November 2017 / Accepted: 27 November 2017 / Published: 28 November 2017
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Abstract
Globally, severe anemia impacts millions of non-pregnant women. However, studies on the prevalence of severe anemia through large epidemiologic surveys among non-pregnant women have been scarce in China. In this study, we aimed to study the prevalence of severe anemia and its determinants
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Globally, severe anemia impacts millions of non-pregnant women. However, studies on the prevalence of severe anemia through large epidemiologic surveys among non-pregnant women have been scarce in China. In this study, we aimed to study the prevalence of severe anemia and its determinants among non-pregnant women living in rural areas of China. Data were gathered for 712,101 non-pregnant women aged between 21 and 49 years who attended the 2012 National Free Preconception Health Examination Project. Severe anemia in non-pregnant women was defined as a hemoglobin (Hb) concentration lower than 80 g/L. Associated factors were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression methods. Out of the 712,101 non-pregnant women living in the rural areas of China, 1728 suffered from severe anemia, with a prevalence of 0.24% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.23–0.25%). Results from the multivariable logistic regression showed that elderly (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.08), living in the northwest region (aOR = 2.88), having a history of anemia (aOR = 5.76), with heavy menstrual blood loss (aOR = 1.84), and with a history of using an intra-uterine device (aOR = 1.47) etc., were independent determinants for women with severe anemia in rural China. The prevalence of severe anemia among Chinese non-pregnant women living in the rural areas was lower than the reported global prevalence. Prevention and intervention programs for severe anemia are required among non-pregnant women of reproductive age in the rural areas of China. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Gamma-Oryzanol as Therapeutic Agent to Prevent Cardiorenal Metabolic Syndrome in Animals Submitted to High Sugar-Fat Diet
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1299; doi:10.3390/nu9121299
Received: 25 September 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 29 November 2017
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Abstract
Background: The high consumption of fat and sugar contributes to the development of obesity and co-morbidities, such as diabetes, and cardiovascular and kidney diseases. Different strategies have been used to prevent these diseases associated with obesity, such as changes in eating habits and/or
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Background: The high consumption of fat and sugar contributes to the development of obesity and co-morbidities, such as diabetes, and cardiovascular and kidney diseases. Different strategies have been used to prevent these diseases associated with obesity, such as changes in eating habits and/or the addition of dietary components with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties, such as gamma-oryzanol (γOz) present mainly in bran layers and rice germ. Methods: Animals were randomly divided into four experimental groups and fed ad libitum for 20 weeks with control diet (C, n = 8), control diet + γOz (C + γOz, n = 8), high-sugar and high-fat diet (HSF, n = 8), and high-sugar and high-fat diet + γOz (HSF + γOz, n = 8). HSF groups also received water + sucrose (25%). The dose of γOz was added to diets to reach 0.5% of final concentration (w/w). Evaluation in animals included food and caloric intake, body weight, plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides, uric acid, HOMA-IR, glomerular filtration rate, protein/creatinine ratio, systolic blood pressure, and Doppler echocardiographic. Results: Animals that consumed the HSF diet had weight gain compared to group C, increased insulin, HOMA, glucose and triglycerides, there were also atrial and ventricular structural alterations, deterioration of systolic and diastolic function, decreased glomerular filtration rate, and proteinuria. Gamma-oryzanol is significantly protective against effects on body weight, hypertriglyceridemia, renal damage, and against structural and functional alteration of the heart. Conclusion: Gamma-oryzanol shows potential as a therapeutic to prevent Cardiorenal Metabolic Syndrome. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Study of Structure and Permeability Relationship of Flavonoids in Caco-2 Cells
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1301; doi:10.3390/nu9121301
Received: 3 November 2017 / Revised: 22 November 2017 / Accepted: 24 November 2017 / Published: 29 November 2017
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Abstract
Flavonoids exhibit a broad range of biological activities. However, poor absorption of some flavonoids is a major limitation for use of flavonoids as nutraceuticals. To investigate the structure requirements for flavonoids intestinal absorption, transepithelial transport and cellular accumulation (CA) of 30 flavonoids were
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Flavonoids exhibit a broad range of biological activities. However, poor absorption of some flavonoids is a major limitation for use of flavonoids as nutraceuticals. To investigate the structure requirements for flavonoids intestinal absorption, transepithelial transport and cellular accumulation (CA) of 30 flavonoids were determined using the Caco-2 cell monolayer. The bilateral permeation of five types of flavonoids followed the order: flavanones ≥ isoflavones > flavones ≥ chalcones > flavonols. The concentration of flavonoids accumulated in cells did not correlate with cell penetration since the correlation coefficient between the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) and their corresponding CA was poor (R2 < 0.3). Most flavonoids exhibited a ratio of 0.8–1.5 for Papp A to B/Papp B to A, suggesting passive diffusion pathways. However, luteolin, morin and taxifolin may involve the efflux mechanisms. The quantitative structure-permeability relationship (QSPR) study demonstrated that the intestinal absorption of flavonoids can be related to atomic charges on carbon 3′ (QC3′), molecule surface area (SlogP_V3), balance between the center of mass and position of hydrophobic region (vsurf_ID1) and solvation energy of flavonoids (E_sol). These results provide useful information for initially screening of flavonoids with high intestinal absorption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption and Risks of Obesity and Hypertension in Chinese Children and Adolescents: A National Cross-Sectional Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1302; doi:10.3390/nu9121302
Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 22 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 November 2017 / Published: 30 November 2017
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Abstract
We investigated the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) and its association with obesity and hypertension in a national sample of children and adolescents in China, where many low- and middle-income families live. Data were obtained from a 2014 national intervention program against obesity
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We investigated the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) and its association with obesity and hypertension in a national sample of children and adolescents in China, where many low- and middle-income families live. Data were obtained from a 2014 national intervention program against obesity in Chinese children and adolescents aged 6–17 years. Height, weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure were measured. Information of SSB consumption, socioeconomic status, dietary intake, screen time, and physical activity were self-reported. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association of SSB consumption with obesity and hypertension. A total of 66.6% of the 53,151 participants reported consuming SSB. The per capita and per consumer SSB intake were 2.84 ± 5.26 servings/week and 4.26 ± 5.96 servings/week, respectively. Boys, older children, and adolescents, and individuals with long screen time or high physical activity or low parental education level were more likely to consume SSB. Participants who were high SSB consumers had a higher odds ratio (1.133, 95% CI: 1.054–1.217) than non-consumers for having abdominal obesity after adjustment for age, sex, residence, socioeconomic status, diet, screen time, and physical activity. However, SSB consumption was not associated with general obesity or hypertension in children and adolescents. In conclusion, more than half of the children and adolescents in China consumed SSB, which was independently related to a high risk of abdominal obesity. The results of this study indicated that SSB reduction strategies and policies may be useful in preventing obesity among Chinese children and adolescents. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Elucidating the Skin Delivery of Aglycone and Glycoside Flavonoids: How the Structures Affect Cutaneous Absorption
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1304; doi:10.3390/nu9121304
Received: 1 November 2017 / Revised: 21 November 2017 / Accepted: 28 November 2017 / Published: 30 November 2017
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Abstract
Flavonoids are bioactive phytochemicals that exhibit protective potential against cutaneous inflammation and photoaging. We selected eight flavonoid aglycones or glycosides to elucidate the chemistry behind their skin absorption capability through experimental and computational approaches. The skin delivery was conducted using nude mouse and
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Flavonoids are bioactive phytochemicals that exhibit protective potential against cutaneous inflammation and photoaging. We selected eight flavonoid aglycones or glycosides to elucidate the chemistry behind their skin absorption capability through experimental and computational approaches. The skin delivery was conducted using nude mouse and pig skins mounted on an in vitro Franz cell assembly. The anti-inflammatory activity was examined using the O2 Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals and the Skin: Roles in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Exploring the Impact of Food on the Gut Ecosystem Based on the Combination of Machine Learning and Network Visualization
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1307; doi:10.3390/nu9121307
Received: 30 September 2017 / Revised: 13 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 1 December 2017
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Abstract
Prebiotics and probiotics strongly impact the gut ecosystem by changing the composition and/or metabolism of the microbiota to improve the health of the host. However, the composition of the microbiota constantly changes due to the intake of daily diet. This shift in the
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Prebiotics and probiotics strongly impact the gut ecosystem by changing the composition and/or metabolism of the microbiota to improve the health of the host. However, the composition of the microbiota constantly changes due to the intake of daily diet. This shift in the microbiota composition has a considerable impact; however, non-pre/probiotic foods that have a low impact are ignored because of the lack of a highly sensitive evaluation method. We performed comprehensive acquisition of data using existing measurements (nuclear magnetic resonance, next-generation DNA sequencing, and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy) and analyses based on a combination of machine learning and network visualization, which extracted important factors by the Random Forest approach, and applied these factors to a network module. We used two pteridophytes, Pteridium aquilinum and Matteuccia struthiopteris, for the representative daily diet. This novel analytical method could detect the impact of a small but significant shift associated with Matteuccia struthiopteris but not Pteridium aquilinum intake, using the functional network module. In this study, we proposed a novel method that is useful to explore a new valuable food to improve the health of the host as pre/probiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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Open AccessArticle Food and Nutrient Intake and Nutrient Sources in 1-Year-Old Infants in Finland: A Cross-Sectional Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1309; doi:10.3390/nu9121309
Received: 4 October 2017 / Revised: 22 November 2017 / Accepted: 28 November 2017 / Published: 1 December 2017
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Abstract
The infant diet has short- and long-term health consequences. Updated data regarding the dietary intake of Finnish infants are lacking. The objectives of this study were to describe infant food and nutrient intake and to identify food sources of the nutrients. Altogether, 739
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The infant diet has short- and long-term health consequences. Updated data regarding the dietary intake of Finnish infants are lacking. The objectives of this study were to describe infant food and nutrient intake and to identify food sources of the nutrients. Altogether, 739 healthy infants were studied. Dietary intake and breastfeeding frequency were assessed with a three-day food record at 1 year of age. Dietary intake was calculated separately for non-breastfed and breastfed infants. One-third (36%) of the infants were partially breastfed and 95% consumed mass-produced baby foods. The infants’ diet consisted mainly of infant formula, dairy milk, porridges, fruit and berry foods, and meat dishes. The mean vegetable, fruit and berry consumption was 199 g/day. Most nutrient intakes were adequate except for fat, linoleic acid, vitamin D and iron from food. Mean sucrose intake, as a percentage of total energy intake (E%), was 5–6 E%. High protein intake (>20 E%) was observed in 19% of non-breastfed infants. Overall, the infants’ diet was favorable since vegetable and fruit consumption was reasonably high and nutrient intake was mostly adequate. However, the fat intake was lower, and protein intake higher than recommended. Increasing the consumption of vegetable oils and reducing the intake of red meat and dairy milk may further improve the diet of 1-year-olds. Full article
Open AccessArticle Protective Effects of Hesperidin (Citrus Flavonone) on High Glucose Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in a Cellular Model for Diabetic Retinopathy
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1312; doi:10.3390/nu9121312
Received: 16 October 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 20 November 2017 / Published: 2 December 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects and mechanisms of hesperidin, a plant based active flavanone found in citrus fruits, under the oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by high levels of glucose in retinal ganglial cells (RGCs). RGC-5 cells
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The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects and mechanisms of hesperidin, a plant based active flavanone found in citrus fruits, under the oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by high levels of glucose in retinal ganglial cells (RGCs). RGC-5 cells were pretreated with hesperidin (12.5, 25, or 50 μmol/L) for 6 h followed by exposure to high (33.3 mmol/L) d-glucose for 48 h. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was adopted to evaluate cell viability. Mitochondrial function was estimated by measuring the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). A fluorescent probe was employed to evaluate the intercellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Colorimetric assay kits were used to evaluate lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, and protein carbonyls formation. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were measured with Western blotting. Hesperidin inhibited high glucose-mediated cell loss and restored mitochondrial function including a reversion of ΔΨm loss and cytochrome c release. Treated with hesperidin, high glucose-induced increase in ROS, malondialdehyde, and protein carbonyl levels were blocked in RGC-5 cells. Hesperidin was found to elevate the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and to recover glutathione levels. Hesperidin inhibited high glucose-induced cell apoptosis by attenuating the downregulation of caspase-9, caspase-3, and Bax/Bcl-2. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and p38 MAPK triggered by high glucose were attenuated in RGC-5 cells after their incubation with hesperdin. We concluded that hesperidin may protect RGC-5 cells from high glucose-induced injury since it owns the properties of antioxidant action and blocks mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Is Trabecular Bone Score Valuable in Bone Microstructure Assessment after Gastric Bypass in Women with Morbid Obesity?
