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Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 410; doi:10.3390/nu9040410

Beneficial Effect of Voluntary Exercise on Experimental Colitis in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet: The Role of Irisin, Adiponectin and Proinflammatory Biomarkers

1
Department of Ergonomics and Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 20 Grzegorzecka Street, 31-531 Cracow, Poland
2
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 16 Grzegorzecka Street, 31-531 Cracow, Poland
3
Gastroenterology and Hepatology Clinic, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 5 Sniadeckich Street, 31-531 Cracow, Poland
4
Department of Genetic Research and Nutrigenomics, Malopolska Centre of Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, 7A Gronostajowa Street, 30-387 Cracow, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 December 2016 / Revised: 12 April 2017 / Accepted: 14 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet in IBD)
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Abstract

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders exhibited by two major phenotypic forms: Crohn‘s disease and ulcerative colitis. Although the aetiology of IBD is unknown, several factors coming from the adipose tissue and skeletal muscles, such as cytokines, adipokines and myokines, were suggested in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis; however, it has not been extensively studied whether voluntary exercise can ameliorate that disorder. We explored the effect of moderate exercise (i.e., voluntary wheel running) on the disease activity index (DAI), colonic blood flow (CBF), plasma irisin and adiponectin levels and real-time PCR expression of proinflammatory markers in mesenteric fat in mice with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) colitis fed a high-fat diet (HFD) compared to those on a standard chow diet (SD). Macroscopic and microscopic colitis in sedentary SD mice was accompanied by a significant fall in CBF, some increase in colonic tissue weight and a significant increase in the plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), IL-6, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) and IL-13 (p < 0.05). In sedentary HFD mice, colonic lesions were aggravated, colonic tissue weight increased and the plasma TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, IL-1β and leptin levels significantly increased. Simultaneously, a significant decrease in the plasma irisin and adiponectin levels was observed in comparison with SD mice (p < 0.05). Exercise significantly decreased macroscopic and microscopic colitis, substantially increased CBF and attenuated the plasma TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, IL-1β and leptin levels while raising the plasma irisin and the plasma and WAT concentrations of adiponectin in HFD mice (p < 0.05). We conclude that: (1) experimental colitis is exacerbated in HFD mice, possibly due to a fall in colonic microcirculation and an increase in the plasma and mesenteric fat content of proinflammatory biomarkers; and (2) voluntary physical activity can attenuate the severity of colonic damage in mice fed a HFD through the release of protective irisin and restoration of plasma adiponectin. View Full-Text
Keywords: voluntary exercise; colitis; diet-induced obesity; colonic blood flow; inflammation; myokines; irisin; adiponectin; tumour necrosis factor-alpha; interleukin-6 voluntary exercise; colitis; diet-induced obesity; colonic blood flow; inflammation; myokines; irisin; adiponectin; tumour necrosis factor-alpha; interleukin-6
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Mazur-Bialy, A.I.; Bilski, J.; Wojcik, D.; Brzozowski, B.; Surmiak, M.; Hubalewska-Mazgaj, M.; Chmura, A.; Magierowski, M.; Magierowska, K.; Mach, T.; Brzozowski, T. Beneficial Effect of Voluntary Exercise on Experimental Colitis in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet: The Role of Irisin, Adiponectin and Proinflammatory Biomarkers. Nutrients 2017, 9, 410.

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