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Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 305; doi:10.3390/nu9030305

Effects of the Mediterranean Diet before and after Weight Loss on Eating Behavioral Traits in Men with Metabolic Syndrome

1
Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Laval University, 2440 Hochelaga Boulevard, Quebec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
2
Department of Agricultural Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, 410 Agriculture/Forestry Centre, Edmonton, AL T6G 2P5, Canada
3
Lipid Research Center, CHU de Quebec, 2705, Laurier Boulevard, Quebec, QC G1V 4G2, Canada
4
Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Laval University, 2440 Hochelaga Boulevard, Quebec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 January 2017 / Revised: 9 March 2017 / Accepted: 14 March 2017 / Published: 19 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eating Disorders, Diet-Related Diseases, and Metabolic Health)
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Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) consumed before and after weight loss on eating behavioral traits as measured by the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) in men with metabolic syndrome (MetS). In this fixed sequence study, 19 men with MetS (National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) criteria), aged between 24 and 62 years, first consumed a five-week standardized North American control diet followed by a five-week MedDiet, both under weight-maintaining controlled-feeding conditions. This was followed by a 20-week caloric restriction weight loss period in free-living conditions, without specific recommendations towards adhering to the principles of the MedDiet. Participants were finally subjected to a final five-week MedDiet phase under isoenergetic controlled-feeding conditions. The MedDiet before weight loss had no impact on eating behavioral traits. Body weight reduction by caloric restriction (−10.2% of initial weight) was associated with increased cognitive restraint (p < 0.0001) and with reduced disinhibition (p = 0.02) and susceptibility to hunger (p = 0.01). Feeding the MedDiet for five weeks under isoenergetic conditions after the weight loss phase had no further impact on eating behavioral traits. Results of this controlled-feeding study suggest that consumption of the MedDiet per se has no effect on eating behavioral traits as measured by TFEQ, unless it is combined with significant weight loss. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mediterranean diet; metabolic syndrome; weight loss; Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire; cognitive restraint; disinhibition; susceptibility to hunger Mediterranean diet; metabolic syndrome; weight loss; Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire; cognitive restraint; disinhibition; susceptibility to hunger
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Carbonneau, É.; Royer, M.-M.; Richard, C.; Couture, P.; Desroches, S.; Lemieux, S.; Lamarche, B. Effects of the Mediterranean Diet before and after Weight Loss on Eating Behavioral Traits in Men with Metabolic Syndrome. Nutrients 2017, 9, 305.

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