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1314; doi:10.3390/nu9121314
Received: 4 October 2017 / Revised: 22 November 2017 / Accepted: 28 November 2017 / Published: 2 December 2017
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Abstract
Introduction: The effects of bariatric surgery on skeletal health raise many concerns. Trabecular bone score (TBS) is obtained through the analysis of lumbar spine dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) images and allows an indirect assessment of skeletal microarchitecture (MA). The aim of our study
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Introduction: The effects of bariatric surgery on skeletal health raise many concerns. Trabecular bone score (TBS) is obtained through the analysis of lumbar spine dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) images and allows an indirect assessment of skeletal microarchitecture (MA). The aim of our study was to evaluate the changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and alterations in bone microarchitecture assessed by TBS in morbidly obese women undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), over a three-year follow-up. Material/Methods: A prospective study of 38 morbidly obese white women, aged 46.3 ± 8.2 years, undergoing RYGB was conducted. Biochemical analyses and DXA scans with TBS evaluation were performed before and at one year and three years after surgery. Results: Patients showed normal calcium and phosphorus plasma concentrations throughout the study. However, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D3) decreased, and 71% of patients had a vitamin D deficiency at three years. BMD at femoral neck and lumbar spine (LSBMD) significantly decreased 13.53 ± 5.42% and 6.03 ± 6.79%, respectively, during the three-year follow-up; however Z-score values remained above those for women of the same age. TBS was within normal ranges at one and three years (1.431 ± 106 and 1.413 ± 85, respectively), and at the end of the study, 73.7% of patients had normal bone MA. TBS at three years correlated inversely with age (r = −0.41, p = 0.010), body fat (r = −0.465, p = 0.004) and greater body fat deposited in trunk (r = −0.48, p = 0.004), and positively with LSBMD (r = 0.433, p = 0.007), fat mass loss (r = 0.438, p = 0.007) and lean mass loss (r = 0.432, p = 0.008). In the regression analysis, TBS remained associated with body fat (β = −0.625, p = 0.031; R2 = 0.47). The fracture risk, calculated by FRAX® (University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK), with and without adjustment by TBS, was low. Conclusion: Women undergoing RYGB in the mid-term have a preserved bone MA, assessed by TBS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Bariatric Surgery)
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Open AccessArticle Eating at Food Outlets and “On the Go” Is Associated with Less Healthy Food Choices in Adults: Cross-Sectional Data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme (2008–2014)
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1315; doi:10.3390/nu9121315
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 26 November 2017 / Accepted: 29 November 2017 / Published: 2 December 2017
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Abstract
Eating location has been linked with variations in diet quality including the consumption of low-nutrient energy-dense food, which is a recognised risk factor for obesity. Cross-sectional data from 4736 adults aged 19 years and over from Years 1–6 of the UK National Diet
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Eating location has been linked with variations in diet quality including the consumption of low-nutrient energy-dense food, which is a recognised risk factor for obesity. Cross-sectional data from 4736 adults aged 19 years and over from Years 1–6 of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) Rolling Programme (RP) (2008–2014) were used to explore food consumption patterns by eating location. Eating location was categorized as home, work, leisure places, food outlets and “on the go”. Foods were classified into two groups: core (included in the principal food groups and considered important/acceptable within a healthy diet) and non-core (all other foods). Out of 97,748 eating occasions reported, the most common was home (67–90% of eating occasions). Leisure places, food outlets and “on the go” combined contributed more energy from non-core (30%) than from core food (18%). Analyses of modulating factors revealed that sex, income, frequency of eating out and frequency of drinking were significant factors affecting consumption patterns (p < 0.01). Our study provides evidence that eating patterns, behaviours and resulting diet quality vary by location. Public health interventions should focus on availability and access to healthy foods, promotion of healthy food choices and behaviours across multiple locations, environments and contexts for food consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Intake, Trends, and Determinants)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate-free Acid Supplementation on Strength, Power and Hormonal Adaptations Following Resistance Training
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1316; doi:10.3390/nu9121316
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 26 November 2017 / Accepted: 29 November 2017 / Published: 2 December 2017
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Abstract
Background: β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate-free acid (HMB-FA) has been ingested prior to exercise to reduce muscle damage, however the effects of HMB-FA supplementation on hormonal, strength and power adaptation are unclear. Methods: Sixteen healthy men were matched and randomized into two groups and performed six-week resistance
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Background: β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate-free acid (HMB-FA) has been ingested prior to exercise to reduce muscle damage, however the effects of HMB-FA supplementation on hormonal, strength and power adaptation are unclear. Methods: Sixteen healthy men were matched and randomized into two groups and performed six-week resistance training while supplementing with either HMB-FA or placebo (3 g per day). The subjects were evaluated for 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press and leg press and vertical jump (VJ) prior to and after training intervention. In addition, blood samples were obtained before and after resistance training to evaluate resting growth hormone (GH), insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), testosterone (TEST), cortisol (CORT), and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) responses. The HMB-FA supplementation group showed greater gains compared with the placebo group in peak power (effect size ES = 0.26 vs. 0.01) and 1RM leg press (ES = 1.52 vs. 0.96). In addition, the HMB-FA supplementation group indicated greater decrements in ACTH and CORT responses to training in comparison to the placebo group (p < 0.05). Likewise, in GH (ES = 1.41 vs. 0.12) and IGF-1 (ES = 0.83 vs. 0.41), the HMB-FA indicated greater training effects when compared with the placebo group. Conclusions: These findings provide further support for the potential anabolic benefits associated with HMB-FA supplementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunology: Nutrition, Exercise and Adiposity Relationships)
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Intake of High-Protein Foods and Other Major Foods in Meat-Eaters, Poultry-Eaters, Fish-Eaters, Vegetarians, and Vegans in UK Biobank
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1317; doi:10.3390/nu9121317
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 17 November 2017 / Accepted: 28 November 2017 / Published: 2 December 2017
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Abstract
Vegetarian diets are defined by the absence of meat and fish, but differences in the intake of other foods between meat-eaters and low or non-meat eaters are also important to document. We examined intakes of high-protein foods (meat, poultry, fish, legumes, nuts, vegetarian
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Vegetarian diets are defined by the absence of meat and fish, but differences in the intake of other foods between meat-eaters and low or non-meat eaters are also important to document. We examined intakes of high-protein foods (meat, poultry, fish, legumes, nuts, vegetarian protein alternatives, dairy products, and eggs) and other major food groups (fruit, vegetables, bread, pasta, rice, snack foods, and beverages) in regular meat-eaters, low meat-eaters, poultry-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans of white ethnicity participating in UK Biobank who had completed at least one web-based 24-h dietary assessment (n = 199,944). In regular meat-eaters, around 25% of total energy came from meat, fish, dairy and plant milk, cheese, yogurt, and eggs. In vegetarians, around 20% of energy came from dairy and plant milk, cheese, yoghurt, eggs, legumes, nuts, and vegetarian protein alternatives, and in vegans around 15% came from plant milk, legumes, vegetarian alternatives, and nuts. Low and non-meat eaters had higher intakes of fruit and vegetables and lower intakes of roast or fried potatoes compared to regular meat-eaters. The differences in the intakes of meat, plant-based high-protein foods, and other foods between meat-eaters and low and non-meat eaters in UK Biobank may contribute to differences in health outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Science of Vegetarian Nutrition and Health)
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Open AccessArticle Growth and Bone Mineralization of Very Preterm Infants at Term Corrected Age in Relation to Different Nutritional Intakes in the Early Postnatal Period
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1318; doi:10.3390/nu9121318
Received: 9 November 2017 / Revised: 27 November 2017 / Accepted: 28 November 2017 / Published: 2 December 2017
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Abstract
Preterm infants often have a reduced bone mineral content (BMC) with increased risk of metabolic bone disease. After birth it is difficult to supply calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) comparable to the high fetal accretion rate. It is not known whether high supplementation
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Preterm infants often have a reduced bone mineral content (BMC) with increased risk of metabolic bone disease. After birth it is difficult to supply calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) comparable to the high fetal accretion rate. It is not known whether high supplementation of minerals in the early postnatal period improves growth and bone mineralization. The aim of this study was to evaluate growth and bone mineralization at term corrected age (TCA) in very and extremely preterm infants who received different enteral Ca and P intakes during the first 10 days of life. Infants (n = 109) with birth weights below 1500 g were randomly assigned to one of three groups that differed in the nutritional protocols delivered until day 10: Group A, mother’s own milk (MOM) and donor milk (unfortified); Group B, MOM (unfortified) and preterm formula; Group C, MOM (start fortification >50 mL/day) and preterm formula. Due to the earlier commencement of fortification, Group C received higher intakes of calcium and phosphorus and protein (p < 0.001) until day 10. At TCA weight, length, BMC and bone mineral density (BMD), measured by dual-X-ray absorptiometry, were not different between the groups. Nutritional intake of P was positively associated with length (β; (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.20 (0.001; 0.393); p-value = 0.048), whereas Ca intake was negatively associated with BMC (−1.94 (−2.78; −1.09); p-value < 0.001). A small interaction between Ca and P intake was only found for BMD (0.003 (0.00002; 0.00006); p-value = 0.036). The volume of human milk per kg provided during the first 10 days was positively associated with BMC (β; (95% CI): 0.013 (0.002; 0.023); p < 0.017). Higher intakes of Ca and P during the first 10 days, as provided in this study, did not improve bone mineralization at term corrected age. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Relationship between Vitamin Intake and Depressive Symptoms in Elderly Japanese Individuals: Differences with Gender and Body Mass Index
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1319; doi:10.3390/nu9121319
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 23 November 2017 / Accepted: 30 November 2017 / Published: 3 December 2017
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Abstract
Only a few studies have focused on the relationship between vitamin intake and depressive symptoms in Japanese individuals. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between vitamin intake and depressive symptoms in 1634 elderly Japanese individuals (65 years and older). The consumption of fifteen
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Only a few studies have focused on the relationship between vitamin intake and depressive symptoms in Japanese individuals. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between vitamin intake and depressive symptoms in 1634 elderly Japanese individuals (65 years and older). The consumption of fifteen vitamins including retinol, a retinol equivalent, beta-carotene equivalent, vitamin D, alpha-tocopherol, vitamin K, vitamin group B, vitamin C, and cryptoxanthine was analyzed using a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). The short version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) was used to assess depressive symptoms. The prevalence of participants with depressive symptoms was 26.7%. The consumption of all vitamins, except for retinol and vitamin D, was lower among depressed than non-depressed participants. The consumption of vitamins was significantly less in female and overweight participants with depressive symptoms than in elderly participants without depressive symptoms. After adjustments for potential confounders, none of the fifteen vitamins were correlated with depressive symptoms in male or underweight participants. Associations between vitamin deficiencies and depressive symptoms were observed in female and overweight elderly participants. Our findings demonstrated a relationship between vitamin intake and depressive symptoms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effects of Phytosterols Extracted from Diascorea alata on the Antioxidant Activity, Plasma Lipids, and Hematological Profiles in Taiwanese Menopausal Women
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1320; doi:10.3390/nu9121320
Received: 13 September 2017 / Revised: 29 November 2017 / Accepted: 29 November 2017 / Published: 5 December 2017
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Abstract
The efficacy of phytosterols extracted from Diascorea alata on antioxidant activities, plasma lipids and hematological profiles was assessed in postmenopausal women. Gas chromatography and mass spectrophotometry was employed to determine the steroid content of Taiwanese yam (Diascorea alata cv. Tainung No. 2).
