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Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 837; doi:10.3390/nu9080837

Common Genetic Variants Alter Metabolism and Influence Dietary Choline Requirements

Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
These authors contributed equally to this paper.
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Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 22 July 2017 / Accepted: 1 August 2017 / Published: 4 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Choline)
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Abstract

Nutrient needs, including those of the essential nutrient choline, are a population wide distribution. Adequate Intake (AI) recommendations for dietary choline (put forth by the National Academies of Medicine to aid individuals and groups in dietary assessment and planning) are grouped to account for the recognized unique needs associated with age, biological sex, and reproductive status (i.e., pregnancy or lactation). Established and emerging evidence supports the notion that common genetic variants are additional factors that substantially influence nutrient requirements. This review summarizes the genetic factors that influence choline requirements and metabolism in conditions of nutrient deprivation, as well as conditions of nutrient adequacy, across biological sexes and reproductive states. Overall, consistent and strong associative evidence demonstrates that common genetic variants in choline and folate pathway enzymes impact the metabolic handling of choline and the risk of nutrient inadequacy across varied dietary contexts. The studies characterized in this review also highlight the substantial promise of incorporating common genetic variants into choline intake recommendations to more precisely target the unique nutrient needs of these subgroups within the broader population. Additional studies are warranted to facilitate the translation of this evidence to nutrigenetics-based dietary approaches. View Full-Text
Keywords: choline; genetics; nutrigenetics; dietary requirements choline; genetics; nutrigenetics; dietary requirements
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Ganz, A.B.; Klatt, K.C.; Caudill, M.A. Common Genetic Variants Alter Metabolism and Influence Dietary Choline Requirements. Nutrients 2017, 9, 837.

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