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Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 515; doi:10.3390/nu9050515

Calculation of Haem Iron Intake and Its Role in the Development of Iron Deficiency in Young Women from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health

1
Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Newcastle, NSW 2308, Australia
2
Centre for Clinical Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Hunter Medical Research Institute, School of Medicine & Public Health, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Newcastle, NSW 2308, Australia
3
Cancer Epidemiology Centre, Cancer Council Victoria, Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, 207 Bouverie Street, Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 28 April 2017 / Accepted: 16 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Consumption and Human Health)
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Abstract

Total iron intake is not strongly associated with iron stores, but haem iron intake may be more predictive. Haem iron is not available in most nutrient databases, so experimentally determined haem contents were applied to an Australian Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) to estimate haem iron intake in a representative sample of young women (25–30 years). The association between dietary haem iron intakes and incident self-reported diagnosed iron deficiency over six years of follow-up was examined. Haem iron contents for Australian red meats, fish, and poultry were applied to haem-containing foods in the Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies V2 (DQESv2) FFQ. Haem iron intakes were calculated for 9076 women from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH) using the DQESv2 dietary data from 2003. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between haem iron intake (2003) and the incidence of iron deficiency in 2006 and 2009. Multiple logistic regression showed baseline haem iron intake was a statistically significant predictor of iron deficiency in 2006 (Odds Ratio (OR): 0.91; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.84–0.99; p-value: 0.020) and 2009 (OR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.82–0.99; p-value: 0.007). Using the energy-adjusted haem intake made little difference to the associations. Higher haem iron intake is associated with reduced odds of iron deficiency developing in young adult Australian women. View Full-Text
Keywords: haem iron; iron deficiency; longitudinal analysis; women’s health haem iron; iron deficiency; longitudinal analysis; women’s health
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Reeves, A.J.; McEvoy, M.A.; MacDonald-Wicks, L.K.; Barker, D.; Attia, J.; Hodge, A.M.; Patterson, A.J. Calculation of Haem Iron Intake and Its Role in the Development of Iron Deficiency in Young Women from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. Nutrients 2017, 9, 515.

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