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The efficacy of phytosterols extracted from Diascorea alata on antioxidant activities, plasma lipids and hematological profiles was assessed in postmenopausal women. Gas chromatography and mass spectrophotometry was employed to determine the steroid content of Taiwanese yam (Diascorea alata cv. Tainung No. 2). A two-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical investigation on 50 postmenopausal women randomly assigned to two groups treated for 12 months with placebo or two sachets daily of Diascorea extracts containing 12 mg/dose was carried out. The main outcome measures were the plasma antioxidant activities, hematological profiles, and the concentrations of plasma lipids, including cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein,, and apolipoprotein A1 and B. A one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) test was performed to investigate the significance. Beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, 22-23-dihydro-, and γ-sitosterol were major phytosterols determined from Diascorea extracts. At six months in those receiving Diascorea, there were significantly decreased leukocyte counts (p < 0.01) and improvement on antioxidant activity of malondialdehyde (p < 0.001). After 12 months’ treatment, elevations of hematocrit and mean corpuscular volume (p < 0.01) were noted in those receiving Diascorea. Moreover, the low dose Diascorea consumption in menopausal women for one year generally did not present positive effects on lipid profiles. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Tooth Wear Is Frequent in Adult Patients with Celiac Disease
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1321; doi:10.3390/nu9121321
Received: 26 September 2017 / Revised: 29 November 2017 / Accepted: 30 November 2017 / Published: 4 December 2017
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Abstract
(1) Background: Celiac disease (CD) patients can be affected by mouth and tooth disorders, which are influenced by their gluten-free diet. The aim of our research was to evaluate the pathological conditions of the stomatognathic system observed in celiac patients on a gluten-free
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(1) Background: Celiac disease (CD) patients can be affected by mouth and tooth disorders, which are influenced by their gluten-free diet. The aim of our research was to evaluate the pathological conditions of the stomatognathic system observed in celiac patients on a gluten-free diet. (2) Methods: we consecutively recruited celiac patients on a gluten-free diet at our celiac center, as well as healthy volunteers. Two dentists examined all patients/controls and checked them for any mouth disorder. (3) Results: Forty-nine patients affected by celiac disease (age at test 31.8 ± 11.58, time on GFD 8.73 ± 7.7) and 51 healthy volunteers (age at test 30.5 ± 8.7) were included. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis was reported in 26 patients (53.0%) and in 13 (25.5%) controls (p = 0.005). Dental enamel disorders were reported in 7 patients (14.3%) and in 0 controls (p = 0.002), with none having geographic tongue. We found non-specific tooth wear, characterized by loss of the mineralized tissue of the teeth, in 9 patients (18.3%) and in 3 (5.9%) controls (p = 0.05). (4) Conclusion: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis and enamel hypoplasia are “risk indicators” that may suggest that an individual has CD. We detected a high prevalence of non-specific tooth wear that can be caused by several factors such as malocclusion, sleep bruxism, parafunctional activity, and age. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Melatonin Efficacy in Obese Leptin-Deficient Mice Heart
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1323; doi:10.3390/nu9121323
Received: 13 November 2017 / Revised: 27 November 2017 / Accepted: 29 November 2017 / Published: 5 December 2017
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Abstract
Cardiomyocytes are particularly sensitive to oxidative damage due to the link between mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum necessary for calcium flux and contraction. Melatonin, important indoleamine secreted by the pineal gland during darkness, also has important cardioprotective properties. We designed the present study to
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Cardiomyocytes are particularly sensitive to oxidative damage due to the link between mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum necessary for calcium flux and contraction. Melatonin, important indoleamine secreted by the pineal gland during darkness, also has important cardioprotective properties. We designed the present study to define morphological and ultrastructural changes in cardiomyocytes and mainly in mitochondria of an animal model of obesity (ob/ob mice), when treated orally or not with melatonin at 100 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks (from 5 up to 13 week of life). We observed that ob/ob mice mitochondria in sub-sarcolemmal and inter-myofibrillar compartments are often devoid of cristae with an abnormally large size, which are called mega-mitochondria. Moreover, in ob/ob mice the hypertrophic cardiomyocytes expressed high level of 4hydroxy-2-nonenal (4HNE), a marker of lipid peroxidation but scarce degree of mitofusin2, indicative of mitochondrial sufferance. Melatonin oral supplementation in ob/ob mice restores mitochondrial cristae, enhances mitofusin2 expression and minimizes 4HNE and p62/SQSTM1, an index of aberrant autophagic flux. At pericardial fat level, adipose tissue depot strictly associated with myocardium infarction, melatonin reduces adipocyte hypertrophy and inversely regulates 4HNE and adiponectin expressions. In summary, melatonin might represent a safe dietary adjuvant to hamper cardiac mitochondria remodeling and the hypoxic status that occur in pre-diabetic obese mice at 13 weeks of life. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dioscorea quinqueloba Ameliorates Oxazolone- and 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene-induced Atopic Dermatitis Symptoms in Murine Models
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1324; doi:10.3390/nu9121324
Received: 26 October 2017 / Revised: 28 November 2017 / Accepted: 29 November 2017 / Published: 5 December 2017
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Abstract
Dioscorea quinqueloba has been used for food substances, as well as in herbal medicines for allergic diseases such as asthma. This study aimed to investigate the anti-atopic dermatitis (AD) effects of the total extract of D. quinqueloba rhizomes and active fractionson murine oxazolone-
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Dioscorea quinqueloba has been used for food substances, as well as in herbal medicines for allergic diseases such as asthma. This study aimed to investigate the anti-atopic dermatitis (AD) effects of the total extract of D. quinqueloba rhizomes and active fractionson murine oxazolone- and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced models of AD. Specific AD symptoms, such as erythema, ear swelling, and epidermis thickening, were significantly reduced in the oxazolone-mediated AD BALB/c mice upon topical application of D. quinqueloba rhizomes 95% EtOH extract (DQ). DQEA (D. quinqueloba rhizomes EtOAc fraction) was beneficial for protecting the skin barrier against AD in DNCB-sensitized SKH-1 hairless mice. Decreased total serum IgE and IL-4 levels could be observed in atopic dorsal skin samples of the DQEA-treated group. On the basis of the phytochemical analysis, DQEA was found to contain dioscin and gracillin as its main compounds. Therapeutic applications with D. quinqueloba might be useful in the treatment of AD and related inflammatory skin diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals and the Skin: Roles in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Contribution of Dietary Supplements to Nutritional Adequacy in Various Adult Age Groups
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1325; doi:10.3390/nu9121325
Received: 6 October 2017 / Revised: 19 November 2017 / Accepted: 1 December 2017 / Published: 6 December 2017
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Abstract
Many Americans have inadequate intakes of several nutrients. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015–2020 specifically identified vitamins A, C, D and E, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium, choline and fiber as “underconsumed nutrients”. Based on nationally representative data in 10,698 adults from National Health
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Many Americans have inadequate intakes of several nutrients. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015–2020 specifically identified vitamins A, C, D and E, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium, choline and fiber as “underconsumed nutrients”. Based on nationally representative data in 10,698 adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), 2009–2012, assessments were made of age-group differences in the impact of dietary supplements on nutrient intake and inadequacies. Compared to food alone, use of any dietary supplement plus food was associated with significantly (p < 0.01) higher intakes of 15–16 of 19 nutrients examined in all age groups; and significantly reduced rates of inadequacy for 10/17, 8/17 and 6/17 nutrients examined among individuals age ≥71, 51–70 and 19–50 years, respectively. Compared to the other age groups, older adults (≥71 years) had lower rates of inadequacy for iron and vitamins A, C, D and E, but higher rates for calcium. An increased prevalence of intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level was seen for 8–9 of 13 nutrients, but were mostly less than 5% of the population. In conclusion, dietary supplement use is associated with increased micronutrient intake, decreased inadequacies, and slight increases in prevalence above the UL, with greater benefits seen among older adults. Full article
Open AccessArticle Dietary Intake of Protein from Different Sources and Weight Regain, Changes in Body Composition and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors after Weight Loss: The DIOGenes Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1326; doi:10.3390/nu9121326
Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 25 October 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 6 December 2017
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Abstract
An increase in dietary protein intake has been shown to improve weight loss maintenance in the DIOGenes trial. Here, we analysed whether the source of the dietary proteins influenced changes in body weight, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk factors during the weight maintenance
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An increase in dietary protein intake has been shown to improve weight loss maintenance in the DIOGenes trial. Here, we analysed whether the source of the dietary proteins influenced changes in body weight, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk factors during the weight maintenance period while following an energy-restricted diet. 489 overweight or obese participants of the DIOGenes trial from eight European countries were included. They successfully lost >8% of body weight and subsequently completed a six month weight maintenance period, in which they consumed an ad libitum diet varying in protein content and glycemic index. Dietary intake was estimated from three-day food diaries. A higher plant protein intake with a proportional decrease in animal protein intake did not affect body weight maintenance or cardiometabolic risk factors. A higher plant protein intake from non-cereal products instead of cereal products was associated with benefits for body weight maintenance and blood pressure. Substituting meat protein for protein from other animal sources increased insulin and HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance). This analysis suggests that not only the amount of dietary proteins, but also the source may be important for weight and cardiometabolic risk management. However, randomized trials are needed to test the causality of these associations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Approaches to Prevent Weight Regain)
Open AccessArticle Bioavailability of Bergamot (Citrus bergamia) Flavanones and Biological Activity of Their Circulating Metabolites in Human Pro-Angiogenic Cells
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1328; doi:10.3390/nu9121328
Received: 1 November 2017 / Revised: 23 November 2017 / Accepted: 1 December 2017 / Published: 6 December 2017
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Abstract
Myeloid angiogenic cells (MACs) play a key role in endothelial repairing processes and functionality but their activity may be impaired by the lipotoxic effects of some molecules like stearic acid (SA). Among the dietary components potentially able to modulate endothelial function in vivo,
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Myeloid angiogenic cells (MACs) play a key role in endothelial repairing processes and functionality but their activity may be impaired by the lipotoxic effects of some molecules like stearic acid (SA). Among the dietary components potentially able to modulate endothelial function in vivo, (poly)phenolic compounds represent serious candidates. Here, we apply a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach to shed light on the prospects of Bergamot (Citrus bergamia), a citrus fruit rich in flavanones and other phenolic compounds, in the framework of lipotoxicity-induced MACs impairment. The flavanone profile of bergamot juice was characterized and 16 compounds were identified, with a new 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl (HMG) flavanone, isosakuranetin-7-O-neohesperidoside-6″-O-HMG, described for the first time. Then, a pilot bioavailability study was conducted in healthy volunteers to assess the circulating flavanone metabolites in plasma and urine after consumption of bergamot juice. Up to 12 flavanone phase II conjugates (sulfates and glucuronides of hesperetin, naringenin and eriodyctiol) were detected and quantified. Finally, the effect of some of the metabolites identified in vivo, namely hesperetin-7-O-glucuronide, hesperetin-3′-O-glucuronide, naringenin-7-O-glucuronide and naringenin-4′-O-glucuronide, was tested, at physiological concentrations, on gene expression of inflammatory markers and apoptosis in MACs exposed to SA. Under these conditions, naringenin-4′-O-glucuronide and hesperetin-7-O-glucuronide were able to modulate inflammation, while no flavanone glucuronide was effective in curbing stearate-induced lipoapoptosis. These results demonstrate that some flavanone metabolites, derived from the in vivo transformation of bergamot juice phenolics in humans, may mitigate stearate-induced inflammation in MACs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Meta-Analysis of Fecal Microbiota and Metabolites in Experimental Colitic Mice during the Inflammatory and Healing Phases
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1329; doi:10.3390/nu9121329
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 28 November 2017 / Accepted: 3 December 2017 / Published: 6 December 2017
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Abstract
The imbalance of gut microbiota is known to be associated with inflammatory bowel disease, but it remains unknown whether dysbiosis is a cause or consequence of chronic gut inflammation. In order to investigate the effects of gut inflammation on microbiota and metabolome, the
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The imbalance of gut microbiota is known to be associated with inflammatory bowel disease, but it remains unknown whether dysbiosis is a cause or consequence of chronic gut inflammation. In order to investigate the effects of gut inflammation on microbiota and metabolome, the sequential changes in gut microbiota and metabolites from the onset of colitis to the recovery in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitic mice were characterized by using meta 16S rRNA sequencing and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) analysis. Mice in the colitis progression phase showed the transient expansions of two bacterial families including Bacteroidaceae and Enterobacteriaceae and the depletion of major gut commensal bacteria belonging to the uncultured Bacteroidales family S24-7, Rikenellaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae. After the initiation of the recovery, commensal Lactobacillus members promptly predominated in gut while other normally abundant bacteria excluding the Erysipelotrichaceae remained diminished. Furthermore, 1H-NMR analysis revealed characteristic fluctuations in fecal levels of organic acids (lactate and succinate) associated with the disease states. In conclusion, acute intestinal inflammation is a perturbation factor of gut microbiota but alters the intestinal environments suitable for Lactobacillus members. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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Open AccessArticle Fasting Plasma Glucose, Self-Appraised Diet Quality and Depressive Symptoms: A US-Representative Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1330; doi:10.3390/nu9121330
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 5 December 2017 / Published: 7 December 2017
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Abstract
Depression and type 2 diabetes (T2D) contribute significantly to global burden of disease and often co-occur. Underpinning type 2 diabetes is poor glycaemic control and glucose is also an obligatory substrate for brain metabolism, with potential implications for cognition, motivation and mood. This
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Depression and type 2 diabetes (T2D) contribute significantly to global burden of disease and often co-occur. Underpinning type 2 diabetes is poor glycaemic control and glucose is also an obligatory substrate for brain metabolism, with potential implications for cognition, motivation and mood. This research aimed to examine the relationships between fasting plasma glucose and depressive symptoms in a large, population representative sample of US adults, controlling for other demographic and lifestyle behavioural risk factors. Using the 2013–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data, this study first investigated the relationship between fasting plasma glucose and mental disorders at a population-level, accounting for demographic, health behavioural and weight-related factors known to co-occur with both type 2 diabetes and mental disorders. Depressive symptoms were derived from the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Fasting plasma glucose was obtained through medical examination and demographic (age, household income, sex) and health characteristics (perceived diet quality, daily time sedentary) were self-reported. Body mass index was calculated from objectively measured height and weight. In the univariate model, higher fasting plasma glucose was associated with greater depressive symptoms among females (b = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.05, 0.43, p < 0.05), but not males. In the final fully adjusted model, the relationship between fasting plasma glucose and depressive symptoms was non-significant for both males and females. Of all independent variables, self-appraised diet quality was strongly and significantly associated with depressive symptoms and this remained significant when individuals with diabetes were excluded. Although diet quality was self-reported based on individuals’ perceptions, these findings are consistent with a role for poor diet in the relationship between fasting plasma glucose and depressive symptoms. Full article
Open AccessArticle Dietary Factors and Female Breast Cancer Risk: A Prospective Cohort Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1331; doi:10.3390/nu9121331
Received: 20 September 2017 / Revised: 30 November 2017 / Accepted: 5 December 2017 / Published: 7 December 2017
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Abstract
Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer in females and has become a major global health priority. This prospective cohort study investigated the association of dietary factors, including food items and dietary habits, with the risk of breast cancer in Korean women.
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Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer in females and has become a major global health priority. This prospective cohort study investigated the association of dietary factors, including food items and dietary habits, with the risk of breast cancer in Korean women. Study participants were women aged 30 years or older, recruited from the National Cancer Center in South Korea between August 2002 and May 2007. They were followed until December 2014 using the Korea Central Cancer Registry to identify breast cancer cases. Among 5046 non-pre-diagnosed cancer participants, 72 breast cancer cases were prospectively identified. Participants with breast cancer had a significantly higher educational level (college or higher: 58.3% vs. 39.5%, p = 0.01), were more likely to have ever smoked (22.2% vs. 7.8%, p < 0.001), and were more likely to have a history of benign breast tumors (10% vs. 4%, p = 0.02) than non-cases. Consumption of grilled meat conferred a significantly higher risk of breast cancer in all women (hazard ratio (HR) 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09–2.85) and in postmenopausal women (HR 3.06, 95% CI 1.31–7.15). High-cholesterol food intake was associated with a higher risk in all women (HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.01–2.82). Irregular meal intake was associated with an elevated risk in all women (HR 2.19, 95% CI 1.20–3.98, p for trend = 0.01) and in premenopausal women (HR 2.35, 95% CI 1.13–4.91, p for trend = 0.03). Our findings suggest that grilled meat and high-cholesterol food intake and irregular eating habits may be associated with a higher risk of breast cancer. Further studies with longer follow-up periods that include information on portion size, hormone receptor status, carcinogen levels in grilled meat, and a classification of foods by source are required. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cognitive and Mood Effects of a Nutrient Enriched Breakfast Bar in Healthy Adults: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Groups Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1332; doi:10.3390/nu9121332
Received: 2 November 2017 / Revised: 24 November 2017 / Accepted: 29 November 2017 / Published: 7 December 2017
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Abstract
Objectives: Few previous studies have assessed the effects of concomitant administration of multiple potentially psychoactive nutrients. Methods: 95 healthy adult participants consumed either a nutrient enriched breakfast bar (containing α-Linolenic acid, l-tyrosine, l-theanine, vitamins, minerals and 21.5 mg of caffeine) or
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Objectives: Few previous studies have assessed the effects of concomitant administration of multiple potentially psychoactive nutrients. Methods: 95 healthy adult participants consumed either a nutrient enriched breakfast bar (containing α-Linolenic acid, l-tyrosine, l-theanine, vitamins, minerals and 21.5 mg of caffeine) or an isocaloric, macronutrient matched control bar for 56 days. Cognitive function and mood were assessed pre-dose and at 40- and 160-min post-dose on the 1st and 56th day of the intervention period. Results: The results demonstrated acute effects of treatment across post-dose assessments on both assessment days in terms of alertness, and on tasks assessing attention, working and episodic memory and executive function, including cognitively demanding Serial subtraction and Rapid Visual Information Processing tasks. There were no evident chronic effects independent of the breakfast bars’ acute effects. Discussion: These results demonstrate that a nutrient enriched breakfast bar with low caffeine content can exert striking beneficial effects on acute cognitive function and alertness. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Protein Adequacy Is Primarily a Matter of Protein Quantity, Not Quality: Modeling an Increase in Plant:Animal Protein Ratio in French Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1333; doi:10.3390/nu9121333
Received: 24 October 2017 / Revised: 13 November 2017 / Accepted: 3 December 2017 / Published: 8 December 2017
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Abstract
A downward trend in animal protein (AP) intake has been observed in western countries over the last decade and the effects of such a transition on protein adequacy remain debatable. Using the probability approach and diet modeling with data on 1678 adults from
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A downward trend in animal protein (AP) intake has been observed in western countries over the last decade and the effects of such a transition on protein adequacy remain debatable. Using the probability approach and diet modeling with data on 1678 adults from a representative French national dietary survey, we studied the sensitivity of the adequacy of protein and amino acid intakes to changes in animal:plant protein. We simulated the gradual substitution of AP with different mixtures of plant protein (PP), containing various proportions of PP already consumed and legumes, nuts and seeds (LNS). We found that protein and amino acid intakes met dietary requirements in virtually the entire population studied. Up to 50% of PP in diets, protein and amino acid intakes were adequate in all models. From 50%, protein inadequacy was primary due to protein quantity, and from 70%, to protein quality (as lysine inadequacy). The introduction of LNS in the mixture substituting AP led to adequate protein intakes for higher percentages of PP. An increase in PP based on the current pattern of plant protein sources, low in protein:energy, could lead to inadequate protein intake, but the contribution of LNS ensures the safety of a further transition. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Prevalence and Effects of Functional Vitamin K Insufficiency: The PREVEND Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1334; doi:10.3390/nu9121334
Received: 1 November 2017 / Revised: 30 November 2017 / Accepted: 4 December 2017 / Published: 8 December 2017
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Abstract
Matrix Gla Protein (MGP) is a strong vitamin K-dependent inhibitor of soft tissue calcification. We assessed the prevalence of functional vitamin K insufficiency, as derived from plasma desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP), and investigated whether plasma dp-ucMGP is associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in
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Matrix Gla Protein (MGP) is a strong vitamin K-dependent inhibitor of soft tissue calcification. We assessed the prevalence of functional vitamin K insufficiency, as derived from plasma desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP), and investigated whether plasma dp-ucMGP is associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in a large general population-based cohort. We included 4275 subjects (aged 53 ± 12 years, 46.0% male) participating in the prospective general population-based Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease (PREVEND) study. The prevalence of functional vitamin K insufficiency (i.e., dp-ucMGP > 500 pmol/L) was 31% in the total study population. This prevalence was significantly higher among elderly and subjects with comorbidities like hypertension, type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease (~50%). After 10 years of follow-up, 279 subjects had died, with 74 deaths attributable to cardiovascular causes. We found significant J-shaped associations of plasma dp-ucMGP with all-cause (linear term: hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) = 0.20 (0.12–0.33), p < 0.001; squared term: 1.14 (1.10–1.17), p < 0.001) and cardiovascular mortality (linear term: 0.12 (0.05–0.27), p < 0.001; squared term: 1.17 (1.11–1.23), p < 0.001). These associations remained significant after adjustment for potential confounders. Whether the correction of vitamin K insufficiency improves health outcomes needs to be addressed in future prospective intervention studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Tumor Suppressor, P53, Decreases the Metal Transporter, ZIP14
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1335; doi:10.3390/nu9121335
Received: 8 October 2017 / Revised: 29 November 2017 / Accepted: 4 December 2017 / Published: 8 December 2017
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Abstract
Loss of p53’s proper function accounts for over half of identified human cancers. We identified the metal transporter ZIP14 (Zinc-regulated transporter (ZRT) and Iron-regulated transporter (IRT)-like Protein 14) as a p53-regulated protein. ZIP14 protein levels were upregulated by lack of p53 and downregulated
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Loss of p53’s proper function accounts for over half of identified human cancers. We identified the metal transporter ZIP14 (Zinc-regulated transporter (ZRT) and Iron-regulated transporter (IRT)-like Protein 14) as a p53-regulated protein. ZIP14 protein levels were upregulated by lack of p53 and downregulated by increased p53 expression. This regulation did not fully depend on the changes in ZIP14’s mRNA expression. Co-precipitation studies indicated that p53 interacts with ZIP14 and increases its ubiquitination and degradation. Moreover, knockdown of p53 resulted in higher non-transferrin-bound iron uptake, which was mediated by increased ZIP14 levels. Our study highlights a role for p53 in regulating nutrient metabolism and provides insight into how iron and possibly other metals such as zinc and manganese could be regulated in p53-inactivated tumor cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Normal Diet within Two Postoperative Days—Realistic or Too Ambitious?
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1336; doi:10.3390/nu9121336
Received: 8 November 2017 / Revised: 30 November 2017 / Accepted: 5 December 2017 / Published: 8 December 2017
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Abstract
Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocols advocate early postoperative resumption of normal diet to decrease surgical stress and prevent excessive catabolism. The aim of the present study was to identify reasons for delayed tolerance of normal postoperative diet. This was a retrospective analysis
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Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocols advocate early postoperative resumption of normal diet to decrease surgical stress and prevent excessive catabolism. The aim of the present study was to identify reasons for delayed tolerance of normal postoperative diet. This was a retrospective analysis including all consecutive colorectal surgical procedures since May 2011 until May 2017. Data was prospectively recorded by an institutional data manager in a dedicated database. Uni- and multivariate risk factors associated with delayed diet (beyond POD 2) were identified by multiple logistic regression among demographic, surgery- and modifiable pre- and intraoperative ERAS-related items. In a second step, univariate analysis was performed to compare surgical outcomes for patients with early vs. delayed oral intake. The study cohort consisted of 1301 consecutive colorectal ERAS patients. Herein, 691 patients (53%) were able to resume normal diet within two days of surgery according to ERAS protocol, while in 610 patients (47%), a delay in tolerance of normal diet was observed. Male gender was independently correlated to early tolerance (Odds Ratio (OR) 0.66; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.46–0.84, p = 0.002), while ASA score ≥ 3 (OR 1.60; 95% CI 1.12–2.28, p = 0.010), abdominal drains (OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.10–2.49, p = 0.020), right colectomy (OR 1.64; 95% CI 1.08–2.49, p = 0.020) and Hartmann reversal (OR 2.61; 95% CI 1.32–5.18, p = 0.006) constituted risk factors for delayed tolerance of normal diet. Patients with delayed resumption of normal diet experienced more overall (Clavien grade I–V) (47% vs. 21%, p < 0.001) and major (Clavien grade IIIb–V) (11% vs. 4%, p < 0.001) complications and had a longer length of stay (9 ± 5 vs. 5 ± 4 days, p < 0.001). Over half of patients could not tolerate early enteral realimentation and were at higher risk for postoperative complications. Prophylactic drain placement was the only independent modifiable risk factor for delayed oral intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Enteral Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle Development and Validation of the Food Liking Questionnaire in a French-Canadian Population
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1337; doi:10.3390/nu9121337
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 30 November 2017 / Accepted: 5 December 2017 / Published: 8 December 2017
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire assessing food liking in a French-Canadian population. A questionnaire was developed, in which participants were asked to rate their degree of liking of 50 food items. An expert panel evaluated the
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The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire assessing food liking in a French-Canadian population. A questionnaire was developed, in which participants were asked to rate their degree of liking of 50 food items. An expert panel evaluated the content validity. For the validation study, 150 men and women completed the questionnaire twice. An Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was performed to assess the number of subscales of the questionnaire. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the subscales were evaluated. Concurrent validity was assessed through correlations between liking scores and self-reported frequencies of consumption. Comments from the experts led to changes in the list of foods included in the questionnaire. The EFA revealed a two-factor structure for the questionnaire (i.e., savory and sweet foods) and led to the removal of nine items, resulting in a 32-item questionnaire. The two subscales revealed good internal consistency (Cronbach alphas: 0.85 and 0.89) and test-retest reliability (p = 0.84 and 0.86). The questionnaire demonstrated adequate concurrent validity, with moderate correlations between food liking and self-reported frequency of consumption (r = 0.19–0.39, ps < 0.05). This new Food Liking Questionnaire assessing liking of a variety of savory and sweet foods demonstrated good psychometric properties in every validation step. This questionnaire will be useful to explore the role of food liking and its interactions with other factors in predicting eating behaviors and energy intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Intake, Trends, and Determinants)
Open AccessArticle Choosing Anthropometric Indicators to Monitor the Response to Treatment for Severe Acute Malnutrition in Rural Southern Ethiopia—Empirical Evidence
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1339; doi:10.3390/nu9121339
Received: 13 November 2017 / Revised: 29 November 2017 / Accepted: 2 December 2017 / Published: 8 December 2017
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Abstract
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the assessment of nutritional recovery using the same anthropometric indicator that was used to diagnose severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in children. However, related empirical evidence from low-income countries is lacking. Non-oedematous children (n = 661) aged
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The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the assessment of nutritional recovery using the same anthropometric indicator that was used to diagnose severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in children. However, related empirical evidence from low-income countries is lacking. Non-oedematous children (n = 661) aged 6–59 months admitted to a community-based outpatient therapeutic program for SAM in rural southern Ethiopia were studied. The response to treatment in children admitted to the program based on the mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) measurement was defined by calculating the gains in average MUAC and weight during the first four weeks of treatment. The children showed significant anthropometric changes only when assessed with the same anthropometric indicator used to define SAM at admission. Children with the lowest MUAC at admission showed a significant gain in MUAC but not weight, and children with the lowest weight-for-height/length (WHZ) showed a significant gain in weight but not MUAC. The response to treatment was largest for children with the lowest anthropometric status at admission in either measurement. MUAC and weight gain are two independent anthropometric measures that can be used to monitor sufficient recovery in children treated for SAM. This study provides empirical evidence from a low-income country to support the recent World Health Organization recommendation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Coffee Consumption and the Risk of Obesity in Korean Women
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1340; doi:10.3390/nu9121340
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 26 November 2017 / Accepted: 6 December 2017 / Published: 8 December 2017
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Abstract
Instant coffee mixes that contain sugar and non-dairy creamer account for 80–90% of the total coffee market in Korea. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between coffee consumption and obesity in Korean women. We included 5995 women who participated
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Instant coffee mixes that contain sugar and non-dairy creamer account for 80–90% of the total coffee market in Korea. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between coffee consumption and obesity in Korean women. We included 5995 women who participated in a health screening examination at the Korean National Cancer Center between 2007 and 2016. Daily coffee consumption and the use of sugar and creamer in coffee was evaluated using a 106-item food frequency questionnaire. Obesity was assessed by body mass index (BMI), and abdominal obesity was assessed by waist circumference (WC). A multiple logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) of obesity according to coffee consumption. After multivariate adjustment, high coffee consumption was positively associated with obesity as measured by BMI (≥3 cups vs. no drinks, OR = 2.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.91–3.34; p for the trend < 0.001) and abdominal obesity as measured by WC (≥3 cups vs. no drinks, OR = 2.11; 95% CI = 1.59–2.79; p for the trend < 0.001). The positive association between daily coffee consumption and obesity prevalence was not altered by menopause. The amount of coffee with additives consumed per day by Korean women was positively correlated with the prevalence of obesity, but causation cannot be determined due to the cross-sectional nature of the study design. The mechanism underlying the observed relationship is yet to be elucidated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Prebiotic Blend Product Prevents Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Mice by Improving Gut Microbiota and Modulating Immune Response
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1341; doi:10.3390/nu9121341
Received: 16 October 2017 / Revised: 24 November 2017 / Accepted: 7 December 2017 / Published: 9 December 2017
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Abstract
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder yet it still lacks effective prevention therapies. The aim of this study is to determine whether a novel prebiotic blend (PB) composed of fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS), galactooligosaccharide (GOS), inulin and anthocyanins could be
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Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder yet it still lacks effective prevention therapies. The aim of this study is to determine whether a novel prebiotic blend (PB) composed of fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS), galactooligosaccharide (GOS), inulin and anthocyanins could be effective in preventing the development of IBS. We explored the possible mechanisms both in animal and in cells. Post-infectious IBS models in C57BL/6 mice were established and were pretreated with the PB, PB and probiotic strains 8 weeks in advance of infection. Eight weeks after infection, intestinal tissues were collected for assessing histomorphology, visceral sensitivity, barrier function, pro-inflammatory cytokines expression and proteomics analysis. Fecal samples were also collected for microbiota analysis. The pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in Caco-2 cells were evaluated after co-incubation with PB and Salmonella typhimurium 14028. The results showed that PB significantly decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines both in infected Caco-2 cells and PI-IBS models. The loss of body weight, decreased expression of tight junction protein Occludin (OCLN), and changes of the microbiota composition induced by infections could be greatly improved by PB intervention (p < 0.05). The proteomics analysis revealed that this function was associated with Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ pathway. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Metagenomic and in Silico Functional Prediction of Gut Microbiota Profiles May Concur in Discovering New Cystic Fibrosis Patient-Targeted Probiotics
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1342; doi:10.3390/nu9121342
Received: 16 October 2017 / Revised: 4 December 2017 / Accepted: 5 December 2017 / Published: 9 December 2017
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Abstract
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-limiting hereditary disorder that results in aberrant mucosa in the lungs and digestive tract, chronic respiratory infections, chronic inflammation, and the need for repeated antibiotic treatments. Probiotics have been demonstrated to improve the quality of life of CF
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Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-limiting hereditary disorder that results in aberrant mucosa in the lungs and digestive tract, chronic respiratory infections, chronic inflammation, and the need for repeated antibiotic treatments. Probiotics have been demonstrated to improve the quality of life of CF patients. We investigated the distribution of gut microbiota (GM) bacteria to identify new potential probiotics for CF patients on the basis of GM patterns. Fecal samples of 28 CF patients and 31 healthy controls (HC) were collected and analyzed by 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing analysis of GM, to produce CF-HC paired maps of the distribution of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), and by Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) for Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) biomarker prediction. The maps were scanned to highlight the distribution of bacteria commonly claimed as probiotics, such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, and of butyrate-producing colon bacteria, such as Eubacterium spp. and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. The analyses highlighted 24 OTUs eligible as putative probiotics. Eleven and nine species were prevalently associated with the GM of CF and HC subjects, respectively. Their KEGG prediction provided differential CF and HC pathways, indeed associated with health-promoting biochemical activities in the latter case. GM profiling and KEGG biomarkers concurred in the evaluation of nine bacterial species as novel putative probiotics that could be investigated for the nutritional management of CF patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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Open AccessArticle The Food Contaminants Nivalenol and Deoxynivalenol Induce Inflammation in Intestinal Epithelial Cells by Regulating Reactive Oxygen Species Release
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1343; doi:10.3390/nu9121343
Received: 16 October 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 7 December 2017 / Published: 11 December 2017
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Abstract
Fusarium mycotoxins are fungal metabolites whose ability to affect cereal grains as multi-contaminants is progressively increasing. The trichothecene mycotoxins nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) are often found in almost all agricultural commodities worldwide. They are able to affect animal and human health, including
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Fusarium mycotoxins are fungal metabolites whose ability to affect cereal grains as multi-contaminants is progressively increasing. The trichothecene mycotoxins nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) are often found in almost all agricultural commodities worldwide. They are able to affect animal and human health, including at the intestinal level. In this study, NIV, both alone and in combination with DON, induced inflammation and increased the inflammatory response induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus Interferon-γ (IFN) in the non-tumorigenic intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6). The inflammatory response induced by NIV and DON involves tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, nitrotyrosine formation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) release, Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB), Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) and inflammasome activation. The pro-inflammatory effect was strongly induced by NIV and by the mycotoxin mixture, when compared to DON alone. Mechanistic studies indicate a pivotal role for ROS in the observed pro-inflammatory effects induced by mycotoxins. In this study, the interactions between NIV and DON point out the importance of their food co-contamination, further highlighting the risk assessment process that is of growing concern. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Beverage Consumption Patterns among Overweight and Obese African American Women
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1344; doi:10.3390/nu9121344
Received: 3 November 2017 / Revised: 4 December 2017 / Accepted: 6 December 2017 / Published: 11 December 2017
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Abstract
The goal of this research was to assess patterns of beverage consumption and the contribution of total beverages and classes of beverages to overall energy intake and weight status. We conducted an analysis in a community-based study of 280 low-income overweight and obese
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The goal of this research was to assess patterns of beverage consumption and the contribution of total beverages and classes of beverages to overall energy intake and weight status. We conducted an analysis in a community-based study of 280 low-income overweight and obese African American women residing in the rural South. Participants provided baseline data including demographic characteristics, weight and two 24-h food and beverage dietary recalls. Mean energy intake from beverages was approximately 273 ± 192 kcal/day or 18.3% of total energy intake. The most commonly reported beverage was plain water, consumed by 88.2% of participants, followed closely by sweetened beverages (soft drinks, fruit drinks, sweetened teas, sweetened coffees and sweetened/flavored waters) consumed by 78.9% of participants. In multiple regression analyses total energy and percent energy from beverages and specific categories of beverages were not significantly associated with current body mass index (BMI). It is widely accepted that negative energy balance may lead to future weight loss. Thus, reducing consumption of beverages that contribute energy but not important nutrients (e.g., sugar sweetened beverages) could be an effective strategy for promoting future weight loss in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Beverages on Ingestive Behavior)
Open AccessArticle Dietary Animal Plasma Proteins Improve the Intestinal Immune Response in Senescent Mice
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1346; doi:10.3390/nu9121346
Received: 14 November 2017 / Revised: 30 November 2017 / Accepted: 7 December 2017 / Published: 11 December 2017
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Abstract
Increased life expectancy has promoted research on healthy aging. Aging is accompanied by increased non-specific immune activation (inflammaging) which favors the appearance of several disorders. Here, we study whether dietary supplementation with spray-dried animal plasma (SDP), which has been shown to reduce the
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Increased life expectancy has promoted research on healthy aging. Aging is accompanied by increased non-specific immune activation (inflammaging) which favors the appearance of several disorders. Here, we study whether dietary supplementation with spray-dried animal plasma (SDP), which has been shown to reduce the activation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) in rodents challenged by S. aureus enterotoxin B (SEB), and can also prevent the effects of aging on immune system homeostasis. We first characterized GALT in a mouse model of accelerated senescence (SAMP8) at different ages (compared to mice resistant to accelerated senescence; SAMR1). Second, we analyzed the SDP effects on GALT response to an SEB challenge in SAMP8 mice. In GALT characterization, aging increased the cell number and the percentage of activated Th lymphocytes in mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer’s patches (all, p < 0.05), as well as the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α in intestinal mucosa (both, p < 0.05). With respect to GALT response to the SEB challenge, young mice showed increased expression of intestinal IL-6 and TNF-α, as well as lymphocyte recruitment and activation (all, p < 0.05). However, the immune response of senescent mice to the SEB challenge was weak, since SEB did not change cell recruitment or the percentage of activated Th lymphocytes. Mice supplemented with SDP showed improved capacity to respond to the SEB challenge, similar to the response of the young mice. These results indicate that senescent mice have an impaired mucosal immune response characterized by unspecific GALT activation and a weak specific immune response. SDP supplementation reduces non-specific basal immune activation, allowing for the generation of specific responses. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Involvement of UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases and Sulfotransferases in the Excretion and Tissue Distribution of Resveratrol in Mice
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1347; doi:10.3390/nu9121347
Received: 26 October 2017 / Revised: 27 November 2017 / Accepted: 7 December 2017 / Published: 12 December 2017
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Abstract
Resveratrol is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound with various pharmacological activities. It is unknown whether the expression of metabolizing enzymes correlates with resveratrol levels in organs and tissues. Therefore, we investigated the metabolism and tissue distribution of resveratrol in mice and assessed its
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Resveratrol is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound with various pharmacological activities. It is unknown whether the expression of metabolizing enzymes correlates with resveratrol levels in organs and tissues. Therefore, we investigated the metabolism and tissue distribution of resveratrol in mice and assessed its association with the expression of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (Ugt) and sulfotransferase (Sult) genes. Plasma, urine, feces, and various organs were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography at up to 8 h after intragastric resveratrol administration. The metabolism of resveratrol was pronounced, leading to the formation of resveratrol glucuronides and sulfates. Concentrations of resveratrol and its metabolites were high in the gastrointestinal organs, urine, and feces, but low in the liver and kidneys. In lung, heart, thymus, and brain tissues, parent resveratrol levels exceeded the sulfate and glucuronide concentrations. The formation of resveratrol conjugates correlated with the expression of certain Ugt and Sult genes. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis revealed high mRNA expression of Ugt1a1 and Ugt1a6a in the liver, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon, leading to high concentrations of resveratrol-3-O-glucuronide in these organs. Strong correlations of resveratrol-3-O-sulfate and resveratrol-3-O-4′-O-disulfate formation with Sult1a1 mRNA expression were also observed, particularly in the liver and colon. In summary, our data revealed organ-specific expression of Sults and Ugts in mice that strongly affects resveratrol concentrations; this may also be predictive in humans following oral uptake of dietary resveratrol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation on Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Live Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Does Not Enhance Epithelial Barrier Integrity in an Apical Anaerobic Co-Culture Model of the Large Intestine
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1349; doi:10.3390/nu9121349
Received: 27 October 2017 / Revised: 29 November 2017 / Accepted: 8 December 2017 / Published: 12 December 2017
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Abstract
Appropriate intestinal barrier maturation during infancy largely depends on colonization with commensal bacteria. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is an abundant obligate anaerobe that colonizes during weaning and is thought to maintain colonic health throughout life. We previously showed that F. prausnitzii induced Toll-like receptor 2
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Appropriate intestinal barrier maturation during infancy largely depends on colonization with commensal bacteria. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is an abundant obligate anaerobe that colonizes during weaning and is thought to maintain colonic health throughout life. We previously showed that F. prausnitzii induced Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) activation, which is linked to enhanced tight junction formation. Therefore, we hypothesized that F. prausnitzii enhances barrier integrity, an important factor in appropriate intestinal barrier maturation. In order to test metabolically active bacteria, we used a novel apical anaerobic co-culture system that allows the survival of both obligate anaerobic bacteria and oxygen-requiring intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2). The first aim was to optimize the culture medium to enable growth and active metabolism of F. prausnitzii while maintaining the viability and barrier integrity, as measured by trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER), of the Caco-2 cells. This was achieved by supplementing the apical cell culture medium with bacterial culture medium. The second aim was to test the effect of F. prausnitzii on TEER across Caco-2 cell layers. Live F. prausnitzii did not improve TEER, which indicates that its benefits are not via altering tight junction integrity. The optimization of the novel dual-environment co-culturing system performed in this research will enable the investigation of new probiotics originating from indigenous beneficial bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of a Salt Reduction Intervention on Adult Population Salt Intake in Fiji
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1350; doi:10.3390/nu9121350
Received: 6 October 2017 / Revised: 15 November 2017 / Accepted: 7 December 2017 / Published: 12 December 2017
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Abstract
Reducing population salt intake is a global public health priority due to the potential to save lives and reduce the burden on the healthcare system through decreased blood pressure. This implementation science research project set out to measure salt consumption patterns and to
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Reducing population salt intake is a global public health priority due to the potential to save lives and reduce the burden on the healthcare system through decreased blood pressure. This implementation science research project set out to measure salt consumption patterns and to assess the impact of a complex, multi-faceted intervention to reduce population salt intake in Fiji between 2012 and 2016. The intervention combined initiatives to engage food businesses to reduce salt in foods and meals with targeted consumer behavior change programs. There were 169 participants at baseline (response rate 28.2%) and 272 at 20 months (response rate 22.4%). The mean salt intake from 24-h urine samples was estimated to be 11.7 grams per day (g/d) at baseline and 10.3 g/d after 20 months (difference: −1.4 g/day, 95% CI −3.1 to 0.3, p = 0.115). Sub-analysis showed a statistically significant reduction in female salt intake in the Central Division but no differential impact in relation to age or ethnicity. Whilst the low response rate means it is not possible to draw firm conclusions about these changes, the population salt intake in Fiji, at 10.3 g/day, is still twice the World Health Organization’s (WHO) recommended maximum intake. This project also assessed iodine intake levels in women of child-bearing age and found that they were within recommended guidelines. Existing policies and programs to reduce salt intake and prevent iodine deficiency need to be maintained or strengthened. Monitoring to assess changes in salt intake and to ensure that iodine levels remain adequate should be built into future surveys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Gastric Emptying and Gastrointestinal Transit Compared among Native and Hydrolyzed Whey and Casein Milk Proteins in an Aged Rat Model
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1351; doi:10.3390/nu9121351
Received: 9 November 2017 / Revised: 6 December 2017 / Accepted: 7 December 2017 / Published: 13 December 2017
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Abstract
Little is known about how milk proteins affect gastrointestinal (GI) transit, particularly for the elderly, in whom digestion has been observed to be slowed. We tested the hypothesis that GI transit is faster for whey than for casein and that this effect is
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Little is known about how milk proteins affect gastrointestinal (GI) transit, particularly for the elderly, in whom digestion has been observed to be slowed. We tested the hypothesis that GI transit is faster for whey than for casein and that this effect is accentuated with hydrolysates, similar to soy. Adult male rats (18 months old) were fed native whey or casein, hydrolyzed whey (WPH) or casein (CPH), hydrolyzed blend (HB; 60% whey:40% casein), or hydrolyzed soy for 14 days then treated with loperamide, prucalopride, or vehicle-control for 7 days. X-ray imaging tracked bead-transit for: gastric emptying (GE; 4 h), small intestine (SI) transit (9 h), and large intestine (LI) transit (12 h). GE for whey was 33 ± 12% faster than that for either casein or CPH. SI transit was decreased by 37 ± 9% for casein and 24 ± 6% for whey compared with hydrolyzed soy, and persisted for casein at 12 h. Although CPH and WPH did not alter transit compared with their respective intact counterparts, fecal output was increased by WPH. Slowed transit by casein was reversed by prucalopride (9-h), but not loperamide. However, rapid GE and slower SI transit for the HB compared with intact forms were inhibited by loperamide. The expected slower GI transit for casein relative to soy provided a comparative benchmark, and opioid receptor involvement was corroborated. Our findings provide new evidence that whey slowed SI transit compared with soy, independent of GE. Increased GI transit from stomach to colon for the HB compared with casein suggests that including hydrolyzed milk proteins in foods may benefit those with slowed intestinal transit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Products)
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Open AccessArticle Short-Communication: A Comparison of the In Vitro Angiotensin-1-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Capacity of Dairy and Plant Protein Supplements
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1352; doi:10.3390/nu9121352
Received: 2 November 2017 / Revised: 30 November 2017 / Accepted: 3 December 2017 / Published: 13 December 2017
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Abstract
The consumption of supplements based on dairy or plant proteins may be associated with bioactive potential, including angiotensin-1-converting enzyme inhibitory (ACE-1i) activity, which is linked with blood pressure reduction in vivo. To gain insight into this proposed mechanism, the ACE-1i potential of protein-based
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The consumption of supplements based on dairy or plant proteins may be associated with bioactive potential, including angiotensin-1-converting enzyme inhibitory (ACE-1i) activity, which is linked with blood pressure reduction in vivo. To gain insight into this proposed mechanism, the ACE-1i potential of protein-based supplements, including a selection of dairy (n = 10) and plant (n = 5) proteins were in vitro digested. The total digest was filtered and permeate and retentate were obtained. ACE-1i activity was measured as the ability of proteins (pre-digestion, ‘gastric’, permeate, and retentate) to decrease the hydrolysis of furanacroloyl-Phe-Glu-Glu (FAPGG) substrate for the ACE-1 enzyme. Permeate and retentate of dairy proteins exerted a significantly higher ACE-1i activity (mean of 10 proteins: 27.05 ± 0.2% and 20.7 ± 0.2%, respectively) compared with pre-digestion dairy proteins (16.7 ± 0.3%). Plant protein exhibited high ACE-1i in ‘gastric’ and retentate fractions (mean of five proteins: 54.9 ± 0.6% and 35.7 ± 0.6%, respectively). The comparison of the in vitro ACE-1i activity of dairy and plant proteins could provide valuable knowledge regarding their specific bioactivities, which could inform their use in the formulation of specific functional supplements that would require testing for blood pressure control in human randomly-controlled studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Nutraceutical Supplements and Hypertension)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Monthly, High-Dose, Long-Term Vitamin D on Lung Function: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1353; doi:10.3390/nu9121353
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 7 December 2017 / Accepted: 8 December 2017 / Published: 13 December 2017
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Abstract
Although observational studies suggest positive vitamin D-lung function associations, randomized trials are inconsistent. We examined effects of vitamin D supplementation on lung function. We recruited 442 adults (50–84 years, 58% male) into a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Participants received, for 1.1 years (median;
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Although observational studies suggest positive vitamin D-lung function associations, randomized trials are inconsistent. We examined effects of vitamin D supplementation on lung function. We recruited 442 adults (50–84 years, 58% male) into a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Participants received, for 1.1 years (median; range = 0.9–1.5 years), either (1) vitamin D3 200,000 IU, followed by monthly 100,000 IU doses (n = 226); or (2) placebo monthly (n = 216). At baseline and follow-up, spirometry yielded forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1; primary outcome). Mean (standard deviation) 25-hydroxyvitamin D increased from 61 (24) nmol/L at baseline to 119 (45) nmol/L at follow-up in the vitamin D group, but was unchanged in the placebo group. There were no significant lung function improvements (vitamin D versus placebo) in the total sample, vitamin D-deficient participants or asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) participants. However, among ever-smokers (n = 217), the mean (95% confidence interval) FEV1 increase in the vitamin D versus placebo was 57 (4, 109) mL (p = 0.03). FEV1 increases were larger among vitamin D-deficient ever-smokers (n = 54): 122 (8, 236) mL (p = 0.04). FEV1 improvements were largest among ever-smokers with asthma/COPD (n = 60): 160 (53, 268) mL (p = 0.004). Thus, vitamin D supplementation did not improve lung function among everyone, but benefited ever-smokers, especially those with vitamin D deficiency or asthma/COPD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changing Times for Vitamin D and Health)
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Open AccessArticle Reduced Educational Outcomes Persist into Adolescence Following Mild Iodine Deficiency in Utero, Despite Adequacy in Childhood: 15-Year Follow-Up of the Gestational Iodine Cohort Investigating Auditory Processing Speed and Working Memory
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1354; doi:10.3390/nu9121354
Received: 17 November 2017 / Revised: 1 December 2017 / Accepted: 9 December 2017 / Published: 13 December 2017
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Abstract
There is increasing evidence that even mild gestational iodine deficiency (GID) results in adverse neurocognitive impacts on offspring. It’s unclear, however, if these persist long-term and whether they can be ameliorated by iodine sufficiency in childhood. We followed a unique cohort (Gestational Iodine
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There is increasing evidence that even mild gestational iodine deficiency (GID) results in adverse neurocognitive impacts on offspring. It’s unclear, however, if these persist long-term and whether they can be ameliorated by iodine sufficiency in childhood. We followed a unique cohort (Gestational Iodine Cohort, n = 266) where gestation occurred during a period of mild population iodine deficiency, with children subsequently growing-up in an iodine replete environment. We investigated whether associations between mild GID and reductions in literacy outcomes, observed at age 9-years, persisted into adolescence. Comparisons were made between offspring of mothers with gestational urinary iodine concentrations (UICs) ≥ 150 μg/L and < 150 μg/L. Educational outcomes were measured using Australian National Assessment Program—Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) tests. Children whose mothers had UICs < 150 μg/L exhibited persistent reductions in spelling from Year 3 (10%, −41.4 points (95% Confidence Interval −65.1 to −17.6, p = 0.001)) to Year 9 (5.6%, −31.6 (−57.0 to −6.2, p = 0.015)) compared to children whose mothers had UICs ≥ 150 μg/L. Associations remained after adjustment for biological factors, socioeconomic status and adolescent UIC. Results support the hypothesis that mild GID may impact working memory and auditory processing speed. The findings have important public health implications for management of iodine nutrition in pregnancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iodine and Health throughout the Lifecourse)
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Open AccessArticle Risks and Benefits of Increased Nut Consumption: Cardiovascular Health Benefits Outweigh the Burden of Carcinogenic Effects Attributed to Aflatoxin B1 Exposure
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1355; doi:10.3390/nu9121355
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 24 November 2017 / Accepted: 4 December 2017 / Published: 13 December 2017
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Abstract
Nuts are rich in nutrients and mounting evidence shows that consumption reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence. Nuts may also be a major source of aflatoxin B1, a potent liver carcinogen and the risk/benefit balance is unknown. Based on national statistics and
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Nuts are rich in nutrients and mounting evidence shows that consumption reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence. Nuts may also be a major source of aflatoxin B1, a potent liver carcinogen and the risk/benefit balance is unknown. Based on national statistics and data from the PREDIMED intervention trial, we estimated the potential CVD-reduction if Swedes aged 55–79 consumed 30 g nuts/day, instead of the current national average of five grams per day. We also assessed the reduction in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) due to myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. We estimated the aflatoxin B1 exposure from nuts and calculated the margin of exposure. The approximation that one nanogram aflatoxin B1/kg body weight/day results in one additional liver cancer case/10 million person-years was used to estimate the number of liver cancer cases. The increased nut consumption scenario prevented more than 7000 CVDs in 2013 (306/100,000 person-years) and contributed to about 55,000 saved DALYs for stroke and 22,000 for MI. The concomitant increase in aflatoxin B1 exposure caused an estimated zero to three additional cases of liver cancer, corresponding to 159 DALYs spent, emphasizing the associated risks. Increased nut consumption, as part of a varied healthy diet, is warranted even when aflatoxin B1 exposure is taken into account. However, efforts to reduce aflatoxin exposure from food are essential. Full article
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Flavonolignans in Different Cellular Models
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1356; doi:10.3390/nu9121356
Received: 12 November 2017 / Revised: 9 December 2017 / Accepted: 11 December 2017 / Published: 14 December 2017
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Abstract
Flavonolignans are the main components of silymarin, which represents 1.5–3% of the dry fruit weight of Milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaernt.). In ancient Greece and Romania, physicians and herbalists used the Silybum marianum to treat a range of liver diseases. Besides
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Flavonolignans are the main components of silymarin, which represents 1.5–3% of the dry fruit weight of Milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaernt.). In ancient Greece and Romania, physicians and herbalists used the Silybum marianum to treat a range of liver diseases. Besides their hepatoprotective action, silymarin flavonolignans have many other healthy properties, such as anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory actions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effect of flavonolignans on blood platelets, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and human lung cancer cell line—A549—using different molecular techniques. We established that three major flavonolignans: silybin, silychristin and silydianin, in concentrations of up to 100 µM, have neither a cytotoxic nor genotoxic effect on blood platelets, PMBCs and A549. We also saw that silybin and silychristin have a protective effect on cellular mitochondria, observed as a reduction of spontaneous mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage in A549, measured as mtDNA copies, and mtDNA lesions in ND1 and ND5 genes. Additionally, we observed that flavonolignans increase the blood platelets’ mitochondrial membrane potential and reduce the generation of reactive oxygen species in blood platelets. Our current findings show for the first time that the three major flavonolignans, silybin, silychristin and silydianin, do not have any cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in various cellular models, and that they actually protect cellular mitochondria. This proves that the antiplatelet and anti-inflammatory effect of these compounds is part of our molecular health mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Amniotic Fluid Arginine from Gestational Weeks 13 to 15 Is a Predictor of Birth Weight, Length, and Head Circumference
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1357; doi:10.3390/nu9121357
Received: 6 November 2017 / Revised: 29 November 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 14 December 2017
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Abstract
Arginine is a constituent of proteins and a precursor for polyamines and nitric oxide, and is essential for placentation, angiogenesis, and growth. Maternal plasma arginine concentrations are found to be lower in pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction, and arginine supplementation in later
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Arginine is a constituent of proteins and a precursor for polyamines and nitric oxide, and is essential for placentation, angiogenesis, and growth. Maternal plasma arginine concentrations are found to be lower in pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction, and arginine supplementation in later pregnancy is reported to increase birth weight. We measured arginine and the metabolites asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) in the amniotic fluid obtained in pregnancy weeks 13 to 15 from 363 pregnancies with a documented normal outcome and related the concentrations to birth weight, length, and head circumference. Arginine was higher in the amniotic fluid from female (mean 40.8 (SD 10.6) µmol/L) compared to male fetuses (37.4 (SD 11.2) µmol/L, p = 0.003). Despite the gender difference, arginine in the amniotic fluid from gestational weeks 13–15 was the strongest predictor for birth weight, length, and head circumference. ADMA was a strong predictor for birth weight and length, SDMA for birth weight, while Arg/ADMA and Arg/SDMA only predicted head circumference in multiple linear regression models. Due to increased arginine demands, pregnancy is considered a state of relative arginine deficiency. Our findings reflect the importance of a good maternal arginine status in early pregnancy, an observation that should be evaluated in an intervention study. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Amount, Distribution, and Quality of Protein Intake Are Not Associated with Muscle Mass, Strength, and Power in Healthy Older Adults without Functional Limitations—An enable Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1358; doi:10.3390/nu9121358
Received: 2 November 2017 / Revised: 30 November 2017 / Accepted: 11 December 2017 / Published: 14 December 2017
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Abstract
To maintain muscle mass in older age, several aspects regarding the amount and distribution of protein intake have been suggested. Our objective was to investigate single and combined associations of daily protein intake, evenness of protein distribution across the three main meals, number
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To maintain muscle mass in older age, several aspects regarding the amount and distribution of protein intake have been suggested. Our objective was to investigate single and combined associations of daily protein intake, evenness of protein distribution across the three main meals, number of meals providing ≥0.4 g protein/kg body weight (BW), and number of meals providing ≥2.5 g leucine, with muscle mass, strength, and power in successful agers. In this cross-sectional study in 97 healthy community-dwelling adults without functional limitations aged 75–85 years, protein intake was assessed using 7-day food records. Muscle mass, leg muscle strength, leg muscle power, and handgrip strength were measured according to standardized protocols. Mean daily protein intake was 0.97 ± 0.28 g/kg BW and the coefficient of variance between main meals was 0.53 ± 0.19. Per day, 0.72 ± 0.50 meals providing ≥0.4 g protein/kg BW and 1.11 ± 0.76 meals providing ≥2.5 g leucine were consumed. No correlations between single or combined aspects of protein intake and skeletal muscle index, leg muscle power, leg muscle strength, or handgrip strength were observed (Spearman’s r of −0.280 to 0.291). In this sample of healthy older adults without functional limitations, aspects of protein intake were not associated with muscle mass, strength, or power. Full article
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Open AccessReview Factors Influencing the Phenotypic Characterization of the Oral Marker, PROP
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1275; doi:10.3390/nu9121275
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 15 November 2017 / Accepted: 20 November 2017 / Published: 23 November 2017
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Abstract
In the last several decades, the genetic ability to taste the bitter compound, 6-n-propyltiouracil (PROP) has attracted considerable attention as a model for understanding individual differences in taste perception, and as an oral marker for food preferences and eating behavior that
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In the last several decades, the genetic ability to taste the bitter compound, 6-n-propyltiouracil (PROP) has attracted considerable attention as a model for understanding individual differences in taste perception, and as an oral marker for food preferences and eating behavior that ultimately impacts nutritional status and health. However, some studies do not support this role. This review describes common factors that can influence the characterization of this phenotype including: (1) changes in taste sensitivity with increasing age; (2) gender differences in taste perception; and (3) effects of smoking and obesity. We suggest that attention to these factors during PROP screening could strengthen the associations between this phenotype and a variety of health outcomes ranging from variation in body composition to oral health and cancer risk. Full article
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Open AccessReview Early or Late Feeding after ICU Admission?
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1278; doi:10.3390/nu9121278
Received: 2 October 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 6 November 2017 / Published: 23 November 2017
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Abstract
The feeding of critically ill patients has recently become a controversial issue, as several studies have provided unexpected and contradictory results. Earlier beliefs regarding energy requirements in critical illness—especially during the initial phase—have been challenged. In the current review, we summarize existing evidence
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The feeding of critically ill patients has recently become a controversial issue, as several studies have provided unexpected and contradictory results. Earlier beliefs regarding energy requirements in critical illness—especially during the initial phase—have been challenged. In the current review, we summarize existing evidence about fasting and the impact of early vs. late feeding on the sick organism’s responses. The most important points are the non-nutritional advantages of using the intestine, and recognition that early endogenous energy production as an important player in the response must be integrated in the nutrient prescription. There is as of yet no bedside tool to monitor dynamics in metabolism and the magnitude of the endogenous energy production. Hence, an early “full-feeding strategy” exposes patients to involuntary overfeeding, due to the absence of an objective measure enabling the adjustment of the nutritional therapy. Suggestions for future research and clinical practice are proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Approach to Critically Ill Patients)
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Open AccessReview The Prevalence of Vitamin A Deficiency in Chinese Children: A Systematic Review and Bayesian Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1285; doi:10.3390/nu9121285
Received: 29 October 2017 / Revised: 19 November 2017 / Accepted: 21 November 2017 / Published: 25 November 2017
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Abstract
Vitamin A deficiency (VAD), a leading cause of preventable childhood blindness, has been recognized as an important public health problem in many developing countries. In this study, we conducted a systematic review to identify all population-based studies of VAD and marginal VAD (MVAD)
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Vitamin A deficiency (VAD), a leading cause of preventable childhood blindness, has been recognized as an important public health problem in many developing countries. In this study, we conducted a systematic review to identify all population-based studies of VAD and marginal VAD (MVAD) in Chinese children published from 1990 onwards. Hierarchical Bayesian meta-regressions were performed to examine the effects of age, sex, setting and year on the prevalence of VAD and MVAD, separately. The estimated prevalence was applied to the Chinese pediatric population in the year 2015 to generate prevalence estimates of VAD and MVAD for defined age groups, with 95% credible intervals (CrIs). Fifty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of VAD and MVAD both decreased with increasing age, and rural children had a higher prevalence of VAD and MVAD than urban children. In 2015, the prevalence of VAD was 5.16% (95% CrI: 1.95–12.64) and that of MVAD was 24.29% (95% CrI: 12.69–41.27) in Chinese children aged 12 years and under. VAD remains a public health problem in China. Efforts to reduce VAD in younger children are needed, especially for those in rural areas. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Zinc as a Gatekeeper of Immune Function
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1286; doi:10.3390/nu9121286
Received: 27 September 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 25 November 2017
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Abstract
After the discovery of zinc deficiency in the 1960s, it soon became clear that zinc is essential for the function of the immune system. Zinc ions are involved in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate and adaptive immune cells. Zinc homeostasis is largely
[...] Read more.
After the discovery of zinc deficiency in the 1960s, it soon became clear that zinc is essential for the function of the immune system. Zinc ions are involved in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate and adaptive immune cells. Zinc homeostasis is largely controlled via the expression and action of zinc “importers” (ZIP 1–14), zinc “exporters” (ZnT 1–10), and zinc-binding proteins. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of zinc have long been documented, however, underlying mechanisms are still not entirely clear. Here, we report molecular mechanisms underlying the development of a pro-inflammatory phenotype during zinc deficiency. Furthermore, we describe links between altered zinc homeostasis and disease development. Consequently, the benefits of zinc supplementation for a malfunctioning immune system become clear. This article will focus on underlying mechanisms responsible for the regulation of cellular signaling by alterations in zinc homeostasis. Effects of fast zinc flux, intermediate “zinc waves”, and late homeostatic zinc signals will be discriminated. Description of zinc homeostasis-related effects on the activation of key signaling molecules, as well as on epigenetic modifications, are included to emphasize the role of zinc as a gatekeeper of immune function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunology: Nutrition, Exercise and Adiposity Relationships)
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Open AccessReview Peanuts, Aflatoxins and Undernutrition in Children in Sub-Saharan Africa
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1287; doi:10.3390/nu9121287
Received: 8 September 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 9 November 2017 / Published: 26 November 2017
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Abstract
Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) is an important and affordable source of protein in most of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and a popular commodity and raw material for peanut butter, paste and cooking oil. It is a popular ingredient for foods used at the
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Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) is an important and affordable source of protein in most of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and a popular commodity and raw material for peanut butter, paste and cooking oil. It is a popular ingredient for foods used at the point of weaning infants from mother’s milk. It is at this critical point that childhood undernutrition occurs and the condition manifests as stunting, wasting and growth restriction and accounts for nearly half of all deaths in children under five years of age in SSA. Undernutrition is multi-factorial but weaning foods contaminated with microbiological agents (bacteria and fungi) and natural toxins have been shown to play a big part. While peanuts may provide good nutrition, they are also highly prone to contamination with mycotoxigenic fungi. The high nutritive value of peanuts makes them a perfect substrate for fungal growth and potential aflatoxin contamination. Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic and mutagenic mycotoxins. This article reviews the nutritional value and aflatoxin contamination of peanuts, the role they play in the development of childhood malnutrition (including the different theories of aetiology) and immunological problems in children. We also discuss the control strategies that have been explored and advocacy work currently taking shape in Africa to create more awareness of aflatoxins and thus combat their occurrence with the goal of reducing exposure and enhancing trade and food safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nut Consumption for Human Health)
Open AccessReview Adult Nutrient Intakes from Current National Dietary Surveys of European Populations
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1288; doi:10.3390/nu9121288
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 16 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 27 November 2017
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Abstract
The World Health Organization (WHO) encourages countries to undertake national dietary survey (NDS) but implementation and reporting is inconsistent. This paper provides an up-to-date review of adult macro and micronutrient intakes in European populations as reported by NDS. It uses WHO Recommended Nutrient
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The World Health Organization (WHO) encourages countries to undertake national dietary survey (NDS) but implementation and reporting is inconsistent. This paper provides an up-to-date review of adult macro and micronutrient intakes in European populations as reported by NDS. It uses WHO Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs) to assess intake adequacy and highlight areas of concern. NDS information was gathered primarily by internet searches and contacting survey authors and nutrition experts. Survey characteristics and adult intakes by gender/age group were extracted for selected nutrients and weighted means calculated by region. Of the 53 WHO Europe countries, over a third (n = 19), mainly Central & Eastern European countries (CEEC), had no identifiable NDS. Energy and nutrient intakes were extracted for 21 (40%) countries but differences in age group, methodology, under-reporting and nutrient composition databases hindered inter-country comparisons. No country met more than 39% WHO RNIs in all age/gender groups; macronutrient RNI achievement was poorer than micronutrient. Overall RNI attainment was slightly worse in CEEC and lower in women and female elderly. Only 40% countries provided adult energy and nutrient intakes. The main gaps lie in CEEC, where unknown nutrient deficiencies may occur. WHO RNI attainment was universally poor for macronutrients, especially for women, the female elderly and CEEC. All countries could be encouraged to report a uniform nutrient set and sub-analyses of nationally representative nutrient intakes. Full article
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Open AccessReview Integrated Immunomodulatory Mechanisms through which Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Attenuate Obese Adipose Tissue Dysfunction
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1289; doi:10.3390/nu9121289
Received: 10 October 2017 / Revised: 14 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 November 2017 / Published: 27 November 2017
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Abstract
Obesity is a global health concern with rising prevalence that increases the risk of developing other chronic diseases. A causal link connecting overnutrition, the development of obesity and obesity-associated co-morbidities is visceral adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction, characterized by changes in the cellularity of
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Obesity is a global health concern with rising prevalence that increases the risk of developing other chronic diseases. A causal link connecting overnutrition, the development of obesity and obesity-associated co-morbidities is visceral adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction, characterized by changes in the cellularity of various immune cell populations, altered production of inflammatory adipokines that sustain a chronic state of low-grade inflammation and, ultimately, dysregulated AT metabolic function. Therefore, dietary intervention strategies aimed to halt the progression of obese AT dysfunction through any of the aforementioned processes represent an important active area of research. In this connection, fish oil-derived dietary long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the form of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been demonstrated to attenuate obese AT dysfunction through multiple mechanisms, ultimately affecting AT immune cellularity and function, adipokine production, and metabolic signaling pathways, all of which will be discussed herein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunology: Nutrition, Exercise and Adiposity Relationships)
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Open AccessReview Different Facets of Body Image Disturbance in Binge Eating Disorder: A Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1294; doi:10.3390/nu9121294
Received: 15 October 2017 / Revised: 11 November 2017 / Accepted: 20 November 2017 / Published: 28 November 2017
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Abstract
The goal of the present review is to give an overview of the current findings on various facets of body image disturbance in Binge Eating Disorder such as body dissatisfaction, overconcern with weight and shape, body-related checking and avoidance behavior, misperception of body
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The goal of the present review is to give an overview of the current findings on various facets of body image disturbance in Binge Eating Disorder such as body dissatisfaction, overconcern with weight and shape, body-related checking and avoidance behavior, misperception of body size, and body-related cognitive bias. In addition, treatments for a disturbed body image in BED and evidence of body image disturbance in youth with binge eating are reviewed. The results show that a disturbed body image in BED is present in the form of overconcern with weight and shape. Furthermore, there are hints that body dissatisfaction, as well as body-related checking and avoidance behavior, are also impaired. Research concerning misperception of body size in BED has been neglected so far, but first findings show that individuals with BED rate their own body shape rather accurately. Furthermore, there are first hints that body-related cognitive biases are present in individuals with BED. Moreover, in children and adolescents, there are first hints that body dissatisfaction, as well as shape and weight concerns, seem to be associated with loss of control and binge eating. Treatments aimed directly at the convertibility of a disturbed body image in BED have revealed encouraging outcomes. In conclusion, body image disturbance seems to occur in BED, and first studies show that it can be treated effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Binge Eating Disorder)
Open AccessReview Aging Gut Microbiota at the Cross-Road between Nutrition, Physical Frailty, and Sarcopenia: Is There a Gut–Muscle Axis?
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1303; doi:10.3390/nu9121303
Received: 20 October 2017 / Revised: 22 November 2017 / Accepted: 27 November 2017 / Published: 30 November 2017
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Abstract
Inadequate nutrition and physical inactivity are the mainstays of primary sarcopenia–physiopathology in older individuals. Gut microbiota composition is strongly dependent on both of these elements, and conversely, can also influence the host physiology by modulating systemic inflammation, anabolism, insulin sensitivity, and energy production.
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Inadequate nutrition and physical inactivity are the mainstays of primary sarcopenia–physiopathology in older individuals. Gut microbiota composition is strongly dependent on both of these elements, and conversely, can also influence the host physiology by modulating systemic inflammation, anabolism, insulin sensitivity, and energy production. The bacterial metabolism of nutrients theoretically influences skeletal muscle cell functionality through producing mediators that drive all of these systemic effects. In this study, we review the scientific literature supporting the concept of the involvement of gut microbiota in primary sarcopenia physiopathology. First, we examine studies associating fecal microbiota alterations with physical frailty, i.e., the loss of muscle performance and normal muscle mass. Then, we consider studies exploring the effects of exercise on gut microbiota composition. Finally, we examine studies demonstrating the possible effects of mediators produced by gut microbiota on skeletal muscle, and intervention studies considering the effects of prebiotic or probiotic administration on muscle function. Even if there is no evidence of a distinct gut microbiota composition in older sarcopenic patients, we conclude that the literature supports the possible presence of a “gut–muscle axis”, whereby gut microbiota may act as the mediator of the effects of nutrition on muscle cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
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Open AccessReview Effects of Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Cardiovascular Mortality: The Importance of the Dose of DHA
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1305; doi:10.3390/nu9121305
Received: 21 September 2017 / Revised: 16 November 2017 / Accepted: 24 November 2017 / Published: 30 November 2017
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Abstract
Recent evidence on the relationship between omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LCPUFA) supplementation and cardiovascular health suggests that n-3 LCPUFA may no longer be efficacious. This review summarises the randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that assess the effect of
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Recent evidence on the relationship between omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LCPUFA) supplementation and cardiovascular health suggests that n-3 LCPUFA may no longer be efficacious. This review summarises the randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that assess the effect of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on cardiovascular mortality. It appears that in the RCTs that showed no effect of n-3 LCPUFA on cardiovascular mortality, the dose of n-3 LCPUFA (in particular docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) and hence the n-3 LCPUFA status, may not have been sufficiently high to demonstrate the efficacy, and/or the baseline n-3 LCPUFA status was already too high. The intention-to-treat analysis (ITT) is the gold standard for analysing RCTs and ITT is used for drug intervention trials where exposure to the drug versus no drug exposure provides two clearly distinct groups to determine the efficacy of the drug being studied. This differs in nutrition trials as often the nutrient of interest being studied is already being consumed by both groups (placebo and active) and therefore a true placebo group with absolutely no intake of the nutrient being studied is highly unlikely. Therefore, in n-3 LCPUFA supplementation trials, as there is no clear distinction between the two groups (placebo and n-3 LCPUFA), a per-protocol analysis (comparison of groups that includes only those participants that fully completed the original intervention allocation) should be conducted in addition to ITT analysis. Furthermore, blood analysis pre- and post-supplementation should be conducted to ensure that: (1) that the baseline n-3 status is not too high, in order to alleviate a potential ceiling effect; and (2) that the dose is high enough and hence the increase in omega-3 status will be high enough in order to assess the efficacy of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation. Full article
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Open AccessReview Resveratrol Role in Autoimmune Disease—A Mini-Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1306; doi:10.3390/nu9121306
Received: 16 August 2017 / Revised: 20 September 2017 / Accepted: 20 October 2017 / Published: 1 December 2017
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Abstract
Autoimmune diseases are still considered to be pressing concerns due the fact that they are leaders in death and disability causes worldwide. Resveratrol is a polyphenol derived from a variety of foods and beverages, including red grapes and red wine. Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and
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Autoimmune diseases are still considered to be pressing concerns due the fact that they are leaders in death and disability causes worldwide. Resveratrol is a polyphenol derived from a variety of foods and beverages, including red grapes and red wine. Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiaging properties of resveratrol have been reported, and in some animal and human studies this compound reduced and ameliorated the progression of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Thus, this review aims to summarize and critically analyze the role of resveratrol in the modulation of several organ-specific or systemic autoimmune diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation on Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessReview Vitamin D: Moving Forward to Address Emerging Science
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1308; doi:10.3390/nu9121308
Received: 20 September 2017 / Revised: 15 November 2017 / Accepted: 27 November 2017 / Published: 1 December 2017
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Abstract
The science surrounding vitamin D presents both challenges and opportunities. Although many uncertainties are associated with the understandings concerning vitamin D, including its physiological function, the effects of excessive intake, and its role in health, it is at the same time a major
[...] Read more.
The science surrounding vitamin D presents both challenges and opportunities. Although many uncertainties are associated with the understandings concerning vitamin D, including its physiological function, the effects of excessive intake, and its role in health, it is at the same time a major interest in the research and health communities. The approach to evaluating and interpreting the available evidence about vitamin D should be founded on the quality of the data and on the conclusions that take into account the totality of the evidence. In addition, these activities can be used to identify critical data gaps and to help structure future research. The Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Institutes of Health has as part of its mission the goal of supporting research and dialogues for topics with uncertain data, including vitamin D. This review considers vitamin D in the context of systematically addressing the uncertainty and in identifying research needs through the filter of the work of ODS. The focus includes the role of systematic reviews, activities that encompass considerations of the totality of the evidence, and collaborative activities to clarify unknowns or to fix methodological problems, as well as a case study using the relationship between cancer and vitamin D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements)
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Open AccessReview Functional Foods and Lifestyle Approaches for Diabetes Prevention and Management
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1310; doi:10.3390/nu9121310
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 26 November 2017 / Accepted: 27 November 2017 / Published: 1 December 2017
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Abstract
Functional foods contain biologically active ingredients associated with physiological health benefits for preventing and managing chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A regular consumption of functional foods may be associated with enhanced anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, insulin sensitivity, and anti-cholesterol functions, which
[...] Read more.
Functional foods contain biologically active ingredients associated with physiological health benefits for preventing and managing chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A regular consumption of functional foods may be associated with enhanced anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, insulin sensitivity, and anti-cholesterol functions, which are considered integral to prevent and manage T2DM. Components of the Mediterranean diet (MD)—such as fruits, vegetables, oily fish, olive oil, and tree nuts—serve as a model for functional foods based on their natural contents of nutraceuticals, including polyphenols, terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, sterols, pigments, and unsaturated fatty acids. Polyphenols within MD and polyphenol-rich herbs—such as coffee, green tea, black tea, and yerba maté—have shown clinically-meaningful benefits on metabolic and microvascular activities, cholesterol and fasting glucose lowering, and anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation in high-risk and T2DM patients. However, combining exercise with functional food consumption can trigger and augment several metabolic and cardiovascular protective benefits, but it is under-investigated in people with T2DM and bariatric surgery patients. Detecting functional food benefits can now rely on an “omics” biological profiling of individuals’ molecular, genetics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, but is under-investigated in multi-component interventions. A personalized approach for preventing and managing T2DM should consider biological and behavioral models, and embed nutrition education as part of lifestyle diabetes prevention studies. Functional foods may provide additional benefits in such an approach. Full article
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Open AccessReview Nuts and Human Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1311; doi:10.3390/nu9121311
Received: 22 September 2017 / Revised: 8 November 2017 / Accepted: 9 November 2017 / Published: 2 December 2017
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Abstract
There has been increasing interest in nuts and their outcome regarding human health. The consumption of nuts is frequently associated with reduction in risk factors for chronic diseases. Although nuts are high calorie foods, several studies have reported beneficial effects after nut consumption,
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There has been increasing interest in nuts and their outcome regarding human health. The consumption of nuts is frequently associated with reduction in risk factors for chronic diseases. Although nuts are high calorie foods, several studies have reported beneficial effects after nut consumption, due to fatty acid profiles, vegetable proteins, fibers, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and phytosterols with potential antioxidant action. However, the current findings about the benefits of nut consumption on human health have not yet been clearly discussed. This review highlights the effects of nut consumption on the context of human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nut Consumption for Human Health)
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Open AccessReview Validity of Dietary Assessment in Athletes: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1313; doi:10.3390/nu9121313
Received: 12 October 2017 / Revised: 30 October 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 2 December 2017
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Dietary assessment methods that are recognized as appropriate for the general population are usually applied in a similar manner to athletes, despite the knowledge that sport-specific factors can complicate assessment and impact accuracy in unique ways. As dietary assessment methods are used extensively
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Dietary assessment methods that are recognized as appropriate for the general population are usually applied in a similar manner to athletes, despite the knowledge that sport-specific factors can complicate assessment and impact accuracy in unique ways. As dietary assessment methods are used extensively within the field of sports nutrition, there is concern the validity of methodologies have not undergone more rigorous evaluation in this unique population sub-group. The purpose of this systematic review was to compare two or more methods of dietary assessment, including dietary intake measured against biomarkers or reference measures of energy expenditure, in athletes. Six electronic databases were searched for English-language, full-text articles published from January 1980 until June 2016. The search strategy combined the following keywords: diet, nutrition assessment, athlete, and validity; where the following outcomes are reported but not limited to: energy intake, macro and/or micronutrient intake, food intake, nutritional adequacy, diet quality, or nutritional status. Meta-analysis was performed on studies with sufficient methodological similarity, with between-group standardized mean differences (or effect size) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) being calculated. Of the 1624 studies identified, 18 were eligible for inclusion. Studies comparing self-reported energy intake (EI) to energy expenditure assessed via doubly labelled water were grouped for comparison (n = 11) and demonstrated mean EI was under-estimated by 19% (−2793 ± 1134 kJ/day). Meta-analysis revealed a large pooled effect size of −1.006 (95% CI: −1.3 to −0.7; p < 0.001). The remaining studies (n = 7) compared a new dietary tool or instrument to a reference method(s) (e.g., food record, 24-h dietary recall, biomarker) as part of a validation study. This systematic review revealed there are limited robust studies evaluating dietary assessment methods in athletes. Existing literature demonstrates the substantial variability between methods, with under- and misreporting of intake being frequently observed. There is a clear need for careful validation of dietary assessment methods, including emerging technical innovations, among athlete populations. Full article
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Open AccessReview Effect of Grazing Behavior on Weight Regain Post-Bariatric Surgery: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1322; doi:10.3390/nu9121322
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 24 October 2017 / Accepted: 25 October 2017 / Published: 5 December 2017
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Grazing, a type of maladaptive eating behavior, has been associated with poor weight outcomes in bariatric patients. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the association between grazing behavior and weight regain post-bariatric surgery. Literature searches, study selection,
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Grazing, a type of maladaptive eating behavior, has been associated with poor weight outcomes in bariatric patients. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the association between grazing behavior and weight regain post-bariatric surgery. Literature searches, study selection, design of the method, and quality appraisal were carried out by two independent authors. The search strategy was performed until October 2017 in Medline, Embase, Cochrane, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar, ProQuest Dissertation & Theses, and Open Grey. Of a total of 3764 articles, five papers met the inclusion criteria (four original articles and one thesis), comprising 994 subjects, mostly women. The prevalence of grazing behavior ranged from 16.6 to 46.6%, and the highest prevalence of significant weight regain was 47%. The association between grazing and weight regain was observed in four of the five evaluated studies. Our findings support an association between grazing behavior and weight regain after bariatric surgery, regardless of surgery type and contextual concept of grazing. Further studies are needed to confirm the clarity of the real prevalence and interfering factors related to grazing behavior and weight outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Approaches to Prevent Weight Regain)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Iron Supplementation during Pregnancy and Infancy: Uncertainties and Implications for Research and Policy
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1327; doi:10.3390/nu9121327
Received: 12 October 2017 / Revised: 26 November 2017 / Accepted: 28 November 2017 / Published: 6 December 2017
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Abstract
Iron is particularly important in pregnancy and infancy to meet the high demands for hematopoiesis, growth and development. Much attention has been given to conditions of iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficient anemia (IDA) because of the high global prevalence estimated in these
[...] Read more.
Iron is particularly important in pregnancy and infancy to meet the high demands for hematopoiesis, growth and development. Much attention has been given to conditions of iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficient anemia (IDA) because of the high global prevalence estimated in these vulnerable life stages. Emerging and preliminary evidence demonstrates, however, a U-shaped risk at both low and high iron status for birth and infant adverse health outcomes including growth, preterm birth, gestational diabetes, gastrointestinal health, and neurodegenerative diseases during aging. Such evidence raises questions about the effects of high iron intakes through supplementation or food fortification during pregnancy and infancy in iron-replete individuals. This review examines the emerging as well as the current understanding of iron needs and homeostasis during pregnancy and infancy, uncertainties in ascertaining iron status in these populations, and issues surrounding U-shaped risk curves in iron-replete pregnant women and infants. Implications for research and policy are discussed relative to screening and supplementation in these vulnerable populations, especially in developed countries in which the majority of these populations are likely iron-replete. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements)
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Open AccessReview Nutrition in Pregnancy Following Bariatric Surgery
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1338; doi:10.3390/nu9121338
Received: 6 November 2017 / Revised: 28 November 2017 / Accepted: 3 December 2017 / Published: 8 December 2017
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Abstract
The widespread use of bariatric surgery for the treatment of morbid obesity has led to a dramatic increase in the numbers of women who become pregnant post-surgery. This can present new challenges, including a higher risk of protein and calorie malnutrition and micronutrient
[...] Read more.
The widespread use of bariatric surgery for the treatment of morbid obesity has led to a dramatic increase in the numbers of women who become pregnant post-surgery. This can present new challenges, including a higher risk of protein and calorie malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies in pregnancy due to increased maternal and fetal demand. We undertook a focused, narrative review of the literature and present pragmatic recommendations. It is advisable to delay pregnancy for at least 12 months following bariatric surgery. Comprehensive pre-conception and antenatal care is essential to achieving the best outcomes. Nutrition in pregnancy following bariatric surgery requires specialist monitoring and management. A multidisciplinary approach to care is desirable with close monitoring for deficiencies at each trimester. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Bariatric Surgery)
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Open AccessReview The Effect of Polyphenol-Rich Interventions on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Haemodialysis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1345; doi:10.3390/nu9121345
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 4 December 2017 / Accepted: 6 December 2017 / Published: 11 December 2017
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Abstract
End-stage kidney disease is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular-specific mortality. Polyphenol-rich interventions may attenuate cardiovascular disease risk factors; however, this has not been systematically evaluated in the hemodialysis population. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, the
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End-stage kidney disease is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular-specific mortality. Polyphenol-rich interventions may attenuate cardiovascular disease risk factors; however, this has not been systematically evaluated in the hemodialysis population. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, the following databases were searched: Cochrane Library (http://www.cochranelibrary.com/), MEDLINE (https://health.ebsco.com/products/medline-with-full-text), Embase (https://www.elsevier.com/solutions/embase-biomedical-research), and CINAHL (https://www.ebscohost.com/nursing/products/cinahl-databases/cinahl-complete). Meta-analyses were conducted for measures of lipid profile, inflammation, oxidative stress, and blood pressure. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias tool and quality of the body of evidence was assessed by the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. Twelve studies were included for review. Polyphenol-rich interventions included soy, cocoa, pomegranate, grape, and turmeric. Polyphenol-rich interventions significantly improved diastolic blood pressure (Mean Difference (MD) −5.62 mmHg (95% Confidence Interval (CI) −8.47, −2.78); I2 = 2%; p = 0.0001), triglyceride levels (MD −26.52 mg/dL (95% CI −47.22, −5.83); I2 = 57%; p = 0.01), and myeloperoxidase (MD −90.10 (95% CI −135.84, −44.36); I2 = 0%; p = 0.0001). Included studies generally had low or unclear risks of bias. The results of this review provide preliminary support for the use of polyphenol-rich interventions for improving cardiovascular risk markers in haemodialysis patients. Due to the limited number of studies for individual polyphenol interventions, further studies are required to provide recommendations regarding individual polyphenol intervention and dose. Full article
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Open AccessReview Short Chain Fatty Acids in the Colon and Peripheral Tissues: A Focus on Butyrate, Colon Cancer, Obesity and Insulin Resistance
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1348; doi:10.3390/nu9121348
Received: 19 October 2017 / Revised: 30 November 2017 / Accepted: 5 December 2017 / Published: 12 December 2017
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Abstract
Increased dietary fiber consumption has been associated with many beneficial effects, including amelioration of obesity and insulin resistance. These effects may be due to the increased production of short chain fatty acids, including propionate, acetate and butyrate, during fermentation of the dietary fiber
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Increased dietary fiber consumption has been associated with many beneficial effects, including amelioration of obesity and insulin resistance. These effects may be due to the increased production of short chain fatty acids, including propionate, acetate and butyrate, during fermentation of the dietary fiber in the colon. Indeed, oral and dietary supplementation of butyrate alone has been shown to prevent high fat-diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. This review focuses on sources of short chain fatty acids, with emphasis on sources of butyrate, mechanisms of fiber and butyrate metabolism in the gut and its protective effects on colon cancer and the peripheral effects of butyrate supplementation in peripheral tissues in the prevention and reversal of obesity and insulin resistance. Full article
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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Watson, N.; et al. Effects of Low-Fat Diets Differing in Protein and Carbohydrate Content on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors during Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes. Nutrients 2016, 8, 289
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1283; doi:10.3390/nu9121283
Received: 22 November 2017 / Revised: 22 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 24 November 2017
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Abstract
The authors request the following corrections to their paper [...] Full article
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